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Патент USA US3040252

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June 19, 1962
3,040,242
H. A. PERKINS, JR
MAGNETIC AMPLIFIER SYSTEMS
Filed Feb. 13, 1957
3 Sheets-Sheet 1
Stage II
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WITNESSES
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INVENTOR
Hurley A. Perkins, Jr.
% Z5m
ATTORNEY
June 19, 1962
H. A. PERKINS, JR
3,040,242
MAGNETIC AMPLIFIER SYSTEMS
Filed Feb. 13, 1957
_
'
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
I8um um
68
United States Patent 0
1
r‘
3,040,242
Patented June 19, 1962
1
2
3,049,242
,
Harley A. Perkins, Jr., Baldwin Township, Allegheny
MAGNETIC AMPLIFTER SYSTEMS
County, Pa, assignor to Westinghouse Electric Con
poration, East Pittsburgh, Pa., a corporation of
Pennsylvania
1
Filed Feb. 13, 1957, Ser. No. 640,0h6
10 Claims. (Cl. 323—‘89)
that the output of N cascaded stages will be the same as
if the Nth stage were the ?rst stage.
A further object of this invention is to provide an im
proved cascaded magnetic ampli?er system, performance
’ of which is not dependent upon high quality recti?ers nor
upon an extremely high ratio of residual ?ux density Br
to the maximum ?ux density Bm in the magnetic cores of
the saturable reactors.
Further objects of this invention will become apparent
This invention relates generally to magnetic ampli?er 10' from the following description when taken in conjunction
with the accompanying drawings. In said drawings, for
systems and particularly to cascaded magnetic ampli?er
systems.
For certain applications, it is desirable that magnetic
ampli?ers be cascaded. Theoretically, if perfectly square 15
hysteresis loop magnetic core material and Zero reverse
leakage recti?ers are used, in magnetic ampli?er systems
incorporating voltage reset means, the output from the
illustrative purposes only, are shown preferred forms of
the invention.
FIGURE 1 is a schematic diagram of a cascaded mag
netic ampli?er system, illustrating the teachings of this
invention, showing two stages of ampli?cation and a com
mon power supply;
FIG. 1a is a representation of waveforms present in
saturable reactors therein is a function of the amount of
the reset applied to the saturable reactors by the reset 20 the different branches of the system shown in FIG. 1
when the power supply is omitted;
a
windings. A signal introduced into the input of such a
FIG. lb is a representation of Waveforms present in
cascaded magnetic ampli?er system will tend to block the
the ditlerent branches of the system shown in FIG. 1; ‘
reset voltage of the ?rst stage at the reset recti?er, if the
FIG. 2 is a schematic diagram of a second embodi—
magnitude of the input signal, at any particular time, is
larger than that of the reset voltage. Therefore, the reset 25 ment of the invention illustrated inFIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram of a third embodiment
is removed from the saturable reactor of the ?rst stage
of the invention illustrated in FIG. 1; and,
and on the next half-cycle the gating supply voltage will
produce a full output when the output winding turns are
just sui?cient to drive the magnetic core through a ?ux
change of twice the saturation iflllX density with a given
gating supply voltage. By proper design, the output from
the ?rst stage of a cascaded magnetic ampli?er system
can be made large enough in magnitude to block the reset
voltage of the second stage. By so doing, there is a full
output subject to the conditions above from the second
stage in the same manner as from the ?rst stage. This is
repeated through N stages of the cascaded magnetic am
pli?er system.
Practically, perfect square hysteresis loop magnetic core
material can be approached but never achieved with pres
ent magnetic core fabrication methods ‘and processes.
The residual ?ux density Br of present magnetic core ma
FIG. 3a is a representation of waveforms present in
the different branches of the system shown in FIG. 3.
Referring to FIG. 1, there is illustrated two stages of a
cascaded magnetic ampli?er system having a common
power supply. In general, the system comprises a ?rst
stage magnetic ampli?er 20, having input terminals 10 and
H. The ouput from the magnetic ampli?er 20 is con
nected to control a second stage magnetic ampli?er 40'.
The output of the magnetic ampli?er‘40 appearing at ter
minals 5t) and 51 constitutes the output portion of the il
lustrated system. A common power supply for the sys
tem is designated generally at 60.
