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Патент USA US3040856

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June 26, 1962
N. R. ABBERLY
3,040,846
BUILT-UP HOLLOW FIELD-WELDABLE STRUCTURAL STEEL LENGTH
Filed Sept. 12, 1960
INVENTDR
United States Patent G "
1
2
3,040,846
type, one or more cores can so serve at the junctures be
BUILT-UP HOLLOW FIELD-WELDABLE
_
3,040,846
Patented June 26, 1962
STRUCTURAL STEEL LENGTH
Nicholas Rippen Abberly, 4018 Worth St., Dallas 10, Tex.
Filed Sept. 12, 1960, Ser. No. 55,501
8 Claims. (Cl. 189-24)
tween successive sections of poles too high to be integral.
To describe the invention in a few Words, the invention
incorporating structural hollow built-up steel length in
cludes at least one ?rst length-long integral member. It
may be either an outside or ‘an inside one.
Additionally
included is a least one elongated integral other member,‘
This invention relates to steel lengths that contributorily
which too may be an inside or an outside one, depending
constitute all types and sizes of structures, both earth
on which the ?rst member is, and it too may be a length?
anchored and movable, particularly the skeletons of tier 10
long one or an abbreviated one. The outside member
structures, as well as relating to lengths that do not form
is
of a relatively soft steel and is transversely tensionally
a part of an inclusive structure, namely, poles. Excepting
stressed
in its coring girthing state. The shielding girths
where quali?ed, the comprehensive expression, general
the coring in such a relation thereto that they adjoin one
lengths, including therefore poles as well, has been adopted
another transversely discontinuously. By this is meant
herein.
15 there is a plurality of transversely successive mutually sep—
The application of the invention is limited to lengths de
arated airspaces and, alternating with them, a plurality of
signed for ai‘?xment in the ?eld by welding; ?eld welding
transversely successive mutually separated pairs of con
is of course not associable with full heat-treatment, for
tact-zone portions, the two in each pair being integral
which a furnace large enough to house the inclusive struc
respective portions of the coring and the shielding. In
ture is used.
'
20 each contact zone, the two in each pair pressurally engage
A salient ultimate aim consists in providing general
one another at their mutually faying surfaces with the
lengths, respecting every contemplated ratio of length to
maximally extensive areas possible in order to minimize
weight or transverse dimensions, or of Weight thereto,
the ratio of unit pressure value to unit area value, so that
with a structure-derived degree of strength that exceeds
shielding and coring of extreme contrast between their
that attained in all comparable other general lengths. 25 respective
hardnesses can, if desired, be incorporated into
The expression, structure-derived, refers to the fact that,
the length. Generally, the shielding will be also more
so far as concerns invention aspects, the augmentation in
machinable and more ?eld-weldable than the coring.
strength derives ‘from geometric and a?ixing and not from
Said air spaces serve to bar the transmission of most of
metallurgic innovations.
the welding heat (which is applied in the ?eld to the shield
The salient possibilitating aim consists in providing, as 30 ing) to the coring. What welding heat does reach the
part of each general length, an outside member or mem
coring is of an amount insufficient to deleteriously alter
bers, termed, shielding, constituted of relatively soft metal
the grain structure of and thereby weaken or embrittle the
and which is at least limitedly ?eld-weldable, and an in
coring. The described relation facilitates the fabrication
side member or members, termed, coring, of relatively
of
steel lengths that, notwithstanding ?eld-weldability,
hard metal, there being between the shielding and the cor
particularly when both the shielding and the coring are
ing, airspaces designed to obstruct the passage of outside
length-long, are stronger than any comparable, equally
welding heat from the shielding to the coring in an amount
?eld-weldable steel lengths ever made, by virtue of the
su?‘icient to damage the latter.
fact that the major strength member, the coring, can be
The term, coring, a coined one, designates, in a given
constituted of a steel of such hardness that its incorpora
said length, the single core or plurality of core elements.
tion into structures could not have been at all realistically
A coring is simple when, transversely regarded, there is
contemplated before the advent of this invention.
a single core element. It is complex when, transversely
Since ultimate tensile strength in steels is closely related
regarded, it consists of a plurality of core elements. Such
to
hardness, and, in the case of those heat-treated, almost
a plurality is not to be confused with a longitudinally dis
perfectly, hardness numbers are used for comparing
posed plurality of simple cores. The herein adopted sym 45 strengths. Detailed treatment of this matter is presented
bols for them, derived from said expressions, are SC and
elsewhere.
CC.
Research in ferrous metallurgy will, perhaps soon, re
The shielding is preferably of machinable metal in the
cord advances leading to lifting present standards to still
sense that holes can be drilled in it ‘in the ?eld with port‘
higher levels. An already solidly established boron-and
able tools mounting cobalt drills and not necessarily car
less-than-one-percent-nickel
limitedly ?eld-weldable steel
bide drills (because of the dit?culty of establishing a rigid
is available with 120 kips ultimate and 100 kips yield
relationship between the tool and the drilled object), al
strength. The quali?cation refers to the fact that the
tho carbide-tipped drills should be alternatively employ
?eld-weldability can be had only with plural beads. Pre
able (instead of the cobalt drills). The expression, ?eld 55 heating and postheating, being only moderately bene?cial,
weldable, will be de?ned elsewhere herein.
