Патент USA US3040561код для вставки
June 26, 1962 G. A. URLAUB 3,040,551 STRETCH FABRIC AND METHOD Filed Feb. 10, 1956 I vI) i _ 1n RIB WALE , / Tic]. E. _ INVENTOR 650265 A’. Mel/I05 BY ATTORNEYS smarter [United States Patent ()?ice Patented June 26, 1962 l and ‘extensibility to ‘provide varying degrees of binding ' - 3,059,551 ~> STRETECHFA RIC , ' pressure over .the entire area to be treated. This ability METHGD ~_ to stretch ‘in ‘two directions is of ‘particular use in apply ‘George A. Urlaub, Townshipbf Malone, , , ing splints because these bandages will apply equal pres Chasm ‘Falls, NX. , sure .in all directions notwithstanding the contour irreg ‘ Filed .Feb. 10, 1.956,,Ser. No. 564,657 14 Claims. (Cl. 66-197) ‘ ularities encountered with splints. It also ‘follows, of course, ‘that ‘the tWo-jway‘stretch surgical bandage'will ‘This invention consists in struc‘tu‘ra‘l‘improvements in apply the desired pressure throughout the entire ‘area stretch fabric and ‘the ‘method of‘obtaini’ng them. i regardless :of its con?guration such as produced, for ex ' Abroad object of ‘the invention is to construct a stretch 10 ample,-‘by'the ankle bone. ' v a ‘ fabric either ‘in ‘?at knitted ‘or vtubular knitted form with ‘It is also highly ‘desirable thatjbandages of this type can be used to apply varying degrees of pressure in the chest and pelvic areas, which :is only possible With a two way stretch ‘fabric ofsuitable elasticity ‘and extensibility. In accordance with this invention these characteristics ' lines of demarcation de?ning‘ strips, ‘which among "other uses are especially suitable'as surgical bandages. _ A more speci?c object is to provide ‘fabrics of ‘this type with lines of weakness formed during the knitting to provide de?ning lines for strips along which the fabric may be separated to ‘provide such strips. - of a ‘knitted surgical ‘bandage can be adjusted over a ‘ wide :range by the proper selection of yarns and knitting Another object o'f‘this invention is to ‘provide two-way practices. Therefore, in accordance with this invention stretch ‘fabrics in the form of stripshaving ravel resistant synthetic -‘or 's’imilaritype-of ?lament or staple yarns which but ilnselvaged edges‘ in fabrics knitted tubular and 'having‘ 20 have been thrown or processed to ‘make them so-called “stretch’f yarns, are essential. These yarns can ‘be of‘, ‘rave‘l resistant vsemi-"selvage edges ‘in "fabrics knitted ?at. A more'spe'ci?c object ‘of'the invention is to provide stretch ‘fabrics in the ‘form ‘of ‘strips which “have sub stantially normal ‘facility for stretch both ‘longitudinally and ‘laterally. . ' " l synthetic material or combinations thereof with natural ?bers. “Suitable synthetic yarns are of the thermo-se‘nsi tive ‘type composed ‘of ‘?bers of the polyarnide or nylon type, polyester and "cellulose- ester yarns ‘such as are cur i A still more speci?co‘bjecto‘fj the invention is to provide rently being usedi‘in the :k‘nittingindustryc vIt is not intend a novel form of fabric structure "of ‘the interlock ribbed type. . , . ed ‘to limit this invention tov these ‘types of ‘yarns since any ‘stretchable or llively ‘yarn ‘whether of the crimp or. ' Other objects of the invention are to ‘provide various methods ‘of knitting these fabrics. _ twisted type ‘is suitable. ‘ > ' It 'is preferred to limit ‘the fabric of this invention on ,As the disclosure vproceeds, many‘other “and additional an- interlock type of circular knitting machine, although ‘its-use is lnot‘essential to the attainment‘of these objects. It is also possible to ‘uses spring “needle machine having detailed objects and advantages of the invention ‘both as to product and method will ‘become apparent to those skilled in the art. 7 ‘ In the accompanying drawings, ', ‘ ‘ one or two sets ‘of needles'such as a Wildman, Tompkins or Cooper machine, ‘circular machines generally, 'tricot , lF-IGURE l‘is an-enlargedxsomewhat diagrammatic view milanese and ‘Simplex, Raschel ‘or 'Cidega types of warp knitting :machines, or ‘flat bar knitting machines of the of a piece of interlock double ribbed fabric illustrating the line of demarcation ‘between two ‘fabric sections, and the Cotton, Lamb ‘or Dubied types. ' method‘ of weakening ‘the fabric along these lines; ~ The invention 