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Патент USA US3039507

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June 19, 1962
|-|_ M_ HELLAND
3,039,496
PAPERMAKER'S WET FELT
Filed March 6, 1958
BY.
j
ATTORNEYS.
United States Patent O "ice
3,939,495
Patented June 19, 1962
1
2
3,039,496
invention is to provide a novel woven felt structure where
in substantial components of the woven yarns have sub
PAPERMAKER’S WET FELT
Howard M. Helland, Newfane, N.Y., assignor to Lock
port Felt Company, liuc., Newfane, NX.
Filed Mar. 6, 1958, Ser. No. 719,586
7 Claims. (Cl. 139-383)
stantially lost their individual identities; and wherein the
individual fibres of major yarn components of `the struc
ture are entangled and interlocked `and blended to -an im
proved degree. Hence, the natural abilities of each fibre
to do more work in the intended purpose of the felt, are
given freer rein. To accomplish this purpose it is con
templated that as many as possible of the individual fibres,
This invention relates to improvements in papermaker’s
wet felt constructions, such as are used in the manufac
ture of paper, paper board, pulp, and like products. For 10 subsequent to the weaving operation, must be substantially
free to move relative to one another `during the fabric
example, the invention relates to improvements in paper
“fulling” or milling operations. Thus, it follows that when
maker’s felts of the types disclosed in U.S. Patents 2,165,
the yarns are woven the individual fibres thereof must
772; 2,271,295; and 2,423,828.
It is a primary object of the present invention to pro
vide for the papermaker’s felt art, specifically an improved
wet felt constructed of fibres such as the conventionally
used grades of wool, cotton, and other natural and syn
thetic iibers; manipulated by means of a novel technique
is
be under minimum constraint; and in accord with the
present invention this desired effect is obtained by weav
ing the fabric of a large percentage of yarns in which the
libres are substantially untwisted, compared to twisted
fibre yarns as are conventionally embodied in such fabrics.
More specifically, the invention contemplates that in order
felt of many advantages. The yarns employed may be 20 to give the iinished felt necessary belt-tension strength
characteristics, the warp yarns of the fabric `are provided
produced by either the so-called woolen system or any
of relatively hard twisted yarn form, while the “ñller”
of the so-called worsted systems.
components of the fabric are formed of a novel plied
A more speciñc object of the invention is to provide a
in this art so as to provide an improved papermaker’s wet
felt as aforesaid which is of improved eñìciency as a drain
age filter in its intended use.
Another object is to provide a felt construction as afore
said which may be readily produced by presently standard
ltype textile equipment, and »at no increased cost.
Still another object is to provide a felt as aforesaid which
yarn wherein the individual iibres are substantially un
25 twisted about their own axes while being spirally wound
about the neutral axis of the yarn, as will now be de
scribed in more detail.
_
The first step in preparation of the “filler” stock mate
rial for the fabric of the present invention is schematically
presents a working surface of improved smoothness and 30 illustrated at station A of FIG. 1 of the drawing here
with, wherein conventional type L‘card roping” l@ com
pulp supporting and cushioning characteristics.
prising individual fibres 12 is given a conventional draft
Still another object of the invention is to provide a felt
and minimum S twist into conventional singles yarn form
as aforesaid which also is adapted to better resist the rigors
as indicated at 14. Then, as a separate operation, and as
of paper making operations, resulting in longer useful
35 illustrated at station B of FIG. l, a plurality of singles
life of the felt and lower ultimate cost to the user.
yarns such as the two yarns 1li-14 shown in FIG. l
Other objects and advantages of the invention will ap
are entwined by means of a neutralizing Z twist. Hence,
pear from the specification hereinafter.
»the resultant plied yarn designated 15 (FIGS. 1, 2) com
It is well known in the papermaker’s wet felt art that it is
prises intertwined singles yarn, the individual fibres of
usually the desideratum to provide a fabric structure which
is basically strong and tension-resistant, while at the same 40 which are as near as possible untwisted.