The ?rst stage magnetic ampli?er 20 comprises a con
trol-reset circuit 1 and a load-output circuit 2. The con
trol-reset circuit 1 includes a reset winding 22, a recti?er
,27 and resistor 24 connected in series‘ circuit relationship
between power supply terminal 61 and a suitable ground.
pletely saturated ‘for the entire gating half-cycle. Recti 45 The input signal is applied to terminals 10‘ and 11 across
terial is less than the maximum flux density Bm. ‘ There
fore, the saturable reactor of the ?rst stage is not com
?ers with zero reverse leakage are also unavailable. This
reverse leakage of the recti?ers further modi?es the state
resistor 24.
The load-output circuit 2 includes gating
of ?ux in the magnetic core during the reset half cycle.
winding 23 and recti?er 28 connected in series circuit
relationship between power supply terminal 65 and ter
As a result, a signal applied tov the input of a cascaded
' minal 30. Terminal ‘30 is connected to a suitable ground
the ?rst stage, a conduction angle that is less than the
through a resistor 31. Reset winding 22 and gating wind
ing 23 are disposed in inductive relationship with a mag
conduction angle of the input signal.
netic core member 21. v
magnetic ampli?er system will produce at the output of
‘The second stage magnetic ampli?er 40‘ comprises a
control-reset circuit 3 and a load-output circuit ‘4. The
saturable reactor is saturated and allows conduction to 55 control-reset circuit 3 includes a reset winding 42 and
recti?er 47 connected in series circuit relationship be
the rest of the circuit.
tween power supply terminal 62 and terminal 30. The
An additional attenuation in conduction angle is added
load-output circuit 4 includes gating finding 43, recti?er
by each stage, so that after ‘a su?icient number N stages
4S and resistor 44 connected in series circuit relationship
an output might not appear at all.
Conduction angle attenuation requires that present 60 between power supply terminal 64 and a suitable ground.
Reset winding v42 and gating winding 43 are disposed in
manufacturing of cascaded magnetic ampli?er systems be
inductive relationship with magnetic core member 41.
based upon holding the characteristics of magnetic core
The output of the system appears across resistor 44 at materials and recti?ers to an optimum quality obtainable
terminals 50 and 51.
.
in order ‘to produce a usable system. Even with such
The
power
supply
60‘is
connected
to
.a
suitable
alter
quality control, some circuits, such as ringing circuits and 65
The “conduction angle” referred to herein is de?ned
as that portion of a gating half-cycle during which a
holding circuits in logic design, are still troublesome be
cause of this successive stage attenuation of the output
nating-current voltage source 90‘ through a primary wind
ing 71 of a transformer 70. A secondary winding 73 of
the transformer '75) supplies alternating-current voltage
to gating windings 23 and 43 and hence will be called the
conduction angle.
An object of this invention is to provide an improved
gating secondary winding. A secondary winding 72. of
70 the transformer 7 0 supplies alternating-‘current voltage to
cascaded magnetic ampli?er system.
Another object of this invention is to provide an im
proved cascaded magnetic ampli?er system which assures
reset windings 22 and 42 and hence will be called the
reset secondary winding.
aoadesz
3
Gating secondary winding 73 is connected to power
supply terminals 64 and- 65 and has a center tap 68 which
is connected to a grounded power supply terminal 63.
The terminal 75 of reset secondary winding 72 is con
nected through a winding 82 of a saturable reactor 80
to power supply terminal 62. An exciting current re
sistor 83 is connected between a center tap 67 of reset
secondary winding 72 and the power supply terminal 62.
Terminal 74 of reset secondary winding 72 is connected
4
condition in magnetic core member 21 and to isolate re
set winding 22 from the input circuit.
This control-reset circuit 1 will function in the above
described manner on every reset half-cycle when power
supply terminal 61 is at a positive polarity with respect
to ground, and there is no input signal at terminals 10
and 11. Therefore, on succeeding alternate halt-cycles,
the load-output circuit 2 will consume all the volt-seconds
delivered in again bringing magnetic core 'member
through a winding 84 of the saturable reactor 89 to the 10 21 to saturation and again there will be no output
E1 from the ?rst stage. However, an input signal to
power supply terminal 61. An exciting current resistor
terminals 10 and 11 during the reset half-cycle of control
85 is connected between a center tap 67 of reset secondary
winding 72 and the power supply terminal 61. The cen
reset circuit 1, that is at any instant larger than the desig
nated reset voltage Em, will block this reset voltage
ter tap 67 is connected to the power supply terminal 63.