'will be described in more detailas applied FIGURE '2’ is a top plan “edge ‘View’, in diagrammatic 40 to thelrknitting of the fabrics of this invention on an in form of the structure of ‘the ‘fabr‘icof‘F-IGURE 1; terlockvtype ‘of circular knitting machine. FIGURE 3 illustrates diagrammaticallyhow the fabric . . a "In order to‘produce the weakened lines'of demarcation of this invention can be knit .in tubular-form witha plural in the tubular fabric being knit on such machines, to pro ity of‘ de?ning weakness lines to provide a number» of . vide a plurality 1of de?ned fabric strips, certain knitting strips of diiferent' widthswhen the fabric is separated needles are left out of action preferably from the cylinder 45 along these de?ning lines; and . ' in the case ‘of a circular machine and ‘the front bed of a ‘ 1 FIGURE 4 is an enlarged fview 10f the latch needle warp ilmitting machine ‘to produce longitudinal marker modi?ed for use in the knitting ‘process of ‘this invention for the purpose of forming lines ofw'eakness in the fabric. lines ‘in the fabric._ The ‘same result’v can be obtained on other‘ types of machines. In the case .of machines The following disclosure will make frequent'referen'ce having two "banks 'of needles as the interlock type of cir 50 to the utility of the subject matter of this invention as cular 4% machine, for'example, in addition to removing applied rto-‘surgic‘a'l bandages, but ‘those skilled in' the art from the cylinder selected needles, the associated dial will understand that ‘the principles of \this invention ‘are notlirnited to ‘the production'of this vparticular product. , needles .aremodi?ed'so'as‘to ‘provide ‘a cutting or severing action on the needle loops formed thereon ‘to actually However, the ‘advantages of the invention have special sever these loops. ' There ‘results, along the wale contain application to the production of surgical bandages, which 55 i-ng the ‘severed loops of the dial needle and opposite this ’ explains their emphasis. in'ith‘e fabric, a'single wale ofyarn' ?oats at ‘the cylinder Stretch fabrics are ‘desirable ‘and Widely used vfor ‘band needle, thereby providing, at regular intervals, 'in a round ages and have in the past generally been made-of woven tube, depending upon the needle selected, lines of demarca~ ‘material. The common practice has been :to weave them of highly twisted cotton ‘yarns ‘alone or in combination tion and weakness.‘ "When'the tube is severed into a series of strips along these ‘lines, there is produced a plurality of non-selvage strips suitable for many uses, ‘including use with covered rubber yarns, so as to achieve some degree of elasticity and extensibility. One of the important dis advantages ‘of woven fabric surgical bandages is found in the fact that ‘they have iuseful :stretch'ability lengthwise as surgical'bandages. . I ‘ However, during the knitting it is clear that the fabric being constructed remains in the form being knitted only and have substantially no widthwise stretch. Obvi 65 which can be subjected to the necessary further processing ous‘ly a surgical bandage would ?t the'various body con- _ tours and protuber'ances and [apply the vrequired pressure more uniformly if it were capable of stretching ‘widthwise as well as lengthwise. ‘ V In accordance ~with this invention it is ‘possible to knit surgical bandage ‘strips with varying degrees of elasticity . including shrinking, dyeing, ?nishing, etc. By using thermo-‘plastic yarns which ‘have been or can be beat set,‘ shrinkage accomplished ‘by de?nite further 70 processing causes the ?bers or yarns which have been cut during the knitting to shrink back ‘to adjacent wale loops and form a kind-of anchor to ,prevent ravelling of the 4 3 strips along their cut edges when later cut into strips. The uncut or ?oated yarns when severed to form the strips also shrink back into a locking association with the adja cent wales, so that ragged, ravelled, non-selvage edges do not result. One example of the method and the resulting product of producing this invention will be given in connection with a Scott & Williams interlock machine having a 26" cyl inder. It is desired, of course, to knit the strips with a minimunnor if possible complete absence of waste. On a 26” cylinder