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June 26, 1962 c. G. A. ROSEN ETAL PISTON CONSTRUCTION 3,041,116 Original Filed Feb. 1, 1955 2 Sheets-Sheet l June 26, 1962 c. G. A. ROSEN ETAL 3,041,116 PISTON CONSTRUCTION Original Filed ‘Feb. 1, 1955 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 .22 INVENTORS.’ L'ar/ 6:’ (Z B03222 ice 3,041,116 Patented June 26, 1962 2 ably above the boiling point of the other metal. There after, if desired, other layers of the same metal or of a different metal can be added in light or heavy layers, in 3,041,116 PISTON CONSTRUCTION Carl G. A. Rosen, Peoria, and Joseph J. Dailey, East Peoria, lll., assignors, by mesne assignments, to Darlite Corporation, Peoria, Ili., a corporation of Illinois Original application Feb. 1, 1955, Ser. No. 485,414. Di vided and this application June 6, 1958, Ser. No. 744,303 7 Claims. (Cl. 309—14) I, small or large quantities within a given time. In the practice of such a process, if the metal of the lower melting point is heated to a temperature just below its melting point, the heat that must be supplied by the sprayed metal as the latent heat of vaporization to vapor ize a thin surface layer of the other metal is much less Such permits metals to be used where the melting temperature of the higher temperature metal can be comparatively close to the boiling point of the lower temperature metal. Conse limited areas. quently, the heat required is barely a little more than the When spraying molten metal at high velocity on a limited area to ?ll up or build up the area, there occurs 15 di?ference between the sensible heat of the lower temper ature metal and the melting point of the higher temper a scattered deposit of metal or overspray where it is not ature metal, plus the heat units required ‘for the latent wanted on adjacent areas. This requires extra machining heat of vaporization of the lower temperature metal. time to remove the excess represented by the overspray Then, too, whether the sprayed metal is applied very and entails a large waste of material. Moreover, de thinly or very thickly, its application should be con?ned positing molten metal by spray in large quantities raises to the area desired so that any machining required after the temperature of the receiving body unduly and pre wards is not confronted with the removal of a lot of vents uniform conditions being maintained for predict overspray metal. able results. . In the present invention, as embodied in a method and‘ One of the objects of the present invention is to pro apparatus for molecularly bonding molybdenum and stain vide a process and apparatus wherein the temperature less steel to an aluminum piston body to provide a com of a body being sprayed is maintained at a predetermined pression ring ‘groove that withstands long periods of hard level regardless of the quantity of molten metal being usage, the piston is heated and rotated‘ about a prede applied. termined axis with spaced stainless steel or polished alu Another object of the invention is to provide an im minum bands or belts running with and against it as proved contour ‘for receiving the spray with minimum marginally located to border an improved groove shape. lateral and thickness overspray. _ Molten metal is sprayed into the groove and against the A further object of the invention is to mask in an piston body between the bands. The overspray lands improved way areas bordering an area being metallized The present invention relates to a process and appa 10 than would otherwise be required. ratus ‘for metal-lizing articles and, more particularly, to the spraying of molten metal upon moving surfaces over and recover the waste spray as chips uncontaminated by machining oil and debris which occurs when waste is removed as by machining. The invention is further characterized by a self-clean ing mask for metallizing spray which serves as a constant thickness depth indicator for the amount of metal ap plied on an adjacent working area. The invention also contemplates an improved metalliz ing technique wherein greater quantities of molten metal can be applied in a short time without overheating the work piece. A further object of the invention is to provide an im on the bands and is carried thereby to a place remote from the piston where a sharp ?exing of the bands causes the overspray to chip off and collect in a clean pile of metal. The bands also serve as coolant controls for the piston because they can be controlled with respect to the amount 40 of heat which they dissipate between the time they leave, contact with the piston and again come into contact with the piston to pick up more heat. In FIG. 1, an aluminum piston is identi?ed at .10 as clamped upon a, spindle or turntable 11 (FIG. 5) by centering clamps 12 tightened through individual clamp pieces being metallized with a metal of a much higher screws 13. ‘In the embodiment shown, the turntable is rotated in the direction indicated by the arrow 1-4 and‘ melting point temperature. the cooperating parts are arranged accordingly. As proved temperature control for temperatures of work These being among the objects of the invention, other and further objects will be apparent from the description and the drawings, in which: FIG. 1 is a plan view in schematic representation show