Admissible in all embodiments is every conceivable
ratio between the long dimensions of the shielding and the
coring. Coring constitutes, in every embodiment, at least
an auxiliary strength member.
are not needed.
To predict the appearance of a ‘single
pass-?eld-weldable, less-than-one-percent-nickel, more
than-IZO-IOO-kips steel with no augmented cost for the
other alloys, calls perhaps for a great measure ‘of opti
Shielding, at one extreme, 60 mism. A conservative guess pictures, in the shielding, said
serves as a substantially nonstrength member with the
sole function for it that of an a?ixing means, and, at the
other extreme, constitutes the main strength member, the
one or more longitudinally distributed elongated but ab
IZO-IOO-kips steel improved to the point of being single
pass-?eld-weldable, and, in the coring, any suitable one
of a number of already available, altogether non?elda
weldable, extremely hard steels of the kind never incor
breviated cores supplying extra strength at critical points, 65 porated into construction. Pending the appearance of
otherwise expressed, locally. One embodiment of this
said improved steel, the rule is laid down that, in all in
last mentioned arrangement would be in a pole where the
vention-incorporating lengths, the coring steel ultimate
shielding constitutes the major strength member or main
strength exceeds that of the shileding by at least '50 kips.
pole body. In such a pole, the coring consists of one or
This would seem to be reasonable in the light of the state
more abbreviated cores, with at least one of them stiffening 70 of the art at the time this invention was conceived and
the pole at the most highly stressed point, the anchoring
this patent applied for. It is based on the use of said
zone. Like the traditional inside connectors of the liner
l20-l00-‘k-ips steel (unimproved) in the coring, ‘and of
3,040,846
3
the ASTM A7 steel, with its 70 kips ultimate strength, in
the shielding.
Because the hardness numbers in the carbide-ball
Brinell system correspond, within three and mostly with
in two and many by less than one percent, to kips values
unsightly and also functionally undesirable ridges and
hollows.
To fabricate and assemble the poles, plates that have
been hot rolled with lengthwise extending ribs would be
sheared on the bias in a manner whereby the rib direc
doubled, they have been selected for indirectly desig
nating shielding and coring ultimate strengths. In all
invention-incorporating lengths the Brinell carbide-ball
tion is obliquely angular to the plate edges, for example,
ing elements, the welding being followed by full heat
made a tapering one at either ambient temperature or
at an angle of forty-?ve degrees. Each now obliquely
ribbed plate is buttwelded to constitute a tubular mem
ber. In the case of a tapered pole of the straight type
hardness number of the coring steel exceeds that of the
10 a recommended procedure consists in heating the shield
shielding steel by 100.
ing to a plastic-working temperature, and the coring
The term, shopwelded, refers only to s‘hopwelded cor
1 freezing temperature while the shielding is initially a
treatment in a completely enclosing furnace. The shop
constant-diameter tube. The two are very quickly
welding of shielding, if any, is not accorded mention; it
is not essentially related to the invention. Of the con 15 forced into intercngagement, during which there is ef
fected not only strength integration of the two mem
ceivable species two have been chosen for illustration
bers but the coring, functioning like a die imposes its
and description herein. In the ?rst the coring is simple.
own tapering form on the shielding. In the case of com
In the second it is complex. In both the cross-sectional
plex coring the two core elements are handled as if
form is circular. Either species is associable with a
pole of constant diameter, with one that is straight 20 one was a coring and the other a shielding, whereupon
the subassembly of the two is handled like a simple
tapered, and with one that is stepped-tapered, these three
coring and assembled with the shielding in the manner
forms being of course not species-de?ning factors. In
described.
the accompanying drawing, to which now refer for a
The pole body in FIGURE 2 can be an integral one
complete understanding of the invention, the two species
but the stepped-tapered form actually is conditioned by
are shown in association with only the two tapered forms.
the sectionalizing of the pole because of being too long
FIGURE 1 is an elevation view of a straight-tapered
for shipping as an integral pole. The connector at the
pole of either the ?rst or the second species.
base and those at the two junctures are represented by
FIGURE 2 is an elevation view of a stepped-tapered
dotted lines.
pole of either the ?rst or the second species.
llclaim:
FIGURE 3 is a one-fourth symmetrical cross-sectional 30
1. A structural length consisting in the main of these
view in the plane 3-—3 in FIGURE 1 and in the plane
components: an elongated tubular coring of relatively
3—-3 in FIGURE 2, assuming that the two are of the
hard metal; a thereto interference-?tted, elongated, tubu
?rst species.
lar shielding of relaively soft metal and girthing at least
FIGURE 4 is a one-fourth symmetrical cross-sectional
view in the plane (4~—4) in FIGURE 1 and in the plane 35 a part of the coring and having, on the inner surface
(4—4) in FIGURE 2, assuming that the two are poles of
the second species.