machine having 1960 needles in the cylinder the operation can be set up to produce 8 strips of 3" wide formed alternatingly of the black yarn and the White yarn in each wale and in each course. A similar sequence is in effect in the other face, the back of the fabric as shown in FIGURE 1. > The result is that this two-ply fabric is provided at each cylinder needle position where the needle is out of opera tion with a partially weakened wale forming a visual line of demarcation between adjacent strips on each side thereof without completely severing the fabric so that it can be shrunk, dyed and otherwise processed as a single piece of material ‘and in the form of a tube. Under my inven tion, when producing it upon the interlock type of circular machine, series of ?oats are in one face of the fabric and bandage and 8 strips of 4" wide bandage Without any they span the space of one or more needles which were waste. In order to do this, as diagrammatically illustrated in FIGURE 3, the needle bank is subdivided into sections 15 left out to serve as markers or valleys for subsequent fold ing or cutting, while in the opposite face there are produced so to speak by removing certain of the needles from the certain wales, directly opposite these ?oats, in which the cylinder. For a machine of the size assumed and the yarn is partly or wholly severed as shown in FIGURE 1. number of strips of the width de?ned, it is apparent ?rst Upon completion of the processing of the fabric, the that there will be available 106 needles for each 3" width of strip and 139 needles for each 4" strip. In each of the 20 floats 22, 24 along the weakened wale loops 20—21 are cut to subdivide the knitted fabric into the strips referred smaller groups, of which there are 8, the 106th needle will to above. Those skilled in the art will appreciate from be removed and in each of the larger groups the 139th the above that the tube can be subdivided into strips of needle will be removed. These assumptions are diagram other widths with little or no waste by the proper selection matically illustrated in FIGURE 3. With this arrangement of needle groups the folds of the 25 of the cylinder needles which are taken out of operation and the association therewith in the dial of modi?ed cut fabric as it runs through the take-up device, will occur at ting needles to perform the functions described above. In the positions indicated by the double headed arrow in other words, the spacing between the lines of weakness FIGURE 3. As shown, there will be a set of four 3" and visual demarcation can be varied as conditions require strips at the top and a set of four 3'.’ strips at the bottom. to provide different strip widths. Also, there will be a set of 4" strips at the left side and a In the making of stretchable strips for other uses, as set of 4" strips at the right side. Thus, with this needle for example garment waistbands and cuff sections, the bank it is possible to subdivide the two folds into 16 strips, cylinder needles put out of operation are selected so as to 8 of which are 3" wide and 8 of which are 4" wide, avoid ?oat the stitches at the fold-over line without employing ing any waste. cutting needles at that point, but with the cutting needles In a similar way each dial needle opposite the cylinder needle which has been put out of operation is constructed to sever the loop which is formed thereon. A needle suitable for this purpose is illustrated in FIGURE 4. The needle is provided with the usual shank 26, hook 28, latch spaced two strip markers apart. In other words, at the fold-over line the dial cutting needle is not used, but at the adjacent position on each side where the cylinder needle is put out ofoperation, the cutting needles are pro 30, pivotally mounted at 32 in the cheeks 34 formed on 40 vided. FIGURE 2 is a diagrammatic edge plan view of the the shank. I In other words, except for the forward posi fabric of FIGURE 1 and illustrates further the relation tion of the hook, this is the usual latch needle for a ma chine of this kind. However, in accordance with this invention it is modi?ed so as to provide a sharpened edge at 36 on the needle body and hook, and a sharpened edge 38 on the latch, which cutting edges act during loop for mation