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Патент USA US3040655

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June 26, 1962
c. F. JUENG ET AL
3,040,646
ROOF’ VENTILATOR
Filed March 11, 1959
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
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NATURAL
AIR CURRENT
INVENTORS
CARL F. JUENG
WILLIAM A. MILLER
EVA/M7 6441
ATTORNEY
June 26, 1962
c, F. JUENG ET AL
3,040,646
ROOF VENTILATOR
Filed March 11 ,
1959
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
76
DD
F/G 5
F/6T6
JNVENTORS
CARL F. JUENG
BY WILLIAM A. MILLER
United States Parent
l‘
3,ll40,646>
ice
Patented June 26, 1952
1
2
3,040,646
wardly through the most acute frusta which can be con
Carl F. Jueng and William A. Miller, Pittsburgh, Pa,
assignors to H. H. Robertson Company, Pittsburgh, Pa.
Filed Mar. 11, 1959, Ser. No. 798,654
6 Claims. (Cl. 98-43)
The inventionv will be described in detail by reference‘
to the accompanying drawings in which:
structed as described.
ROOF VENTHATOR
This invention relates to a roof ventilator and more
I
FIGURE 1 is a cross-section view of the roof venti-‘
lator of this invention in its preferred embodiment;
FIGURE 2 is a plan view taken along the line 2.—2
showing a roof opening suitable for the installation of
the present roof ventilator;
particularly to a roof ventilator which can operate effi
ciently either under natural draft or by forced arr flow.
FIGURE 3 is a fragmentary illustration in cross-sec
Roof ventilators are employed for exhausting gases and 10 tion of the upper lip of the outer shell showing graphically
fumes from buildings through openings in the roof. Most
a Wind-skip feature;
of the forced air ?ow roof ventilators currently in use em
FIGURE 4 is a cross-section view of an alternative em
ploy propeller-type fans which are noisy in operation.
bodiment of the present ventilator; and
The noise factor can be offset by the use of less noisy
FIGURES 5 and 6 are schematic illustrations of alter
15
centrifugal fans. Hitherto, however, roof ventilators
native means for installing the present ventilators in build
using the less noisy centrifugal fans have discharged ex
haust gases downwardly against the surrounding roof
rngs.
surface, thereby creating undesirable turbulence which
is indicated by the numeral 10. ,The roof 10 is con
Referring ot the drawings, a generally-horizontal roof
creates a back-pressure against the fan and agitates ac
structed of structural elements 11 which may include con- .
cumulations of foreign material on the roof surface. 20 crete, metal beams, lumber or similar materials of con
Where the exhaust gases are of a corrosive nature or in a
heated condition, their downward discharge tends to cause
deterioration of the roof surface in the area immediately
struction. An opening 12 usually of rectangular con?gu
ration, is provided in the roof 10. The opening 12 is sur
rounded by curbing 13 which extends slightly above the
‘adjacent to the ventilator. Those downwardly discharg 25 upper level of the roof 10. A weatherproof coating or
ing ventilators, moreover, do not provide for ventilating
surface 14 is provided above the structural elements 11 to
action by natural draft.
serve a Weatherproof skin over the exposed surface of the
The principal object of this invention is to provide a
building. The coating may comprise tile, cement, bi
roof ventilator which will operate e?‘iciently as a forced
tuminous materials, asbestos materials, and the like. The
air ventilator by means of a centrifugal fan or under
30 opening 12 communicates \with the interior portions of
natural draft wherein the exhaust gases are directed ver~
the building from which gases and fumes are to be ex
tically upwardly.
’
A further’ object of this invention is to provide a
weather-proof roof ventilator having a centrifugal fan for
exhausting gases in an upward direction.
Another object of this invention is to provide a roof
ventilator which will not admit precipitation or foreign
materials from the atmosphere into the interior of the
hausted. A tapered curb covering 15 or transition piece
is provided having a base which is adapted to ?t over the
curbing l3, and an upwardly tapered central portion termi
nating in a generally horizontal lip 16, preferably of cir
cular con?guration, serving as a gas ori?ce.
Vertical support elements 17 extend upwardly from the
tapered curb covering 15 at points spaced equidistant from
building through the ventilator aperture regardless of
the vertical axis thereof. The vertical supports 17 may
whether the ventilator is operating under forced draft, 40 be secured ‘to the tapered curb covering 15 by any suit
under natural draft or is out of service.
Another object of this invention is to provide a roof
able means such as welding, bolting, and the like.
A
horizontal plate 18 of circular con?guration is secured to
the vertical supports 17 by means of bolting or welding
(not shown). A central opening 2b is provided in the
ventilator which is relatively inexpensive to construct and
install.
