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Патент USA US3040561

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June 26, 1962
G. A. URLAUB
3,040,551
STRETCH FABRIC AND METHOD
Filed Feb. 10, 1956
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RIB WALE
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INVENTOR
650265 A’. Mel/I05
BY
ATTORNEYS
smarter
[United States Patent ()?ice
Patented June 26, 1962
l
and ‘extensibility to ‘provide varying degrees of binding
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3,059,551
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STRETECHFA RIC
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pressure over .the entire area to be treated. This ability
METHGD ~_
to stretch ‘in ‘two directions is of ‘particular use in apply
‘George A. Urlaub, Townshipbf Malone,
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ing splints because these bandages will apply equal pres
Chasm ‘Falls, NX. ,
sure .in all directions notwithstanding the contour irreg
‘ Filed .Feb. 10, 1.956,,Ser. No. 564,657
14 Claims. (Cl. 66-197) ‘
ularities encountered with splints.
It also ‘follows, of
course, ‘that ‘the tWo-jway‘stretch surgical bandage'will
‘This invention consists in struc‘tu‘ra‘l‘improvements in
apply the desired pressure throughout the entire ‘area
stretch fabric and ‘the ‘method of‘obtaini’ng them. i
regardless :of its con?guration such as produced, for ex
' Abroad object of ‘the invention is to construct a stretch 10 ample,-‘by'the ankle bone.
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fabric either ‘in ‘?at knitted ‘or vtubular knitted form with
‘It is also highly ‘desirable thatjbandages of this type
can be used to apply varying degrees of pressure in the
chest and pelvic areas, which :is only possible With a two
way stretch ‘fabric ofsuitable elasticity ‘and extensibility. In accordance with this invention these characteristics
' lines of demarcation de?ning‘ strips, ‘which among "other
uses are especially suitable'as surgical bandages.
_
A more speci?c object is to provide ‘fabrics of ‘this
type with lines of weakness formed during the knitting
to provide de?ning lines for strips along which the fabric
may be separated to ‘provide such strips.
- of a ‘knitted surgical ‘bandage can be adjusted over a
‘
wide :range by the proper selection of yarns and knitting
Another object o'f‘this invention is to ‘provide two-way
practices. Therefore, in accordance with this invention
stretch ‘fabrics in the form of stripshaving ravel resistant
synthetic -‘or 's’imilaritype-of ?lament or staple yarns which
but ilnselvaged edges‘ in fabrics knitted tubular and 'having‘
20 have been thrown or processed to ‘make them so-called
“stretch’f yarns, are essential. These yarns can ‘be of‘,
‘rave‘l resistant vsemi-"selvage edges ‘in "fabrics knitted ?at.
A more'spe'ci?c object ‘of'the invention is to provide
stretch ‘fabrics in the ‘form ‘of ‘strips which “have sub
stantially normal ‘facility for stretch both ‘longitudinally
and ‘laterally.
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synthetic material or combinations thereof with natural
?bers. “Suitable synthetic yarns are of the thermo-se‘nsi
tive ‘type composed ‘of ‘?bers of the polyarnide or nylon
type, polyester and "cellulose- ester yarns ‘such as are cur
i
A still more speci?co‘bjecto‘fj the invention is to provide
rently being usedi‘in the :k‘nittingindustryc vIt is not intend
a novel form of fabric structure "of ‘the interlock ribbed
type.
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ed ‘to limit this invention tov these ‘types of ‘yarns since
any ‘stretchable or llively ‘yarn ‘whether of the crimp or.
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Other objects of the invention are to ‘provide various
methods ‘of knitting these fabrics.
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twisted type ‘is suitable.
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' It 'is preferred to limit ‘the fabric of this invention on
,As the disclosure vproceeds, many‘other “and additional
an- interlock type of circular knitting machine, although
‘its-use is lnot‘essential to the attainment‘of these objects.
It is also possible to ‘uses spring “needle machine having
detailed objects and advantages of the invention ‘both as
to product and method will ‘become apparent to those
skilled in the art.