Solely by way of one typical example, the card roping
time comprising an eflicient water-drainage or filter mem
10 may be initially drafted and S twisted at the rate of
brane in the form of a resilient mass comprising woven
say 4.0 t.p.i, (twists per inch), according to the fibre
yarns in which the individual yarns appear to have lost
lengths and other variables. The two singles yarns so
their identities. For such purposes the wool and/or other
produced may then be relatively entwined by means of a
fibres must be so entangled and commingled and blended
neutralizing Z twist in such manner as to provide a plied
4as to present to the pulp being treated a uniformly smooth
yarn of say 4.5 t.p.i. Experience indicates that approxi
and level yet resilient surface. Numerous textile weaves
mately such a ratio of singles and plied yarn twists will
have been heretofore devised with a View to accomplishing
result in production of a plied yarn as indicated at 15 in
some or all of the above stated objects of the present in
vention, but such fabrics as have been heretofore devised 50 the drawing wherein the individual libres are only very
slightly twisted (in one direction or the other) or are
and used in the papermaker’s felt art have failed to ac
substantially untwisted about their own axes, while gently
complish ythe above stated objects. The present invention
winding spirally about the neutral axis of the yarn. In
provides the desired results through use 0f a novel combi
the alternative, the card roping may be formed into
nation of variously formed yarns, as illustrated by way
55 singles yarn stock by means of a Z twist operation, and
of example in the accompanying drawings wherein:
the singles yarns may thereupon be S twisted into plied
FIG. 1 is a composite -diagrammatical view illustrating
yarn form, to provide the “filler” yarn stock 15 as ex
“fabrication of the filler” plied yarn stock material of the
plained hereinabove. In either case the plied yarn stock
woven structure of the present invention;
may be described as comprising two groups of untwisted
FIG. 2 is an elevational diagrammatic view (on en
larged scale) of the plied yarn formed by the process of 60 libres gently rolling around one another. Due to the fact
that the singles yarns 14-14 are relatively entwined the
FIG. l;
overall structure of the plied yarn 15 has adequate strength
FIG, 3 is a diagrammatic fragmentary plan view of a
to withstand the subsequent weaving operation, in spite
woven fabric embodying “filler” yarns as illustrated by
of `the fact that the individual libres are substantially un
FIGS. l, 2 and warp yarns of conventional form, subse
65 twisted.
quent to initial weaving of the fabric;
As a separate preliminary to the fabric weaving opera
FIGS. 4, 5 are fragmentary diagrammatic sectional
tion the warp components of the fabric are prepared by
views taken along lines IV-IV -and V-V of FIG. 3; and
any suitable standard yarn making operation whereby
FIG. 6 is a fragmentary sectional view diagrammatical
conventional type relatively hard twisted yarns 16 are
1y illustrating the structure of the fabric upon comple
tion of its manufacture and when tensioned incidental t0 70 provided for shuttle weaving (FIG. 3) with the yarns l5
hereinabove described. Thus, as shown in FIG. 4, the
its use as a papermaker’s felt.
relatively soft fillers l5 are linked together by the rela
As hereinabove stated, a primary object of the present
spaanse
fi
tively hard twisted and tension-resistant warp yarns 16.
This relatively loosely woven fabric is then submitted to
the standard shrinking and “fulling” or “milling” opera
site direction together into plied yarn form, said woven
fabric being fulled.
Whereas, FIG. 3 illustrates a felt fabric of the present in
vention to be of “plain weave” type, it will be understood
fibres substantially untwisted about their own axes, said
filler yarns each comprising a pair of singles yarns twisted
that `the fabric may with equal facility and advantage be
together in plied yarn form, each of said singles yarns
comprising card roping twisted in opposite direction into
2. A new article of manufacture comprising a paper
maker’s wet felt for supporting and draining paper mak
tions. Thus, the fabric is shrunk such as to the form shown
in FIG. 5 and then is “fulled” into the form illustrated Ul ing material, said felt comprising a belt-like woven struc
ture having relativeiy hard twisted warp yarns running
by FIG. 6 wherein the warp threads i6 are substantially
lengthwise thereof and plied filler yarns running trans
straightened out to their conditions of maximum efficiency
versely thereof, said filler yarns having their individual
with respect to resistance to tension loads on thefelt.
made up in any other weave pattern.
singles yarn form, said woven fabric being fulled.
Whereas, the warp yarns 16, due to their relatively
hard twisted natures, retain their needed optimum tension
resistance characteristics, the relatively soft filler yarns
15 easily deform and bulk out and respond in improved
3. A new article of manufacture comprising a paper
maker’s wet felt for supporting and draining paper mak
ing material, said felt comprising a belt-like woven struc
ture having relatively hard twisted warp yarns running
lengthwise thereof and plied filler yarns running trans
manner to the fulling treatment because the individual
fibres thereof are of improved mobility. Hence, in the
versely thereof, said filler yarnshaving their individual
resulting felt fabrication the fibres 12 of the initial rop
ings i@ more fully surround the warp yarns if» and pro 20 fibres substantially untwisted about their own axes, said
filler yarns each comprising a pair of singles yarns S
vide a mat of superior surface smoothness and cushioning
twisted together into plied yarn form, each of said sin
characteristics. Since the surfaces of the felt comprise
gles yarns comprising card roping .Z twisted in opposite
bulks of fibres giving superior elasticity or “cushion”
direction into singles yarn form, said woven fabric being
characteristics, the tension carrying yarns 16 of the struc
ture are thereby insulated and protected against abrasion 25 fulled.