The windings 82 and 84 of the saturable reactor 84} are 15 Em at recti?er 27. The control~reset circuit 1' then
will not operate to resaturate the magnetic core member
disposed in inductive relationship with a magnetic core
21 in the opposite polarity.' Therefore, on the next suc
member 8-1.
ceeding half-cycle, the magnetic core member 21 will
The operation of the ?rst stage magnetic ampli?er 20
still be substantially completely saturated, gating Winding
can be divided into two portions, the gating portion of
the supply voltage as applied to power supply terminal 20 23 will approximate zero impedance and an output E1
will appear at terminal 3%} across resistor 31 to ground.
65 and thus to the gating winding 23, and the reset por
This output from the ?rst stage magnetic ampli?er 20 will
tion of the supply voltage as applied to power supply
continue to appear on every gating half-cycle, that is,
terminal 61 and thus to reset winding 22. That is, dur
when power supply terminal 65 is at a positive polarity
ing one half-cycle of supply voltage when power supply
terminal 65 is at a positive polarity with respect to 25 with respect to ground, as long as a signal of suf?cient
magnitude, to block the reset voltage Em, is present at
ground, the gating portion of operation takes place, and
input terminals 10 and 11 during the preceding reset
during the next half-cycle when the power supply ter
half—cycle.
minal 61 is at a positive polarity with respect to ground,
Referring now to the second stage magnetic ampli?er
the reset portion of operation takes place. The operation
of the second stage magnetic ampli?er 40 can also be 30 40; during the gating portion of supply voltage when
power supply terminal 64 is at a positive polarity with
divided into two similar portions, the gating portion of
respect to ground, exciting current from power supply
supply voltage as applied to power supply terminal 64
terminal 64 flows through gating winding 43, recti?er 48
and thus to gating winding 43, and the reset portion of
and resistor 44 to a suitable ground. The load-output
the supply voltage as applied to power supply terminal
62 and thus to reset winding 42.
That is, during one 35 circuit 4 is designed to deliver only a sut?cient number
of volt-seconds over the half-cycle of operation to satu
rate magnetic core member 41 as discussed. Therefore,
half-cycle of the supply voltage when power supply ter—
minal 64 is at a positive polarity with respect to ground
the gating portion of operation takes place and during the
the output 'EO across resistor 44 to output terminals 50‘ '
next half-cycle when power supply terminal 62 is at a
and 51 during this half-cycle would be zero.
positive polarity with respect to ground the reset por 40
tion of operation takes place. ,
For the proper operation of the cascaded magnetic
ampli?er system shown in FIG. 1, it is to be noted that
The function of gating recti?er 48 is two-fold, namely,
to prevent a reset of magnetic core member 21 by a re
verse ?ow of current on the next half-cycle and to isolate
gating winding 43 from the output circuit.
_
.the gating portion of the ?rst stage magnetic ampli?er 20
During the next half-cycle of supply voltage, when
takes place on the same half-cycle of the supply voltage
power supply terminal 62 is at a positive polarity with
respect to ground, exciting current from terminal 62
?ows through reset winding ;42, recti?er 47, terminal 30
and resistor 31 to ground. The control-reset circuit 3 is
designed to ‘deliver only a suf?cient number of volt‘
seconds over the half-cycle of operation of resaturate
as the reset portion of the second stage magnetic am
pli?er 40 for reasons explained hereinafter.
Referring again to the ?rst stage magnetic ampli?er
20; during the gating portion of the supply voltage, when
power supply terminal 65 is at a positive polarity with
respect to ground, exciting current flows from terminal
65 through gating winding 23, recti?er 28, terminal 30
and resistor 31 to a suitable ground. The load-output
circuit 2 is designed to deliver only a sut?cient number
of volt-seconds over the half-cycle of operation to drive
magnetic core member 21 just to positive saturation. 55
Therefore, the output across resistor 31, designated as
E, during this gating half-cycle of operation would be
magnetic core member 41 as discussed.
The function of reset recti?er 47 is two-fold, namely,
to prevent a reverse ?ow of current from presetting the
?ux conditions in magnetic core member 41 and to isolate
reset winding 42 from the load-output circuit 2 of mag
netic ampli?er 20.