and pull down to weaken and ?nally sever that particular loop. These operations will be better understood by reference to FIGURES l and 2. A piece 10 of interlock double-rib type fabric, made in accordance with this invention, is illustrated in FIGURE 1. .The white yarn 12 is knitted to provide a course which comprises loops formed succes~ sively upon alternating cylinder and dial needles, and more speci?cally upon every other needle, say the odd numbered or short needles of each bank of needles, cyl— inder and dial. _ ship of the loops formed by the two yarns for an interlock type of double-rib fabric, modi?ed as described above to cut loops and ?oat yarn along designated wales to sub divide the fabric piece into identi?able strips of the desired width. FIGURE 2 shows the edge plan view of the fabric of FIGURE 1, where the yarn ?oats of one face of the fabric extend across one needle space only. In some cases and ‘for certain end uses of the product of this invention, it may be desirable to have the yarn ?oats traverse, say, 2-needle or 3-needle spaces, and also not to have the loops of the opposite wale cut or severed. At this point it may be noted that it is within the contem plation of this invention to use various other forms of cut ting instrumentalities as a substitute for the structure shown in FIGURE 4, and including sharpened sinkers or Similarly, the black yarn 14 is knitted to provide a knock-over bits which in some types of machines can per course of loops formed successively upon alternating cyl inder and dial needles, and more speci?cally upon every 60 form the severing function in the same way. The fabric of this invention, of course, is not limited to other needle, say the even-numbered or long needles of production on circular knitting machines, or even double each bank of needles, cylinder and dial. ’ rib interlock machines, but can be made on any other The same procedure was followed in the case of the types including ?at bed machines having single or double two preceding courses knitted of the yarns 16 and 18, as shown in FIG. 1. As is well understood by those skilled 65 banks of needles. It is also possible to produce the product of this inven in this art, the preceding courses of the fabric were simi tion on small diameter circular knitting machines of larly knit of other pairs of yarns, all in accordance with single-head or multi-head types in de?nite tubular sizes the normal procedure in knitting interlocked double-ribbed fabrics, see for example the Scott Patent No. 899,439, issued September 22, 1908. Thus, as indicated above and as disclosed in the Scott patent, the fabric of FIGS. 1 and 2 is knit of two groups of yarns. ~ to reduce the number of cutting operations in the small size strips for bandages and other uses. Even in the case of warp knitting machines as the Raschel, tricot, Simplex, milanese Cidega, and by use of two warps, an end of the front warp or top warp as the case may be, can be laid into a cutting needle in its proper place in the machine to Thus, the wales and courses comprising one face, say the front of the fabric shown in FIGURE 1, consist of loops 75 effect a cut loop wale, while the second or back warp will - 3,040,551 5 6 be floated across‘the cut loop Wale. Any of these pro cedures producesthe effect and structure ‘disclosed herein a plurality of connected strips divided by walewise lines of weakness, ‘said strips being connected at said walewise as fully as in the case of the interlock fabric. The fabric can also be made on a single bed ?at machine lines by yarn ?oats only.‘ ' 5. A method of knitting a fabric of two groups of such as the Cotton type machine. In this machine the fabric of my invention can be produced in several“ ways. yarns including the steps of severing loops of yarn of one group along a plurality of spaced wales and ?oating For example, by knitting into the fabric two yarns instead yarn of the other group across said wales to form visible of one into those loops which form the strips, and knitting strips. in one yarn instead of two into those loops which serve to 6. A method of forming a plurality of strip de?ning unite the strip portions of the fabric until it is-siibsequently 10 lines in an interlock fabric knitted of two groups of cut into narrower strips. One way of doing this is by plat yarns, comprising severing loops of yarn of one group ing a second series of yarns and traversing the carriers " along a plurality of spaced wales and simultaneously ?oat containing these yarns over the needles of predetermined strip widths, while at the same time a second carrier con ing yarn of the other group across said spaced wales. 