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June 19, 1962 w. 1.. GANSKE 3,039,878 PRE-MIX MANUFACTURING PROCESS / '5 Filed Jan. 26, 1959 6 '5 '/ 5 United States Patent O??ce 3,039,878 Patented June 19, 1962 1 2 3,039,878 for-mly blended pill free pre-mix which is then de?uidized to produce a dry powdered ?ree ?owing product. PRE-MIX MANUFACTURING PROCESS Warren L. Ganske, Minneapolis, Minn., assignor to The Pillsbury Company, Minneapolis, Minn., a corporation of Delaware Filed Jan. 26, 1959, Ser. No. 788,921 3 Claims. (CI. 99—94) The process of the instant invention is diagrammatically represented in the drawings wherein: FIGURE 1 illustrates the use of a high speed mixer (manufactured and sold under the trademark Turbolizer by the Strong-Scott Manufacturing Company, Minne apolis, Minnesota) to accomplish ?uidization. This is a continuation in part of co-pending application FIGURE 2 illustrates the use of an impact mill (manu Serial Number 591,472, ?led June 14, 1956. The inven 10 factured and sold under the trademark Entoleter by tion relates to the manufacture of improved culinary pre Safety Industries Inc., Boston, Massachusetts) to accom mixes and more particularly to a method which permits plish ?uidization. the use of ?uid shortening in their preparation. In FIGURE 1 the dry ingredients of the pre-mix are Virtually every baking pre-mix contains ?our and continuously fed through conduit 1 into mixing screw 2. shortening. Probably the most well known of these is the 15 The dry ingredients then pass through conduit 3 into layer cake pre-mix although there are many others in gravimetric feeder 40 which continuously proportions them cluding bread mixes, pie-crust mixes, biscuit mixes and roll into ?uidizer 8. Concurrent with the introduction of the mixes. It is essential that these pre-mixes be in dry pow dry ingredients into the ?uidizer, ?uid shortening, con dered, free ?owing condition when put to use by the con sumer and experience has shown that the use of liquid oils 20 tained in tank 5, is continuously metered through pump 6 into nozzle 7 which injects the shortening into the as the shortening component precludes the production of a ?uidizer. The ?nely divided shortening then contacts the free ?owing product. Thus, it has long been considered ?uidized dry ingredients and becomes thoroughly inter essential to process the shortening component into a rela mixed therewith to produce a pre-rnix in ?uidized con tively solid or plastic condition prior to incorporating it dition. The pre-mix then passes from the ?uidizer into into the pre-mix. 25 cyclone ‘9 where it is de?uidized and discharged into bin In general the present process for manufacturing these 10. pre-mixes involves blending together all of the dry in In FIGURE 2 the dry ingredients of the pre-mix are gredients in their required proportions and then “cutting continuously fed through conduit 1 into mixing screw 2. in” the requisite amount of a plastic or relatively solid They are then channeled through conduit 3 into gravi shortening. The entire mass is then blended together as 30 metn'c feeder 4 which continuously proportions them into Well as possible with some suitable mixing equipment such ?uidizer 111, which has been modi?ed by the addition of as a ribbon mixer. two radially positioned fan blades 12 to the rotor member This process accomplishes reasonably satisfactory to improve ?uidization. Fluid shortening from tank 5 is blending but it leaves the mix laden with isolated aggre simultaneously metered through pump 6 into nozzle 7 gates of ?our and fat which are identi?ed by those skilled 35 which introduces it into ?uidizer 11 where the ?nely di in the art as “pills.” Accordingly it is necessary to process vided shortening becomes integrated with the ?uidized the materials a second time to eliminate these “pills.” dry ingredients to produce a complete, ?uidized pre-rnix. Thus, the known processes which are presently used by The pre-mix then passes into the lower, cone-shaped por pre-mix manufacturers contain many disadvantages. tion of the entoleter where it is de?uidized and discharged These processes are limited to batch operations and are 40 into bin 10. therefore ine?icient and expensive. Moreover they re The instant invention is further illustrated by the fol quire the use of excessive quantities of ingredients and cannot be relied upon to produce a uniform product. The instant invention overcomes all of these disad vantages and provides additional improvements to the 45 pie-mix manufacturing art. I have discovered a process according to which I can manufacture any of the ?our-shortening baking pro-mixes lowing examples: Example I Utilizing the processing system illustrated in FIGURE 1 of the drawing, I prepared a white cake pro-mix com prising 44.85% sugar, 40.00% ?our, 10.5% shortening, 2.5% leavening and 2.15% minor ?avoring ingredients. The sugar was continuously metered into the mixing screw Moreover the process of my in vention permits the use of ?uid shortening thereby elimi 50 at the rate of 33.70 pounds per minute, ?our was metered in at the rate of 33.00 pounds per minute and the leavening nating the necessity and expense of plasticizing the short and minor ?avoring ingredients were metered in at the ening component. I have also found that my process pro— rate of 3.45 pounds per minute. The composite dry vides a substantially improvedproduct to the consumer and at the same time permits the manufacturer to achieve 55 ingredients were then continuously fed into the ?uidizer at the rate of 70.15 pounds per minute. Simultaneously substantial e?iciency and cost reduction. with the introduction of the dry ingredients into the In general my process comprises a system wherein the ?uidizer, ?uid shortening was pumped in at the rate of dry pulverulent components of the pre-mix such as ?our, 7.85 pounds per minute. The ?uidization of the pre sugar and leavening are continuously blended together in the required proportions and then ?uidized and com 60 mix ingredients was accomplished by