The control-reset circuit 3 will function in the above
described manner on every reset half-cycle, that is, when
power supply terminal 62 is at a positive polarity with
respect to ground. Therefore, on succeeding alternate
to’ prevent a reset of magnetic core member 21 by the _ 60 half-cycles, the load-output circuit 4 will consume all
the volt-seconds delivered in again bringing magnetic core
reverse ?ow of current on the next half-cycle and to
member 41 to saturation and again there will be no out
isolate the gating winding 23 of the ?rst stage magnetic
put voltage E, at terminals 50 and 5-1 across resistor 44.
ampli?er 20 from the control-reset circuit 3 of the sec
It was noted above that control-reset circuit 3 of second
ond stage magnetic ampli?er 40.
During the next half-cycle, when power supply ter 65 stage magnetic ampli?er 40 is operating on the same half
cycle of supply voltage as the load-output circuit 2 of
minal 61 is at a positive polarity with respect to ground,
the ?rst stage of magnetic ampli?er 20. Therefore, if
exciting current flows from terminal 61 through reset
output voltage E1 from the load-output circuit 2 of the
winding 22, recti?er 27 and resistor 24 to a suitable
?rst stage magnetic ampli?er 20 appears at terminal 30
ground. The control-reset circuit 1 is designed to de
liver only a sufficient number of volt-seconds over the 70 across resistor ‘31, it will be, by design, of su?icient magnir
tude at any instant to block the reset voltage of control
half-cycle of operation to drive magnetic core member
reset circuit 3, designated EH2, at recti?er 47. The con
21 just to negative saturation.
trol-reset circuit 3 then will not operate to resaturate mag
The function of reset recti?er 27 is two-fold, namely,
zero.
The function of ‘gating recti?er 28 is two-fold, namely,
‘to prevent a reverse ?ow of current on the next half
netic core member 41.
Accordingly, on the next suc
cycle through reset winding 22 from presetting the ?ux 75 ceeding half-cycle, the magnetic core member 41 will still
3,040,242
5
6
be substantially completely saturated, gating winding 43
erage portion of the reset voltages‘Em and EH2. That is,
will approximate zero impedance and an output E0 will
the windings 82 and 84 ‘are designed to have a conduc
tion angle of (LI-*6) which is equal to or smaller than the
appear at terminals 50 and 51 across resistor 44.
.
The operation of power supply 60‘ can be divided into
conduction angle (cl-12) of any voltage presented tothe
two portions, the supplying of gating voltages Em and
control-reset circuit recti?ers 27 and 47. This would be
EG2 to load-output circuits 2 and 4 of magnetic ampli
?ers 20 and 40 by the secondary winding 73 of trans
former 70 from primary winding 71 which is connected
the voltage E1, the output of the ?rst stage magnetic
ampli?er 20. Therefore, the reset voltage of every stage
to a suitable alternating-current voltage source 99‘, and
can be blocked over the -full half-cycle of reset operation ,,
and the output of that stage will show no additional at
the supplying of reset voltages Em and EH2 through sat 10 tenuation in conduction angle.
urable reactor 30'to the control-reset circuits 1 and 3 of
Referring to FIG. 2, there is illustrated another eme
magnetic ampli?ers Ztl and ‘ill by the secondary Winding
bodirnent of the teachings of this invention, in which like '
72 of the transformer 79 from the primary winding 71
which is connected to the alternating-current voltage
Referring to the gating secondary winding 73 of the
transformer 70; during one-half cycle of alternating
components of FIGS. 1 and 2 have been given the same
reference characters.‘ The main distinction between the
apparatus illustrated in FIGS. 1 and 2 is that in FIG. 2
nonlinear resistance circuits 120, 130, and 140 have been
substituted for resistors 24, 31 and 44, respectively of
current voltage source 90, power supply terminal 64 is at
FIG. 1.
source 90.
v
'
' positive polarity with respect to the center ‘tap 63 and
The non-linear resistance circuit 120‘ comprises ‘a suit—
power supply terminal 65 is at negative polarity with re 20 able direct current bias source 121 with polarity as
spect to the center tap 68. During ‘the next ha1 -cycle
shown, a recti?er 122 and a resistor 123. The non-linear
of the alternating-current voltage source 99, the power
resistance circuit 1%‘ serves as a coupling ‘between any
vsupply terminal 65 is at positive polarity with respect to
suitable input to the system and the ?rst stage magnetic
the center tap ‘68 and the power supply terminal 64 is
' ampli?er 2d. The non-linear resistance circuit 130 com
at negative polarity with respect to the center tap 63.