7. A knitted fabric comprising a series of connected taining another separate yarn traverses the full needle-bar 15 strips each comprising two groups of stretch yarn loops width to form that single yarn thickness between the in each course, said strips being connected by narrow strips, either being knitted or ?oated, and becoming the walewise lines consisting of yarns of one of said groups. marker or valley lines of the subsequent fabric cutting ‘ 8. A knitted fabric comprised of two groups of stretch operation. Another way of accomplishing my invention , yarns having knitted-in vertical lines of demarcation form on the, Cotton-type machine is to run one yarn as a main 20 ed by yarn ?oats to form visible strips of de?nite widths, yarn and a second yarn as a plating yarn across the full said strips being substantially non-ravelling at their side needleabar width, and having the plating yarn laid into edges when the fabric is out along said lines of demarca- _ a second position in the throat of the plating sinker placed tion to provide said strips. at the strip marker needles, said throat being so arranged 9. In the combination of claim 8, said fabric being rib to cut all or part of the plating yarn at this particular place 25 knit. in the fabric. By these methods I achieve a strip-marker 10. In the combination of claim 8, said fabric being valley or cutting operation ‘demarcation and/or a partial double rib-knit. severing of the yarn ends, which in turn produce one or 11. In the combination of claim 8, said fabric having more locked selvage, semi-selvage and unselvage edges. a double-rib interlock structure. Still another method would be by overlapping the trav 12. In the combination of claim erse for, say two needles, of two or more twin-tube yarn 8, said fabric being ?at-knit. carriers, with the yarn tubes spaced, for example, four needles apart. 13. In the combination of claim 8, the yarn of one group in said lines of demarcation being cut. In the case of other spring- or latch-needle machines using one set of needles, the fabric of my invention can 35 '14. In the combination of claim 8, the yarn of one group in said lines of demarcation being cut, said cuts be produced by the techniques of ?oat stitches, special and ?oats occurring in the same course. sinkers, or both in the strip-marker areas, as will be evident to anyone skilled in the art. It is believed that in ‘view of the above detailed dis closure those skilled in the art will appreciate the ?exi bility of the method herein disclosed and the applica bility thereof to the production. of knitted fabric of vari ous kinds and on many types of machines. It is preferred, References Cited in the file of this patent 40- by the appended claims. UNITED STATES PATENTS ' 575,012 1,120,989 therefore, that the scope of this patent be determined not by the examples given herein by way of illustration, but - 45 ' 1,552,483 2,127,139 Sturgess ______________ .. Jan. 12, Williams ____________ __ Dec. 15, Hinohliif _____________ __ Sept. 8, Reynolds et a1. _______ __ Aug. 16, 1897 1914 1925 1938 2,184,088 Weinberg ______ _‘_ ____ __ Dec. 19, 1939 2,203,948 Dupuis ______________ __' June 11, 1940 What is claimed is: 1. A knitted interlock fabric subdivided into a plurality 2,421,357 Saftlas ______________ __ May 27, 1947 of strips by spaced wales composed of cut loops and 72,433,279 Johnson _____,________ __ Dec. 23, 1947 heats. 2. A double rib knitted fabric having a plurality of 2,466,536 Cooper et a1 ___________ __ Apr. 5, 1949 , 2,560,872 Pares et al ____________ __ July 17, 1951 spaced visible walewise lines composed of cut loops and 2,564,245 Billion ______________ __ Aug. 14, 1951 524,698 Great Britain .,.7 ______ _.. Aug. 13, 1940 ?oats. ' 3. The fabric of claim 2 being knit of stretch yarn. 4. A twp-way stretch interlock knit fabric consisting of FOREIGN 55 PATENTS v a .