ing one form of the invention; FIG. 2 is a side view in schematic representation of the relative position of some of the parts shown in FIG. 1; FIG. 3 is a front end view of a metallizing gun ?ame head showing a preferred form of the invention; FIG. 4 is a perspective View, partly in section, showing the preferred form of spray gun wire; FIG. 5 is a side elevational view of an apparatus sche matically showing an embodiment of the invention; FIG. 6 is a plan view in schematic representation sim ilar to FIG. 1 showing a modi?cation of the invention, and FIGS. 7, 8 and 9 are sectional views showing another embodiment of the ring groove in various stages of its formation. As described in application Serial No. 435,696, now shown in FIGS. 2 and 5, the upper or compression ring 0 groove 15 is machined to the shape shown in which its sectional contour is part of a circle or ellipse with di verging side walls 16. Two spaced bands 17 and 18 are located so that their adjacent marginal edges are disposed close to the outer edges of the side walls 16. The two bands 17 and '18 are continuous and each runs over two ?at pulleys, one a pulley 20 of small diameter ' journalled to rotate on a ?xed axis and the other a lag pulley 21 carried by a lever 22 urged by spring 23 to take up the slack in the band. A barrier 24 having suitable apertures 25 for the passage of the bands is disposed behind the piston and a fan 26 drives cooling air over the bands at a rate determined by the conventional speed governor and control knob 27. A catch pan 29 is located below the pulley 20 to receive the chips 29a of overspray broken from the bands. ' Metallizing spray guns 28 such as those sold commer Patent No. 2,833,668, reference to which is hereby made, cially under the trademark Mogulectric are located at spaced points around the piston as slidably mounted upon radially disposed tracks 30 that are also adjustable in a an improved method of bonding two metal masses to each vertical plane. As shown in FIG. 2, the three guns can other comprises spraying one metal against another wherein the melting point of the metal sprayed is prefer be disposed with different pitches to direct their spray along different paths to strike diiferent portions of the 3,041,116 3 groove, preferably with each disposed in alignment with a radius of the groove’s sectional contour. The turntable is also equipped with a thermocouple which internally engages the body of the piston, and, through brushes 32 and rings 33 the thermocouple actu ates a switch 34 at a predetermined temperature that is set by the hand knob 35. The thermostat preferably has a 4: of three conventional guns, and three guns the Work of nine conventional guns or more without overheating the workpiece. Thereby the metallizing time is cut as much as nine-tenths for the same volume of metal. The round groove is preferred since it mates most naturally with the cones of conventional guns or the elliptical cones of the improved wire form with minimum lateral of thickness temperature indicating band 36. An induction heater 37 overspray. and coil 38 is controlled by the switch to bring the piston In this connection, referring now to FIGS. 7, 8 and 9, quickly up to the working temperature before the metal 10 it is not necessary as a matter of economy to halve the lizing guns are brought into operation. The quick heat conductivity enables rapid normalization in this respect. It will be appreciated that where the piston is made of a metal of high heat conductivity such as aluminum, the groove 15 and the spray ?ll 19b extend the full depth required for a ring groove. The hammering action of the compression ring in the ring groove need only be opposed by a wall of stainless steel or other hard metal over the thermocouple could be located elsewhere if desired. 15 Wall area of the ring that contacts the walls of the ring However, the location indicated in the drawings is pre groove. ferred because ring carrier units that are later installed With the molecular bond provided as described herein on piston bodies can be handled by the apparatus shown and in said application, the heat conducting aluminum with suitable extensions on the clamps. body of the piston can be exposed at the bottom of the ring Once the metallizing guns are turned on, molten metal 20 groove to the piston ring and any expansion springs that 19 is driven against the piston in the ring grooves as the may be present behind it. This heat conductivity at this piston is rotated, leaving a ?ll 19b, and some spray 19a point prevents any possible build up of heat in the ring falls on the bands 17 and 18. As the bands run around and the supporting spring, thereby increasing its effective the piston and pulleys, the sharp turn or ?exing induced life and assuring uniform performance. by the small pulley 20 cracks the overspray from the band 25 As shown in FIGS. 7 and 8, the ultimate expected ring to drop it into the catch pan 29. The bands absorb heat groove contour is indicated by the broken line 60. The from the piston through their contact with it and this preliminary groove cut in the wall of the cylinder is indi heat is carried away towards the pulley 20. Leaving the cated at 61 and as shown in FIG. 7, the gun 28 with the pulley 20 the band returns to working contact again with nozzle 28a is located square with the piston. The spray the piston to repeat its function. 