7
‘ In the accompanying drawings,
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one or two sets ‘of needles'such as a Wildman, Tompkins
or Cooper machine, ‘circular machines generally, 'tricot
,
lF-IGURE l‘is an-enlargedxsomewhat diagrammatic view
milanese and ‘Simplex, Raschel ‘or 'Cidega types of warp
knitting :machines, or ‘flat bar knitting machines of the
of a piece of interlock double ribbed fabric illustrating the
line of demarcation ‘between two ‘fabric sections, and the
Cotton, Lamb ‘or Dubied types.
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method‘ of weakening ‘the fabric along these lines;
~ The invention 'will be described in more detailas applied
FIGURE '2’ is a top plan “edge ‘View’, in diagrammatic 40 to thelrknitting of the fabrics of this invention on an in
form of the structure of ‘the ‘fabr‘icof‘F-IGURE 1;
terlockvtype ‘of circular knitting machine.
FIGURE 3 illustrates diagrammaticallyhow the fabric . .
a "In order to‘produce the weakened lines'of demarcation
of this invention can be knit .in tubular-form witha plural
in the tubular fabric being knit on such machines, to pro
ity of‘ de?ning weakness lines to provide a number» of .
vide a plurality 1of de?ned fabric strips, certain knitting
strips of diiferent' widthswhen the fabric is separated
needles are left out of action preferably from the cylinder
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along these de?ning lines; and
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in the case ‘of a circular machine and ‘the front bed of a ‘
1 FIGURE 4 is an enlarged fview 10f the latch needle
warp ilmitting machine ‘to produce longitudinal marker
modi?ed for use in the knitting ‘process of ‘this invention
for the purpose of forming lines ofw'eakness in the fabric.
lines ‘in the fabric._ The ‘same result’v can be obtained
on other‘ types of machines. In the case .of machines
The following disclosure will make frequent'referen'ce
having two "banks 'of needles as the interlock type of cir
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to the utility of the subject matter of this invention as
cular 4% machine, for'example, in addition to removing
applied rto-‘surgic‘a'l bandages, but ‘those skilled in' the art
from the cylinder selected needles, the associated dial
will understand that ‘the principles of \this invention ‘are
notlirnited to ‘the production'of this vparticular product. ,
needles .aremodi?ed'so'as‘to ‘provide ‘a cutting or severing
action on the needle loops formed thereon ‘to actually
However, the ‘advantages of the invention have special
sever these loops. ' There ‘results, along the wale contain
application to the production of surgical bandages, which 55 i-ng the ‘severed loops of the dial needle and opposite this ’
explains their emphasis.
in'ith‘e fabric, a'single wale ofyarn' ?oats at ‘the cylinder
Stretch fabrics are ‘desirable ‘and Widely used vfor ‘band
needle, thereby providing, at regular intervals, 'in a round
ages and have in the past generally been made-of woven
tube, depending upon the needle selected, lines of demarca~
‘material. The common practice has been :to weave them
of highly twisted cotton ‘yarns ‘alone or in combination
tion and weakness.‘ "When'the tube is severed into a series
of strips along these ‘lines, there is produced a plurality
of non-selvage strips suitable for many uses, ‘including use
with covered rubber yarns, so as to achieve some degree
of elasticity and extensibility. One of the important dis
advantages ‘of woven fabric surgical bandages is found in
the fact that ‘they have iuseful :stretch'ability lengthwise
as surgical'bandages.
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However, during the knitting it is clear that the fabric
being
constructed remains in the form being knitted
only and have substantially no widthwise stretch. Obvi 65 which can be subjected to the necessary further processing
ous‘ly a surgical bandage would ?t the'various body con- _
tours and protuber'ances and [apply the vrequired pressure
more uniformly if it were capable of stretching ‘widthwise
as well as lengthwise.
‘
V In accordance ~with this invention it is ‘possible to knit
surgical bandage ‘strips with varying degrees of elasticity .
including shrinking, dyeing, ?nishing, etc.