FIGURE 5 is a fragmentary elevation view of a frag
ment circumscribed at 5 in FIGURE 1 and of a frag
ment circumscribed at 5 in FIGURE 2, assuming that
the two are poles of the second species.
In FIGURE 1, the pole body rests on the base, 11,
and, at the top, bears the cap 12.
In FIGURE 2, the pole body rests on the base 13, and,
at the top, bears the cap 14.
In FIGURE 3 can be seen the internally helically
ribbed, relatively soft, ?eld-weldable shielding, 15, and
the externally helically threaded or ribbed, relatively
hard, simple coring (core element), 16, which jointly
constitute the greater part of the pole body in either
FIGURE 1 or FIGURE 2 when it is one of the ?rst
species.
In FIGURE 4 can be seen the internally helically
ribbed, relatively soft, ?eld-weldable shielding, 17, and
the relatively hard, complex coring7 18-19, which con
sists of the core element 18 and the core element 19.
thereof, a plurality of mutually parallel and helically
disposed shielding ridges which are in pressural engage
ment with the coring, there being constituted, between
the shielding and the coring, a plurality of airspaces.
2. A structural length as described in claim 1, said
coring consisting of a single core element having, on the
outer surface thereof, a plurality of mutually parallel
and helically disposed coring ridges in pressural engage
ment with the therewith intersecting shielding ridges, the
helical directions of the two said pluralities of ridges
being opposite one another.
3. A structural length as described in claim 1, said
coring consisting of two core elements, one being a tubu
lar, innermost ?rst core element having, on the outer
surface thereof, a plurality of mutually parallel and heli
cally disposed coring ridges, the other being a tubular,
intervening second core element having a smooth inner
and a smooth outer surface respectively pressurally en
gaging said coring ridges and said shielding ridges.
4. A structural length as described in claim 1, said
coring consisting of two core elements, one being a tubu
lar, innermost ?rst core element having, on the outer
These three elements jointly constitute the greater part
surface thereof, a plurality of mutually parallel and heli
of the pole body in either FIGURE 1 or FIGURE 2
cally disposed coring ridges, the other being a tubular,
when it is one of the second species.
Plain-surface core element 18 interveningly adjoins 60 intervening, second core element having a smooth inner
and a smooth outer surface respectively pressurally en
shielding 17 and the externally helically ribbed core ele~
gaging said coring ridges ‘and said shielding ‘ridges, the
ment 19.
In the ?rst species the helical direction of the shield
helical directions of the two said pluralities of ridges
ing is opposite to that of the ‘coring. In the second
being opposite one another.
species the helical direction of the shielding is recom 65
5. A structural length as described in claim 1, the
mendedly opposite to that of the ribbed core element.
Brinell carbide-ball hardness number for the coring ex
Because of the mutual opposition of the helical direc
ceeding that for the shielding by at least one hundred.
tions, the direct mutual engagement of shieldingrribs
6. A structural length as described in claim 1, said
and coring ribs in the ?rst species (and the indirect
coring consisting of a single ‘core element having, on the
mutual engagement or radially projected intersection of 70 outer surface thereof, a plurality of mutually parallel
the helical directions in the second species) is at “points.”
and helically disposed coring ridges in pressural engage
These “points” coact to produce a faired state of the
ment
with the therewith intersecting shielding ridges, the
shielding (and of the coring) surface. Should the ribs
helical directions of the. twosaid pluralities of ridges
in one element be parallel with those in the other, the
pressure exerted on one ‘another would tend to produce 75 being opposite one another, the Brinell carbide-ball hard
3,040,846
ness number for said core element exceeding that for the
shielding by at least one hundred.
7. A structural length as described in claim 1, said
coring consisting of two core elements, one a tubular
innermost ?rst core element having, on the outer sur
face thereof, a plurality of mutually parallel and heli
oally disposed coring ridges, the other a tubular inter
vening second core element having a smooth inner and
a smooth outer surface respectively pressurally engag
ing said coring ridges and said shielding ridges, the Brinell
carbide-ball hardness number for at least one of the two
core elements exceeding that for the shielding by at least
disposed coring ridges, the other a tubular intervening
second core element having a smooth inner and a smooth
outer surface respectively pressurally engaging said cor
ing ridges and said shielding ridges, the helical direo
tions of the two said pluralities of ridges being opposite
one another, the Brinell carbide-ball hardness number
‘for at least one of the two core elements exceeding that
for the shielding by at least one hundred.
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
one hundred.
8. A structural length as described in claim 1, said
coring consisting of two core elements, one a tubular
innermost ?rst core element having, on the outer surface 15
thereof, a plurality of mutually parallel and helically
426,561
Dithridge ____________ __ Apr. 29, 1890
514,665
Serrell _______________ .. Feb. 13, 1894
1,179,696
2,960,114-
‘Canada _____________ __ Apr. 18, 1916
Hinde ______________ .. Nov. 15, 1960
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