25 prises a suitable direct current bias source 131 with po
Referring‘to the reset secondary winding 72 of the
larity as shownha recti?er 132 and a resistor 133. The
transformer 70, during the one-half cycle of the alter
‘non-linear resistance circuit 130 serves as a coupling
nating-current voltage source 9%, the terminal 74 is at
between the ?rst stage magnetic ampli?er 20 and the
positive polarity with respect to the center tap 67. Ex
second stage magnetic ampli?er 40. The non-linear re- ~
citing current ?ows from the terminal 74 through the
sistor circuit 149 comprises a suitable direct current =bias
winding$4 of'the saturable reactor at} to the power sup
source 141 with polarity as shown, a recti?er 1‘42 and a
ply terminal 61. The resistor '85 provides a return path
resistor 143. The non-linear resistor circuit ‘140 serves
for exciting current'to the center tap 67' when the power
as a coupling between the second stage magnetic ampli?er
supply 60 is lightly loaded. During the next half-cycle
4t? and a suitable output'circuit.
.
of the alternating current voltage source hill‘, the terminal 35 In general, the operation of the cascaded magnetic
'75 is at positive polarity with respect to the center tap 67.
ampli?er system illustrated in FIG. 2 is similar to‘ the
The exciting current ?ows from the terminal 75 through
operation of the system shown in FIG. 1. However, the
the winding 82 to the power supply terminal 62. The
addition of the non-linear resistance circuits 126, 130, ‘and
resistor 83 provides a return path for the exciting cur
14d couplings serve two purposes, as ‘follows:
rent to the center tap'167 when the power supply 69‘ is “ 40
(1) A non-linear resistance circuit presents, a low im
lightly loaded.
pedance in series with the reset voltage in order to reset
The windings 82 and 84 of the saturable reactor 80‘ are
the core completely with the reset voltage Em when an
'disposed in inductive relationship with the magnetic core
input from the preceding or driving stage is absent.
member 81. The windings 82 and 84‘ of the saturable
(2) A nonlinear resistance circuit presents a high im
reactor ‘80 are of equal turns and are designed to ab
pedance to provide the least loading of the preceding or
sorb an average voltage. which is some predetermined
driving stage when an input signal is present from the
portion of the reset voltages Em and BB2 designated in
preceding or driving stage. I
.
Since the remaining operation of the apparatus illus
An examination of the waveforms present in different
trated in FIG. 2 is similar to the ‘operation of the ap
branches of the cascaded magnetic ampli?er system will 50 paratus of FIG. 1, ‘a further description of such operation
clarify operation of the power supply as. If the saturable
is ‘deemed unnecessary. ;
7
' reactor '80 were omitted from the power supply 69, the
‘Referring to FIG. 3, there is illustrated still another
reset voltage EH2 for the control-reset circuitil would be
embodiment of this invention in which like components
as illustrated in, FIG. la, assuming a-sinusoidal alternaté
of FIGS. 2 and 3 have been given the same reference I
ing-current voltage for the source i9tlialthough non-sinus- >
characters; The main distinction between the apparatus
oidal alternating-current voltage may be used with cor- '
illustrated in FIGS. 2 and 3 is that in thegapparatus of
responding changes-in the output waveform. The output
FIG. 3 non-linear resistance circuits 150 and 160 have
FIG.
1.
‘
'
I
_
.
voltage E1 of the ?rst ‘stage magnetic ampli?er 20‘ would
been substituted ‘for the exciting current resistors 83‘ and V
appear as illustrated in FIG. 1a, because of the charac
85, respectively ofFIGS. 1 and 2.
v
teristics of the magnetic core materials and recti?ers as 60
The non-linear circuit 150 comprises a suitable direct
hereinbefore explained. Thus, with an output voltage E1.
current bias source ‘151 with polarity as shown, av recti?er
conduction angle of (a—b) and a reset voltage Em con
152 and resistor 153. in nonlinear resistance circuit
duction angle of (a), where a=l80°, it is apparent that
150, the direct current bias is from a high voltage source.
the output voltage E1 of the magnetic ampli?er 2'3 will
Current flows ‘from the positive terminal of the direct
not‘ block the reset voltage Em of the control-reset circuit 65 current bias source 151 through the recti?er __152 in the
3 over the full half-cycle. As a result, the magnetic am
forward direction and the resistance 153 to the negative
pli?er 40 will be reset to some degree and on the next
half-cycle an additional attenuation in the output conduc
tion angle will appear in the output of the magnetic am
pli?er 40.