By using thermo-‘plastic yarns which ‘have been or can
be beat set,‘ shrinkage accomplished ‘by de?nite further
70 processing causes the ?bers or yarns which have been cut
during the knitting to shrink back ‘to adjacent wale loops
and form a kind-of anchor to ,prevent ravelling of the
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strips along their cut edges when later cut into strips.
The uncut or ?oated yarns when severed to form the strips
also shrink back into a locking association with the adja
cent wales, so that ragged, ravelled, non-selvage edges do
not result.
One example of the method and the resulting product of
producing this invention will be given in connection with
a Scott & Williams interlock machine having a 26" cyl
inder. It is desired, of course, to knit the strips with a
minimunnor if possible complete absence of waste. On a
26” cylinder machine having 1960 needles in the cylinder
the operation can be set up to produce 8 strips of 3" wide
formed alternatingly of the black yarn and the White yarn
in each wale and in each course. A similar sequence is
in effect in the other face, the back of the fabric as shown
in FIGURE 1.
>
The result is that this two-ply fabric is provided at each
cylinder needle position where the needle is out of opera
tion with a partially weakened wale forming a visual line of
demarcation between adjacent strips on each side thereof
without completely severing the fabric so that it can be
shrunk, dyed and otherwise processed as a single piece
of material ‘and in the form of a tube. Under my inven
tion, when producing it upon the interlock type of circular
machine, series of ?oats are in one face of the fabric and
bandage and 8 strips of 4" wide bandage Without any
they span the space of one or more needles which were
waste. In order to do this, as diagrammatically illustrated
in FIGURE 3, the needle bank is subdivided into sections 15 left out to serve as markers or valleys for subsequent fold
ing or cutting, while in the opposite face there are produced
so to speak by removing certain of the needles from the
certain wales, directly opposite these ?oats, in which the
cylinder. For a machine of the size assumed and the
yarn is partly or wholly severed as shown in FIGURE 1.
number of strips of the width de?ned, it is apparent ?rst
Upon completion of the processing of the fabric, the
that there will be available 106 needles for each 3" width
of strip and 139 needles for each 4" strip. In each of the 20 floats 22, 24 along the weakened wale loops 20—21 are
cut to subdivide the knitted fabric into the strips referred
smaller groups, of which there are 8, the 106th needle will
to above. Those skilled in the art will appreciate from
be removed and in each of the larger groups the 139th
the above that the tube can be subdivided into strips of
needle will be removed. These assumptions are diagram
other widths with little or no waste by the proper selection
matically illustrated in FIGURE 3.
With this arrangement of needle groups the folds of the 25 of the cylinder needles which are taken out of operation
and the association therewith in the dial of modi?ed cut
fabric as it runs through the take-up device, will occur at
ting needles to perform the functions described above. In
the positions indicated by the double headed arrow in
other words, the spacing between the lines of weakness
FIGURE 3. As shown, there will be a set of four 3"
and visual demarcation can be varied as conditions require
strips at the top and a set of four 3'.’ strips at the bottom.
to provide different strip widths.
Also, there will be a set of 4" strips at the left side and a
In the making of stretchable strips for other uses, as
set of 4" strips at the right side. Thus, with this needle
for example garment waistbands and cuff sections, the
bank it is possible to subdivide the two folds into 16 strips,
cylinder needles put out of operation are selected so as to
8 of which are 3" wide and 8 of which are 4" wide, avoid
?oat
the stitches at the fold-over line without employing
ing any waste.
cutting needles at that point, but with the cutting needles
In a similar way each dial needle opposite the cylinder
needle which has been put out of operation is constructed
to sever the loop which is formed thereon. A needle
suitable for this purpose is illustrated in FIGURE 4. The
needle is provided with the usual shank 26, hook 28, latch
spaced two strip markers apart. In other words, at the
fold-over line the dial cutting needle is not used, but at
the adjacent position on each side where the cylinder
needle is put out ofoperation, the cutting needles are pro
30, pivotally mounted at 32 in the cheeks 34 formed on 40 vided.