A still further object of this’ invention is to provide a 45 horizontal'plate 18 to receive a rotatable shaft 21 as will
roof ventilator which can be readily dismantled in whole
be hereinafter described.
,
or in part for service and maintenance.
A dome 22 of circular cross-section has an outer cir
According to the present invention, a ventilator open
cular rim 23‘ which is adapted to be secured to the circu
ing, surrounded by a curb which rises above the level of
lar- outer edge of the horizontal plate 18.
Y
the immediately adjacent roof surface, is covered with a 50
A centrally ?ared shell 24 is provided, preferably hav~
tapered curb covering or transition piece which rises as
ing a circular cross-section, and having an upper lip 25, a
a ?ueto terminate in a generally horizontal gas ori?ce
wider central portion 26 and a narrower lower lip 27.
through which gases may leave the interior of the build
Means are provided adjacent to the lower lip 27 for secur
ing. A centrifugal fan is mounted above the generally
ing the centrally‘?ared shell 24 to the vertical supports 17,
horizontal gas ori?ce and is adapted to rotate about a 55 for example, bolts 28. Additional brackets 29 may be
vertical axis to receive gases from the gas ori?ce and to
provided which extend from the horizontal plate 18 to
discharge them tangentially. A shell is provided to divert
the Wider central portion 26 of the centrally ?ared shell 25
the tangentially moving gases into an upwardly ?owing
to increase structural rigidity.
stream. Drive means for the centrifugal fan are mounted
The centrally ?ared shell 24 may be constructed of
above the fan in a chamber formed by a dome shaped
metal, such as spun aluminum or sheet steel, or may be
cover which has an outer rim centrally positioned above
constructed of suitable weather-resistant plastic materials.
the opening at the portion of the shell having the great
The lower lip 27 is spaced above the outer edges of the
est cross-section area, i.e., the central portion of the shell.
tapered curb covering 15 which are outside the lip 16, but
The lower lip of the shell is positioned beneath the gen
below the level of the lip 16. The wider central portion
erally horizontal gas ori?ce yet above and spaced apart
of the centrally ?ared shell 24 is positioned substantially
from the outer edges of the curb covering. In the de 65 26
at
the level of the horizontal plate 18. The upper lipv
scribed structure, it is possible to de?ne a family of solid
25 of the centrally ?ared shell 24 has an inner diameter
geometrical frusta having as one base the upper lip of
greater than that of the outer rim 23 of the dome 22.,
said shell and having as the other parallel base an imagi»
This
design feature permits removal of the dome 22 with
nary surface extending through the blades of the said
centrifugal fan. It is a feature of this invention that 7 O out requiring dismantling of the centrally ?ared outer shell
24.
the outer rim of the dome-shaped cover must extend out
“
A?ixed to a centrally positioned, vertical, rotatable shaft
3,040,646
21 extending through ‘the. opening 2i), is a Centrifugal fan
30 which is horizontally rotatable below the horizontal
plate 18and above the generally horizontal opening which
isthe gas ori?ce de?ned by the lip, 16. The blades of the
centrifugal fan 36 are radially spaced from the lip 16
and are adapted to rotate coaxially about the axis thereof.
The horizontalplate 1S and the dome 22 de?ne a cham
ber 31 in which the drive means for the centrifugal fan
30 can be mounted and protected from exposure to the
the level of the wider central portion 26 of the centrally
?ared shell 24, a channel of gradually increasing cross
sectional area is provided for the’ exhaust of gases and
fumes whereby substantially all of the vented gases and
fumes are discharged upwardly between the dome 22
and the centrally ?ared shell 24.
If desired, the vertical supports 17 may be extended
upwardly above the level of the horizontal plate 18 into
the chamber 31. The dome 22- may be fastened to up
' atmospheric elements and the e?aust gases. An electric 10 wardly extending vertical supports of this type.
motor 32 having a shaft 33. and a pulley 34. mounted
thereon is secured within the chamber 31. A rotatablev
One or more of the vertical supports 17 may consist
of a hollow tube which communicates at its upper end
with the chamber 31 and which communicates at its lower
shaft 21 is vertically mounted between pillow blocks 35.
end with a source of cooling ?uids such as fresh air. The
The upper end of the rotatable shaft 21 is provided with
a pulley 36 which may be operatively connected with‘the 15 hollow tube thus'provides a conduit for cooling ?uids to
circulate through the chamber 31 to effect cooling of the
pulley 34 by means of a driving belt 37. The lower end
‘ motor 32.