.
terminal of the direct current bias source. This current _
vis maintained at a low and nearly constant level by a i '
resistor 153. The exciting current for the winding 82
70 flows from the terminal 75 through the winding 82 to the
-With the saturable reactor 80 included in the power
power supply terminal '62; Thecurrent ?owing in the
supply 60, the output voltage E1 of the magnetic ampli- ' ‘ non-linear resistance circuit 150 from the direct current
?er 2.0 would. appear as illustrated by the waveforms of
bias source 151 through the recti?er 152 is made larger
FIG. lb. The windings S2 and $4 of the saturable reactor
80 are designed, as describedrabove, to absorb some av
7 than the peak value of the, exciting current ?owing in the 1
75 Winding 82. As long as the exciting current ?owing in the
3,040,242
7
said saturable core, recti?er means serially connected with
said control~reset winding for causing unidirectional cur
rent ?ow in said control-reset winding tending to de
position is applicable and the exciting current of the
saturate said saturable core, means for limiting current
winding 82 is, in effect, allowed to ?ow through the
recti?er 152 in the reverse direction and thus to the UK ?ow in said load-output and control-reset windings, cou
pling means connecting the input of each successive stage
center tap ‘67. The resulting waveform Em is shown in
to the output of the preceding stage, an ‘output means
FIG. 3a.v Its conduction angleis (a-c). For the inter
for the system, power ‘supply means, said power supply
val (0) there is no conduction of the exciting current of
means comprising means for supplying alternating cur
the winding 82 to the control-reset circuit 3, since it is
returning to the center tap 67 through non-linear re 10 rent voltage to said load-output windings and said con
trol—reset windings, said power supply means comprising
sistance circuit 159. When the winding 82 is saturated,
Winding 82 does not attempt to exceed the current from
the direct current bias source 151, the principle of super
a saturable reactor connected to said alternating current
* the current through the winding surpasses the value of
voltage for limiting conduction of the alternating-current
voltage in said control-reset windings to the same por
tion of each half cycle of the alternating current voltage
as the load-output winding of the preceding stage, and
means providing exciting current for said power supply
the current in non-linear circuit 150 and thereafter is
diverted to control-reset circuit 3.
'
_
The non-linear circuit 160 is comprised of a suitable
direct current bias source ‘1161 with polarity as shown,
a recti?er 162 and a resistor 163. The operation of
non-linear resistance circuit 160 is the same for the reset
voltage Em as the operation of non-linear resistance
saturable reactor.
3. In a magnetic ampli?er system, in combination, a
circuit 150 for reset voltage ERZ. Since the remaining 20 plurality of magnetic ampli?er stages each having input
means, a saturable core, a load-output winding, a con
operation of the apparatus illustrated in FIG. 3 is similar
trol-reset winding, recti?er means serially connected with
to that of the system illustrated in FIG. 2, a further de
said load-output winding for causing unidirectional cur
scription of such operation is deemed unnecessary.
rent ?ow in said load-output winding tending to saturate
The cascaded magnetic ampli?er systems embodying
the teachings of this invention have several advantages. 25 said saturable core, recti?er means serially connected with
said control—reset winding for causing unidirectional cur
There is no successive stage attenuation of the output
rent ?ow in said control-reset winding tending to desatu
conduction angle, making possible circuits in logic de
rate said saturable core, means for limiting current ?ow
sign to ‘heretofore practical. The maximum output of
‘in said load-output and control reset windings, coupling
‘the Nth stage of ampli?cation in a cascaded magnetic
ampli?er system is determined only by the characteristics‘ 30 resistors connecting the input of each successive stage
to the output of the preceding stage, an output means for
of the Nth stage itself.
This'invention allows use of
magnetic core materials with lower ratios of residual ?ux
'density Br to maximum ?ux density Bm than those pres
the system, and a power supply for said plurality of stages,
‘ said power supply comprising a saturable reactor,,and
ently in use.’ This invention indicates possible future use
of thicker laminates or stacked magnetic cores. Less
rigid control of core annealing processes are required.
means for applying alternating-current voltagei'to said
load output windings and said control-reset windings, said
saturable reactor connected to each said ‘control-reset
‘Since the reset voltages delivered by Em and EH2 are
used only to 'supply iron losses to saturable reactors, the
rent voltage in said control-reset windings to the same
winding and limiting conduction of said alternating-cur
portion of each half cycle as in the load output winding
of the preceding stage, and means providing exciting cur
total power supplied is small, permitting the use of a small
‘reactor for the saturable reactor 80. The output of this
rent for said power supply saturable reactor.
novel power supply is atfected only by ordinary regula
tion drop. The waveform remains relatively unchanged
plurality of magnetic ampli?er stages each having input
over large load variations.