FIGURE 2 is a diagrammatic edge plan view of the
the shank. I In other words, except for the forward posi
fabric of FIGURE 1 and illustrates further the relation
tion of the hook, this is the usual latch needle for a ma
chine of this kind. However, in accordance with this
invention it is modi?ed so as to provide a sharpened edge
at 36 on the needle body and hook, and a sharpened edge
38 on the latch, which cutting edges act during loop for
mation and pull down to weaken and ?nally sever that
particular loop.
These operations will be better understood by reference
to FIGURES l and 2.
A piece 10 of interlock double-rib
type fabric, made in accordance with this invention, is
illustrated in FIGURE 1. .The white yarn 12 is knitted
to provide a course which comprises loops formed succes~
sively upon alternating cylinder and dial needles, and
more speci?cally upon every other needle, say the odd
numbered or short needles of each bank of needles, cyl—
inder and dial.
_
ship of the loops formed by the two yarns for an interlock
type of double-rib fabric, modi?ed as described above to
cut loops and ?oat yarn along designated wales to sub
divide the fabric piece into identi?able strips of the desired
width.
FIGURE 2 shows the edge plan view of the fabric of
FIGURE 1, where the yarn ?oats of one face of the fabric
extend across one needle space only. In some cases and
‘for certain end uses of the product of this invention, it may
be desirable to have the yarn ?oats traverse, say, 2-needle
or 3-needle spaces, and also not to have the loops of the
opposite wale cut or severed.
At this point it may be noted that it is within the contem
plation of this invention to use various other forms of cut
ting instrumentalities as a substitute for the structure
shown in FIGURE 4, and including sharpened sinkers or
Similarly, the black yarn 14 is knitted to provide a
knock-over bits which in some types of machines can per
course of loops formed successively upon alternating cyl
inder and dial needles, and more speci?cally upon every 60 form the severing function in the same way.
The fabric of this invention, of course, is not limited to
other needle, say the even-numbered or long needles of
production on circular knitting machines, or even double
each bank of needles, cylinder and dial.
’
rib interlock machines, but can be made on any other
The same procedure was followed in the case of the
types including ?at bed machines having single or double
two preceding courses knitted of the yarns 16 and 18, as
shown in FIG. 1. As is well understood by those skilled 65 banks of needles.
It is also possible to produce the product of this inven
in this art, the preceding courses of the fabric were simi
tion on small diameter circular knitting machines of
larly knit of other pairs of yarns, all in accordance with
single-head or multi-head types in de?nite tubular sizes
the normal procedure in knitting interlocked double-ribbed
fabrics, see for example the Scott Patent No. 899,439,
issued September 22, 1908.
Thus, as indicated above and as disclosed in the Scott
patent, the fabric of FIGS. 1 and 2 is knit of two groups
of yarns. ~
to reduce the number of cutting operations in the small
size strips for bandages and other uses. Even in the case
of warp knitting machines as the Raschel, tricot, Simplex,
milanese Cidega, and by use of two warps, an end of the
front warp or top warp as the case may be, can be laid
into a cutting needle in its proper place in the machine to
Thus, the wales and courses comprising one face, say the
front of the fabric shown in FIGURE 1, consist of loops 75 effect a cut loop wale, while the second or back warp will
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3,040,551
5
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be floated across‘the cut loop Wale. Any of these pro
cedures producesthe effect and structure ‘disclosed herein
a plurality of connected strips divided by walewise lines
of weakness, ‘said strips being connected at said walewise
as fully as in the case of the interlock fabric.
The fabric can also be made on a single bed ?at machine
lines by yarn ?oats only.‘
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5. A method of knitting a fabric of two groups of
such as the Cotton type machine. In this machine the
fabric of my invention can be produced in several“ ways.
yarns including the steps of severing loops of yarn of
one group along a plurality of spaced wales and ?oating
For example, by knitting into the fabric two yarns instead
yarn of the other group across said wales to form visible
of one into those loops which form the strips, and knitting
strips.
in one yarn instead of two into those loops which serve to
6. A method of forming a plurality of strip de?ning
unite the strip portions of the fabric until it is-siibsequently 10 lines in an interlock fabric knitted of two groups of
cut into narrower strips. One way of doing this is by plat
yarns, comprising severing loops of yarn of one group
ing a second series of yarns and traversing the carriers " along a plurality of spaced wales and simultaneously ?oat
containing these yarns over the needles of predetermined
strip widths, while at the same time a second carrier con
ing yarn of the other group across said spaced wales.