4. A papermaker’s wet felt for supporting and drain
damage to an improved degree. At the same time the
ing paper making material, said felt comprising a woven
relatively open fibres of the filler yarns operate with maxi
fibre structure having relatively hard twisted warp yarns
mum efficiency in accord with the phenomenon of capil
running lengthwise thereof and plied filler yarns running
larity and in response -to the “pumping” action within the
felt when passing through compression rolls, to improve
30
open or coarser structure may be made to meet specifica
transversely thereof, said filler yarns having their indi
vidual fibres substantially untwisted about their own axes,
said filler yarns each comprising a pair of singles yarns
its water removing abilities. Thus, each fibre of the fab
rication is d-isposed to act more efficiently in its assigned
task.
By virtue of the present invention a wet felt of more
twisted together in plied yarn form, each of said singles
yarns comprising card roping twisted into yarn form, said
35 Woven fabric being fulled.
5. A new article of manufacture comprising a paper
maker’s wet felt for supporting and draining paper mak
ing material, comprising a woven structure having rela
tively hard twisted warp yarns and filler yarns running
transversely thereof, said ñller yarns each comprising a
tions heretofore met only by felts of finer construction.
Hence, these new felts will be of superior drainage char
acteristics. Yet, by reason of the more efficient bulking
of the fibres in the felt of the invention, it is also of su
perior surface or “finish” characteristics. Hence, especi
ally in the field of the finer felts, substantial reductions
in the'number of “picks” required to produce a desired
plurality of singles yarns twisted together into plied yarn
form, each of said ysingles yarns comprising drafted, sub
stantially untwistcd card roping, said woven fabric being
finish to the paper product is practicable; thereby reducing
fulled.
the weaving expense and the cost of the felt to the user.
6. The article according to claim 5 wherein said singles
Thus, the finished fabric of the present invention pre 45
yarns are twisted at a rate substantially equal t0 the
sents a surface of improved smoothness and levelness and
rate of twist imparted to said yarns when plied, but in a
cushioning characteristics while the overall fabric is of
direction opposite thereto.
optimum structural strength and of improved resistance
7. The article according to claim 5 wherein said sin
to belt life shortening hazards, such as abrasion and the
like. Also, the fabric may be of less weight to meet com 50 gles yarns are twisted at a rate of about 4.0 twists per
inch in one directionand being twisted in the opposite
parable performance specifications; yet costs no more to
direction, when plied, at a rate of about 4.5 twists per
manufacture than do the prior art type wet felts herein
inch.
Y
above referred to.
It will of course be appreciated that the invention is not
References Cited` in the file of this patent
limited to the precise constructions illustrated herein and 55
UNITED STATES PATENTS
described hereinabove, and that the latter may be modi
fied without departing from the spirit of the invention
or the scope of the appended claims
I claim:
1. A new article of manufacture comprising a paper
maker’s wet felt for supporting and draining paper mak
ing material, said felt comprising a belt-like woven struc
ture having relatively hard twisted warp yarns nmning
lengthwise thereof and plied filler yarns running trans
versely thereof, said filler yarns having their individual
fibres spirally wound but substantially untwisted about
their own axes, said filler yarnseach comprising a pair of
singles yarns each comprising card roping twisted into
conventional S twisted yarn form and Z twisted in oppo
60
1,497,068
2,165,772
2,208,533
2,423,828
2,485,153
2,865,409
' 2,882,933
Collingbourne ______ _-__ June
Walsh et al. _________ __ July
Amory ______________ __ July
Chagnon ____________ __ Iuly
Henning et al. _______ _„ Oct.
Asten ______________ __ Dec.
10,
1l,
16,
l5,
18,
23,
1924
1939
1940
1947
1949
1958
Hindle et al. _________ __ Apr. 21, 1959
FOREIGN PATENTS
65
472,893
Canada _____________ __ Apr. l7, 1951
OTHER REFERENCES
“Effect of Ply vTwist on Single Twist” from Textile
70 World, ‘February 2l, 1931. Page 38,
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