In conclusion, it is pointed out that while the illus
means, a saturable core, a load-output winding, a control
rcset winding, recti?er means serially connected with said
trated examples constitute practical embodiments of my
load-output winding for causing unidirectional current ?ow
in said load-output winding tending to saturate said satu
invention, I do not limit myself to the exact details shown,
since modi?cation of the same may be varied without
' departing from the spirit of this invention de?ned in the
rable core, recti?er means serially connected with said
control-reset winding for causing unidirectional current
?ow in said control-reset winding tending to desaturate
said saturable core, means for limiting current flow in said
load-output and control-reset winding, non-linear resist
ance means coupling the input of each successive stage
appended claims.
I claim as my invention:
1. In a magnetic ampli?er system, in combination, a
plurality of magnetic ampli?er stages, each including in
put and‘ output means, saturable means, load-output cir
cuit means ‘adapted to saturate said saturable means, con
' trol-reset circuit'means including a control-reset winding
'
4. In a magnetic ampli?er system, in combination, a
‘ to the output of the preceding stage, a power supply for
and a recti?er serially connected and adapted to reset said
said plurality’of stages, said power supply for said load
output windings and for said control-reset windings coin
prising means for applying an alternating-current voltage
saturable means, coupling means connecting the input of
to said windings, a saturable reactor connected to each
each successive stage to the output of the preceding
i said control-reset winding for limiting conduction of said
stage, output means for the system, power supply means
for supplying alternating current voltages to each said 60 alternating-current voltage in said control-reset windings
to the same portion of each half-cycle as ‘in said load
‘load-output circuit means and each said control-reset cir
output winding of the preceding stage, and means pro
cuit means of said plurality of stages, power supply satura
viding exciting current for said power supply’saturable
ble means connected to each said control-reset winding
whereby the conduction angle of said alternating-current '
voltage in said control-reset circuit means is limited to the 65
same portion of each half cycle of said alternating current
voltage as the load output circuit means of the preceding
stage, and means providing exciting current for said power
supply saturable means.
2. In a magnetic ampli?er system, in combination, a 70
plurality of magnetic ampli?er stages each including input
means, a saturable core, a load-output winding, a con
reactor.
,
5. In a magnetic ampli?er system, in .combination, a
plurality of magnetic ampli?er stages each having input
means, a saturable core, a load-output winding, a con
trol-reset winding, recti?er means serially connected with
said load-output winding for causing unidirectional cur
rent ?ow in said load-output winding tending to saturate
said saturable core, recti?er means serially connected with
said control-reset winding for causing unidirectional cur
rent ?ow in said control-reset winding tending to desatu~
trol-reset winding, recti?er means serially connected with
rate said saturable core, means for limiting current ?ow
said load-output winding for causing unidirectional cur
rent ?ow ‘in said load-output winding tending to saturate 75 in said load~output and control-reset winding, nonlinear
3,040,242
/
10
9
means coupling the input of each successive stage to the
output of the preceding stage, ‘a power supply for said
plurality of stages, said power supply for said load
output windings and for said control-reset windings com
prising means for applying an alternating-current voltage
to said windings, a saturable reactor connected to each
said control-reset winding for limiting conduction of said
alternating-current voltage in said control-reset windings
to the same portion of each half-cycle as in said'load out
put winding of the preceding stage, and means providing
exciting current for said power supply saturable reactor.
6. In a magnetic ampli?er system, in combination, a
plurality of magnetic ampli?er stages, each having input
and means for applying a direct current voltage bias to
said non-linear resistance circuit means to control excita
tion of said control-reset windings.