of the rotatable shaft 31 extends through the axial open
The construction of the present ventilator permits venti
ing 20- and is secured to the centrifugal fan 3%‘.
lating action under natural draft during those periods
'From the foregoing'description of the construction of
the centrally ?ared shell 24 it will be apparent that va fam 20 when the centrifugal fan 30 is not operating. As already
mentioned, the structure is weather-proof and prevents
ily of solid geometrical frusta can be constructed having
as one base thereof the upper lip 25 and having as the
entry of atmosphericforeign substances into the building.
parallel base thereof any horizontal plane extending
through the blades of the centrifugal fan 3%. The most
The natural air currents which move across the top of the ,
lip 25to'the outermost and lowermost tip of the blades
of the centrifugal fan 30. It will be noted from inspection
of FIGURE 1 that the rim23 of the dome 22 is. positioned
to the left of the. line. X—X, that is, the rim 23 extends 30
bine fan is not operating. The temperature differential
existing between the interior of the building and the at
ventilator structure may create a natural draft tending to
acute frustum which can be constructed is indicated by 25 withdraw gases from the building interior for vertically
upward removal through the ventilator even when the tur
the'line X—X of FIGURE 1, extending from the upper
outside the most acute frustum described.
7
mosphere may create a tendency for more interior gases
to rise through the ventilator for vertically upward dis
charge. Differentials between the. interior barometric
pressure of the building and the atmospheric pressure.
This feature prevents the entry of precipitation or for
above the ventilator also may create a positive gas-exhaust
eign materials fromv the atmosphere into the interior of
tendency. Two or more of‘ these. phenomena may com
the building. Any drops of precipitation, for example,
.
‘falling in'the area of the ventilator, must strike either the 35 bine to create the natural draft action.
outer surface of the dome 22 or the inner surface of the
centrally ?ared shell 24. The drops of precipitation ad
here to the surfaces and ?ow downwardly. Those ?ow
ing along the inner surface of the centrally ?ared shell
2.4 drop beneath the lower lip 27. Moisture flowing down 40
wardly over the dome 22 drops from the outer rim 23
thereof onto the lower portion of the ‘inner surface of
the centrally ?ared shell 24 and flows downwardly beneath
the lower lip 27. Since the lower lip 27 is spaced above
the upper surface of the tapered curb covering 15, as ear
lier described, the accumulated moisture ?owsroutwardly
onto the-upper surface 14 of the roof 10 for disposal along
with. other roof accumulated precipitation. ‘Since the lip
' 16 of the tapered curb covering 15 is positioned above the
lower lip 27, any'foreign matter, thus channeled, is pre
vented from entering the interior of the building through
the opening 12. This described weatherproof feature ex
ists regardless of whether the centrifugal fan 30 is operat
The natural draft action of'horizontally moving air
currents may be magni?ed by providing a radially out
wardly ?anged wind-skip 38 at the upper lip 25- of the.
centrally ?ared shell 24, as shown in FIGURE 1 and as
clearly illustrated by means of arrows indicating natural
air. currents in FIGURE 3. The natural air current is
caused to jump above the ventilator shell 24 by means of
the wind-skip 38 to create by turbulent flow a vortex of
reduced pressure above the’ ventilator.
The preferred embodiment of the present invention
already described by reference to FIGURE 1 incorporates
in therouter shell 24 an outwardly ?ared central portion
26 having the greatest innerdiameter'thereof. For facil
ity in transportation. of component elements, it may be
desirable to employ anrouter shell having substantially
straight sidewalls. An» alternative embodiment‘ of‘ this
construction is illustrated in FIGURE 4 which may il
lustrates several other’ alternative constructional details
which will be described.
>
'
ing or not. Frequently adequate ventilation may be pro
vided for a building with the present invention from a
natural draft which will be hereinafter described.
ing 52. A tapered curb covering 53 or transition piece
Operation
for the upward exhaust of gases from‘ the building in‘
_ A roof 50 has a ventilator curb 51 de?ning an‘open
terminates in an upper lip 54 which serves as a gas ori?ce,
terror. Vertical support members 55 are securely fastened
air ventilator, the motor 32 is energized to rotate the 60 with respect to the building below the upper lip 54 by
means of bolts 56 or other'suitable means. A cylindrical
shaft 33 and the pulley 34. The rotary motion is trans
outer shell 57 is secured above the roof 50, preferably
ferred by means of the drive belt 37 to the pulley i‘s?lthe
to the vertical support members 55. The cylindrical
vertical shaft 21 and the centrifugal fan 30. Rotation of
’ In operation of the present roof ventilator, as a forced
shell 57 has an upper lip 58, a lower lip 59 and'has its
the centrifugal fan‘ 39 causes gases and fumes to enter
the central portion thereof through the opening 12 and 65 widest inner diameter in the central portion 60. The
1111161" diameter of the outer shell 57in its central portion
the tapered flue covering 15 and the gas passageway de
60 is the uniform wide diameter of the straight walls
?ned by. the lip 16' as indicated by the arrows A. The
rotatingcentrifugal fan 30 directs the gases and fumes
thereof.