7. A knitted fabric comprising a series of connected
taining another separate yarn traverses the full needle-bar 15 strips each comprising two groups of stretch yarn loops
width to form that single yarn thickness between the
in each course, said strips being connected by narrow
strips, either being knitted or ?oated, and becoming the
walewise lines consisting of yarns of one of said groups.
marker or valley lines of the subsequent fabric cutting
‘ 8. A knitted fabric comprised of two groups of stretch
operation. Another way of accomplishing my invention ,
yarns having knitted-in vertical lines of demarcation form
on the, Cotton-type machine is to run one yarn as a main 20
ed by yarn ?oats to form visible strips of de?nite widths,
yarn and a second yarn as a plating yarn across the full
said strips being substantially non-ravelling at their side
needleabar width, and having the plating yarn laid into
edges when the fabric is out along said lines of demarca- _
a second position in the throat of the plating sinker placed
tion to provide said strips.
at the strip marker needles, said throat being so arranged
9. In the combination of claim 8, said fabric being rib
to cut all or part of the plating yarn at this particular place 25 knit.
in the fabric. By these methods I achieve a strip-marker
10. In the combination of claim 8, said fabric being
valley or cutting operation ‘demarcation and/or a partial
double rib-knit.
severing of the yarn ends, which in turn produce one or
11. In the combination of claim 8, said fabric having
more locked selvage, semi-selvage and unselvage edges.
a double-rib interlock structure.
Still another method would be by overlapping the trav
12. In the combination of claim
erse for, say two needles, of two or more twin-tube yarn
8, said fabric being
?at-knit.
carriers, with the yarn tubes spaced, for example, four
needles apart.
13. In the combination of claim 8, the yarn of one
group in said lines of demarcation being cut.
In the case of other spring- or latch-needle machines
using one set of needles, the fabric of my invention can 35 '14. In the combination of claim 8, the yarn of one
group in said lines of demarcation being cut, said cuts
be produced by the techniques of ?oat stitches, special
and ?oats occurring in the same course.
sinkers, or both in the strip-marker areas, as will be
evident to anyone skilled in the art.
It is believed that in ‘view of the above detailed dis
closure those skilled in the art will appreciate the ?exi
bility of the method herein disclosed and the applica
bility thereof to the production. of knitted fabric of vari
ous kinds and on many types of machines. It is preferred,
References Cited in the file of this patent
40-
by the appended claims.
UNITED STATES PATENTS
'
575,012
1,120,989
therefore, that the scope of this patent be determined not
by the examples given herein by way of illustration, but
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45
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1,552,483
2,127,139
Sturgess ______________ .. Jan. 12,
Williams ____________ __ Dec. 15,
Hinohliif _____________ __ Sept. 8,
Reynolds et a1. _______ __ Aug. 16,
1897
1914
1925
1938
2,184,088
Weinberg ______ _‘_ ____ __ Dec. 19, 1939
2,203,948
Dupuis ______________ __' June 11, 1940
What is claimed is:
1. A knitted interlock fabric subdivided into a plurality
2,421,357
Saftlas ______________ __ May 27, 1947
of strips by spaced wales composed of cut loops and
72,433,279
Johnson _____,________ __ Dec. 23, 1947
heats.
2. A double rib knitted fabric having a plurality of
2,466,536
Cooper et a1 ___________ __ Apr. 5, 1949
, 2,560,872
Pares et al ____________ __ July 17, 1951
spaced visible walewise lines composed of cut loops and
2,564,245
Billion ______________ __ Aug. 14, 1951
524,698
Great Britain .,.7 ______ _.. Aug. 13, 1940
?oats.
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3. The fabric of claim 2 being knit of stretch yarn.
4. A twp-way stretch interlock knit fabric consisting of
FOREIGN
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PATENTS
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