-
8. In a power supply for a magnetic ampli?er system
comprising a plurality of stages, in combination, means
for applying an alternating-current voltage for load-output
circuits and for control-reset circuits of said plurality of
stages, each said control-reset circuit including a control
reset winding and a recti?er means serially connected,
saturable means connected to each said control-reset cir
cuit only whereby conduction of said alternating-current
voltage in said control-reset circuits is limited to the same
portion of each half-cycle as the conducting portion of
means, a saturatble core, a load output winding, a control
said alternating current voltage in the load output circuit
reset winding, recti?er means serially connected with said 15 of the preceding stage, and means providing exciting cur
load-output winding for causing unidirectional current
?ow in said load-output winding tending‘ to saturate said
saturable core, recti?er means serially connected with said
control-reset winding for causing unidirectional current
How in said control-reset winding tending to desaturate
said saturalble core, means ‘for limiting current ?ow in
said load-output and control-reset circuit, non-linear
resistance means coupling the input of each successive '
rent for said saturable means.
-
9. In a power supply for a magnetic ampli?er system
with a plurality of stages, in combination, means for ap
plying an alternating-current voltage for load-output cir
cuits and for control-reset circuits of said plurality of
stages, each said control-reset circuit including a control
reset winding serially connected with a recti?er means, a
saturahle reactor connected to each said control-reset
stage to the output of the preceding stage, an output means
circuit only for limiting conduction of said alternating
for the system, a power supply ‘for said plurality of stages, 25 current voltage in said control-reset circuits to the same
said power supply for said load-output windings. and for ' portion of each half-cycle as the conducting portion of
said control reset windings of said plurality of stages com
said alternating current voltage in the load output circuit
prising means for applying an alternating-current voltage
of the preceding stage, and a means providing exciting
to said load output windings and said control-reset wind
current for said saturable reactor.
ings, a saturable reactor connected to each‘ ‘said control 30
10. A magnetic ampli?er system having a plurality of
reset winding for limiting conduction of said alternating
current voltage in said control-reset windings to match
the conduction of said alternating current voltage in the
load output winding of the preceding stage, and a resist—
stages each having an input means, a saturable core, a
load-output winding, a' control-reset winding, a unidirec
tional current device connected in series with each loadoutput winding to maintain core saturating current in each
ance means providing exciting current for said power sup 35 said load-output winding unidirectional, a unidirectional
ply saturable reactor.
current device connected in series with each control-reset
7. In a magnetic ampli?er system, in combination, a
winding to provide unidirectional current in each said
plurality of magnetic ampli?er ‘stages, each having an in
control-reset winding, and tends to desaturate said satur
put means, a saturable core, a load output winding, a
control-reset winding, recti?er means serially connected to
said load-output winding :for causing unidirectional cur
rent ?ow in said load-output winding tending to saturate
said saturable core, recti?er means serially connected to
said control reset vwinding for causing unidirectional cur
811316 core, the control-reset circuit of each successive stage
being so connected to the load-output circuit of'the preced
ing stage that an input signal to the ?rst stage results in an
output signal from the last stage, a power supply means
for said plurality of stages, said power supply means
providing alternating current voltage to control-reset cir
‘ rent ‘?ow in said control-reset winding tending to de 45 cuits only ‘including said. control-reset windings of said
saturate said saturable core, ‘means for limiting current
plurality of stages over only a portion of each half-cycle
flow in said load-output and control-reset windings, non
of said alternating-current voltage, said portion being sub
linear resistance means coupling the input of each succes
stantially the same as the conducting portion of said alter
sive stage to the output of the preceding stage, said means
. nating current voltage in the load- output winding of the
including a unidirectional current device and resistance 50 preceding stage.
means and means for providing a direct current voltage
bias to said non-linear resistance means, an output means
for the system, a power supply for said plurality of stages,
said power supply ‘for said load-output windings and for
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
said control-reset windings comprising means for applying 55 2,423,114
an alternating-current voltage to said load-output windings
‘2,683,843
and said control-reset windings, a vsaturable reactor‘ con
nected to said control-reset windings for limiting conduc
tion of said alternating-current voltage source in said con- .
2,686,287
Geyger _______________ __ July 13, 1954
'Gerg ____'.._.__; _______ .._ Aug. 10, 1954
2,734,165
‘2,766,420
' Lufcy et a1 ________ .._'_____ Feb. 7, 1956
Ramey ________________ .._ Oct. 9, 1956
trol-reset windings to match the conduction of said alter
2,802,166
'nating current voltage in the load output winding of the 60 2,836,784
preceding stage, and a non-linear resistance circuit means
Potter ________________ __ July 1, 1947
Sanderlin et al. ________ __ Aug. 6, 1957
Gross ________________ __ May_2'7, 1.958
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