a
>
‘
A horizontal plate 61 is, secured to the vertical sup
?ared shell 24 at its central portion 26 as indicated by 70 port members 55 vsuitably by welding or bolting. A
radially outwardly against the inner wall of the centrally
the '1 arrows B;
The gases and fumes are directed up
wardly between the dome 22 and the upper lip 25 for
discharge into the atmosphere as indicated by the ar
rows C.
'
By providing the rim 23 of'the dome 22 at substantially 75
dome shaped cover 62 having an outer rim. 63 is secured
above the horizontal plate 61 to de?ne a chamber’ 64
for con?ning drive ‘means 65 from which a rotatable shaft
“extends through the horizontal plate 61 to a centrifugal
fan 67.
'
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3,040,646
5
5
In all other respects, the embodiment illustrated in FIG
URE 4 corresponds to the preferred embodiment. Note
the line X—-X of FIGURE 4 which indicates the most
acute frustum which can be formed through the upper
lip 58 and the blades of the centrifugal fan 67. The outer
cular lower lip being disposed about said transition piece
rim 63 of the dome shaped cover 62 must extend out
side the indicated frustum as before.
FIGURE 5 illustrates schematically onemeans where
support elements in the‘ region of said wider central por
tion, a centrifugal fan having vertical fan blades, said
70 having sidewalls 71 and a sloping roof 72 has a
nularly of said gas ori?ce above a horizontal plane de-'
ventilator curb 73 extending vertically upwardly from an
opening in the sloping roof 72. The ventilator curb 73
terminates in a generally horizontal opening at its up
per end which extends above the upper surface of the 15
?ned by said lower lip and below a horizontal plane
through said central portion, drive means for‘rotating
said vertical shaft mounted above said horizontal plate,
such that the said lower lip- is secured to said support
elements at points which are below and outwardly sep
arated from said- gas ori?ce but above the outer edges
of said transition piece, ahorizontal plate secured to said
fan being mounted above said gas ori?ce for rotation
on a vertical shaft extending through said horizontal
by the ventilator of the present invention may be in
stalled in a building having a sloping roof. A building 10 plate, said blades radiating outwardly above and an
roof 72 which is adjacent to the ventilator curb‘ 73. A
ventilator 74 according to this invention can be mounted
above the open upper end of the curb 73 in the man
ner described in relation to FIGURE 1.
In some instances, especially where heated or noxious
gases are being exhausted, it may be desirable to dis
charge such gases from a level substantially above the
building wherein the gases are generated. As shown in
FIGURE 6, such a building 75 may have a stack 76
which is the equivalent of the ventilator curbs already
described. A ventilator 77 according to this invention
may be installed above the open upper end of the stack
76.
And now according to the provisions of the patent stat
utes, we have explained the principle, preferred construc
tion and mode of operation of our invention and have il
lustrated and described what we now consider to rep
resent its best embodiment. However, we desire to have
a dome-shaped cover for said drive means disposed
above said gas ori?ce and having an outer circular rim
contiguous with said horizontal plate whereby said dome
shaped cover and said horizontal plate de?ne a chamber
for said drive means, said outer circular rim being po
sitioned substantially at the level of said central portion
of said shell, and being of lesser diameter than said
upper lip and extending outside the most acute frustum
which can be de?ned by said upper lip and the blades
of said fan, said outer circular rim being inwardly spaced
from said shell whereby an annular gas ?ow passage
way is provided between said outer circular rim and said
shell.
3. The ventilator of claim 2 whereinthe top of said
dome-shaped cover extends in part above aplane de
30 ?ned by the upper lip of said centrally ?ared shell.