operating the ?uidizer at a speed of 2600 r.p.m. The pre-mix thus pro bined, by impaction, with a ?nely divided ?uid shortening, duced was then immediately discharged into a storage bin. which may be either a liquid oil or a melted fat, at a rate Samples of the pre-mix were baked into cakes. In suiiicient to produce an intimate mixture of shortening on a continuous ‘basis. particles and dry ingredients in the proportion required by the particular pre-mix being produced. preparing these cakes 18 ounces of pre-mix were com~ bined with 11/3 cups of Water and blended to form a batter. This batter was then placed in two 9 inch cake tins and baked at 375° F. for 25 minutes. The cakes thus prepared were rated superior to con As the stream of ?uidized dry ingredients is brought together with the shortening particles they become an integrated constituent of the stream of ?uidized particles. ventioually prepared cakes in all respects. At this point the ?uidized mixture comprises a thorough blend of all the pre-mix ingredients and immediately 70 Example 11 thereafter the ?uid shortening particles are imbibed by Again utilizing the processing system illustrated in or adsorbed onto the dry particles thus producing a uni FIGURE 1 a hot roll pre-mix comprising 86.0% ?our, 3,039,878 4.0% sugar, 7.0% shortening, 2.0% leavening and 1.0% 4 I claim: 1. The method of making a culinary pre~mix compris salt was prepared. The ?our component was continuously ing ?our and shortening, said method comprising; fed into the mixing screw at the rate of 64.5 pounds per ?uidizing said ?our; minute, the sugar was fed in at the rate of 3.0 pounds per introducing said shortening into said ?our in ?nely minute and the leavening and salt was fed in at the rate 5 divided ?uid ‘state and in predetermined proportion of 2.25 pounds per minute. The composite mixture of thereto while said flour is ?uidized; dry ingredients was then fed into the ?uidizer at the rate admixing said ?our and said shortening, by impaction, of 69.75 pounds per minute and the shortening was fed in while said ?our is ?uidized, to thereby produce a at the rate of 5.25 pounds per minute. Fluidization was pill-free pre-mix in ?uidized condition; 10 accomplished by operating the apparatus at 2600' rpm. and then de?uidizing said pro-mix. As the premix was produced it was continuously dis 2. The method of making a culinary pro-mix compris charged into a storage bin. Representative samples of this pre-mix were baked and evaluated. In preparing hot rolls from this pre-mix 7 grams of dry, ing ?our, sugar and shortening, said method comprising; admixing the pulverulent components of said pre-mix judged to be superior in all respects to rolls produced ?uidizing said admixture of pulverulent components; introducing said shortening into sm'd admixture of pulverulent components in ?nely divided ?uid state and in predetermined proportion thereto while said admixture of pulverulent components is ?uidized; admixing said admixture of pulverulent components and said shortening, by impaction, while said admixture of pulverulent components is ?uidized, to thereby produce a pill-free pre-mix in ?uidized condition; and then de?uidizing said pre-mix. 3. The method of making a culinary pro-mix comprising flour, sugar and shortening, said method comprising; admixing the pulverulent components of said pre-mix inactive yeast was blended with 1. cup of warm Water and 15 14 ounces of pre-mix was then combined with the yeast and water and mixed to form a dough. After proo?ng for 45 minutes the dough was cut into a plurality of pieces, placed in a muffin pan and baked at a temperature of 400° F. for 15 minutes. The. baked rolls produced were 20 from conventionally prepared pre-mixes. Example 111 Five-hundred pounds of' yellow cake pre-mix was pre pared utilizing the processing system illustrated in FIG URE 2. This pre-mix comprised 44% sugar, 40% ?our, 10% shortening, 2.5% leavening and 3.5% coloring and ?avoring. The processing conditions outlined in Ex ample No. I were repeated here except that the ?uidizing, 30 apparatus was operated at 3600 rpm. Againthe mix‘ was continuously discharged into a storage bin and quan tities were baked and evaluated. The cakes produced from this pre-mix were also sub stantially superior to products prepared from conven 35 tionally manufactured yellow cake pre-mixes. Various other culinary pre-mixes have also been pro duced with the process of the instant invention. Among these are pie-crust mixes, cookie mixes, biscuit mixes and a wide variety of cake mixes including chocolate, caramel 40 and spice. The discovery that culinary pre-mixes could be pro duced by combining the dry ingredients with the shorten in predetermined proportions; in predetermined proportions; ?uidizing said admixture of pulverulent components; introducing said shortening into said admixture of pulverulent components in ?nely divided ?uid state and in predetermined proportion thereto while said admixture of pulverulent components is ?uidized; admixing said admixture of pulverulent components and said shortening, by impaction, while said admixture of said pulverulent components is ?uidized,‘ to there by produce a pill-free pre~mix in ?uidized condition; de?uidizing said pre-mix; and discharging said de?uidized pro-mix into a container. References Cited in the ?le of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS ing while the dry ingredients were in a ?uidized condition Quehl _______________ __ Feb. 27, 1934 and the shortening was in a ?uid and ?nely divided condi 45 1,948,871 2,835,588 Alexander et a1. ______ __ May 20, 1958 tion has lead to very substantial improvements in product 2,874,053 Mills ________________ __ Feb. 17, 1959 qualities. Furthermore, since the process may be carried out on a continuous basis, may be automatically controlled 01 HER REFERENCES and may ‘be accomplished with a Variety of apparatus it “American Miller and Processor,” vol. 71, No. 1 (Janu 50 provides the manufacturer with a large reduction in pro ary 1948), page 81. duction cost.