4. The ventilator of claim 2 having structural sup
port brackets extending radially outwardly from said
horizontal plate to the central portion of said centrally
?ared shell.
it understood that within the scope of the appended
claims, the invention may be practiced otherwise than as 35 .5. A ventilator adapted to be mounted above a hori
zontal opening in the upper surface of a building and
speci?cally illustrated and described.
communicating with the interior of said building, com
We claim:
,
prising a transition piece extending across said opening
l. A ventilator adapted to be mounted above a hori
and being centrally upwardly tapered to‘ terminate in a
zontal opening in the upper surface of a building and com
municating with the interior of said building, comprising 40 lip de?ning a generally horizontal gas ori?ce, a centrally
?ared shell having a circular upper lip, a central por
a transition piece extending across said opening and be
tion and a narrower circular 'lower lip being disposed
ing centrally upwardly tapered to terminate in a lip de
about said transition piece such that the said lower lip
?ning a generally horizontal gas ori?ce, a centrally ?ared
is below and outwardly separated from said gas ori?ce
shell having a circular upper lip, a central portion and a
narrower circular lower lip being disposed about said 45 but above the outer edges of said transition piece, a
centrifugal fan having vertical blades, said fan being
transition piece such that the said lower lip is below and
mounted above said gas ori?ce for rotation about a ‘
outwardly separated from said gas ori?ce but above the
vertical axis, said blades radiating outwardly above and
outer edges of said transition piece, a centrifugal fan hav
annularly of said gas ori?ce above a horizontal plane
ing vertical blades, said fan being mounted above said
de?ned by said lower lip and below a horizontal plane
gas ori?ce for rotation about a vertical axis, said blades
through said central portion, drive means for rotating
radiating outwardly above and annularly of said gas
said fan, a ‘cover-plate for said centrifugal fan, said
ori?ce above a horizontal plane de?ned by said lower
cover plate having an outer circular rim positioned sub
lip and below a horizontal plane through said central
stantially at the level of said central portion of said shell,
portion, drive means for rotating said fan mounted there
above, a dome-shaped cover for said drive means dis 55 said outer rim being of lesser diameter than said upper
lip and extending outside the most acute frustum which
posed above said gas ori?ce and having an outer circular
can. be de?ned by said upper lip and the blades of said ‘
rim positioned substantially at the level of said central,
fan, said outer circular rim being inwardly spaced from
portion of said shell, said outer rim being of lesser di~
ameter than said upper lip and extending outside the
said shell whereby an annular gas ?ow passageway is
most acute frustum which can be de?ned by said upper 69 provided between said outer circular rim and said shell.
lip and the blades of said fan, said outer circular rim be
6. A ventilator adapted to be mounted above a hori
ing inwardly spaced from said shell whereby an annular
zontal opening in the upper surface of a building and
gas ?ow passageway is provided between said outer cir
communicating with the interior of said building, com
cular rim and said shell.
prising a transition piece extending across said opening
2. A ventilator adapted to be mounted above a hori 65 and being centrally upwardly tapered to terminate in a
zontal open ventilator curb extending vertically from an
‘lip de?ning a generally horizontal gas ori?ce, a shell of
upper surface of a building, comprising a transition piece
circular cross-section having an upper lip, a central por
extending from said open ventilator curb inwardly and
tion and a lower lip, said lower lip being disposed about
upwardly to terminate in a lip de?ning a generally hori 70 said transition piece such that the said lower lip is below
zontal gas ori?ce, a plurality of support- elements ex
and outwardly separated from said gas ori?ce, a cen~
tending upwardly from points located outwardly from
trifugal fan having vertical blades, said fan being mount
said gas ori?ce and extending thereabove, a centrally
?ared shell of circular cross-section having a circular
axis, said blades radiating outwardly above and annularly
upper lip, a wider central portion and a narrower cir
ed above said gas ori?ce for rotation about a vertical
75 of said gas ori?ce above a horizontal plane de?ned by
3,040,646 '
said lower lip and below a horizontal plane extending
through said central portion, drive means for rotating"
‘said centrifugal fan, a cover plate for said centrifugal
fan, said cover plate having an outer circular rim posi
tioned substantially at the level of said central portion 5
of said shell, said outer rim being of lesser diameter than
said upper lip and extending outside the most acute frus
trum which can be de?ned by said upper lip and the
blades of said fan, said outer circular rim ‘being inwardly
spaced from said shell whereby an annular gas passage 10
way is provided between said outer circular rim and said
shell.
‘
1 References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
2,469,820
Fuge ___.._.'_ __________ __ May 10, 1949
2,526,290’
Solzman ____________ __ Oct. 17, 1950
2,548,607
2,668,491
2,784,661
2,805,615
Jenn ________________ __ Apr. 10, 1951
Gerlitz ____ .._' ________ __ Feb. 9, 1954
2,823,598,
Jenn ________________ __ Mar. 12, 1957
Rudy ________________ __ Sept. 10, 1957
Jenn ________________ __ Feb. 18, 1.958
911,538
Germany ____________ __ May 17, 1954
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