30 pattern of the gun is determined and the groove is cut to Depending upon the temperature indicator hand 36, meet the spray pattern so that the center and sides ?ll up the bands are cooled by the air from the blower or fan proportionately and the ?ll 19c comes out even with the 26 to dissipate the acquired heat to a predetermined de surface over its whole surface when the level of the piston gree, as set by the fan speed governor 27. In performing wall is reached. their best control function it is seen that the bands are 35 Thereafter as shown in FIG. 9, the ring groove 63 is located where the highest heat input to the piston occurs, namely, where the spray is striking the piston, and there by provide the best heat control possible where it is most cut through the ?ll 19c and down into the aluminum body of the piston. Thus once the proportion is computed 40 made of aluminum or copper for quick heat pickup and the outer one 41 of steel to withstand the impact of the molten metal spray of high heats such as that in is made. The hot metal particles impact the surface of the with respect to the spray pattern, a round nose tool is contoured accordingly to make the initial cut to form the As shown in FIG. 6, if desired each band may be in 40 groove 61 in a one-step operation. The gun can be lo two parts, superposed on each other with the inner one cated square to the piston wall and left there until the ?ll important. volved with molybdenum. groove and are not subject to eddy currents which other wise chill the particles, prevent them bonding in the ?ll and Preferably in this embodi 45 make of them undesirable waste metal dust. ' Thus knowing what the wear surface is that is required ment the inner band is the longer band so that it can be run out of contact with the outer band over a portion of their paths and air can contact both sides of both bands. This separation is accomplished by another lag pulley 43 on the walls of the groove and the pattern of the spray, the depth and are of the initial groove can be determined so that overspray is minimized and the groove is solidly suitably mounted on a lever 44 actuated by a spring 45. 50 ?lled. It is further preferred to employ a novel form of wire In operation, it is preferred to raise the temperature of for the metallizing guns, converting them to have a nozzle the aluminum to 450° F., or more, so that it is above the as shown in FIG. 3 to take the wire form shown in “shine” point of the metal. Then one of the guns is turned FIG. 4. In this way, more than three times the amount on to spray a thin layer of molybdenum in the groove of metal can be sprayed Without altering the ?ame ports 55 where it vaporizes and disperses the oxidized surface of of the gun. In the wire form shown, the greatest area the aluminum, so that molybdenum molecularly bonds with for uniform ?ame-heat absorption is presented to the the pure aluminum. The molybdenum gun is turned off ?ames. and stainless steel is sprayed from one or more of the The form is one in which circular wire shapes 50 are other guns shown (more than two could be used if de joined by webs 51 to provide a unitary ribbon or wire 60 sired) until a predetermined depth is attained. The over form in which there is no thickness greater than the radius spray, or side spill, from the guns is carried away by the of the wire with respect to the heat load carried by each bands and dropped in the catch pan, and being clean as ?ame. Where the wires are located, ?ames are on di they engage the piston, the thickness of the bands serves rectly opposite sides and the webs are narrow enough as a thickness gauge for the applied spray depth. that their metal content is melted from the ?ame edges 65 If the temperature at the groove increases from the heat simultaneously and economically with the wire portions. input of the spray, the bands can be cooled to any degree Thus an integral wire ribbon which will melt throughout desired to carry away the surplus heat. its transverse section substantially simultaneously is pro This application is a division of application Serial No. vided which also fans out the molten spray enough to be 485,414, ?led Feb. 1, 1955. more than the equivalent of three guns. If the groove is 70 Having thus described the invention and the preferred wide, the major sectional dimension of the ribbon is dis forms thereof, it will be appreciated how the objects are posed crosswise of the groove. With narrower grooves attained and how various and other changes, alterations the ribbon is canted to concentrate the spray in the or adjustments can be made without departing from the groove. The same feed rate is used with suitable in spirit of the invention, the scope of which is commensurate crease in ?ame heat input, and one gun can do the work 75 with the appended claims. 3,041,116 6 5 being exposed at the bottom of said groove to contact in What is claimed is: 1. A light weight piston having a compression ring heat exchange relationship with a piston ring supported groove de?ned by two side walls of hard wear metal of lessening radial thickness in a direction away from the groove molecularly bonded to the metal of the piston body and by an exposed bottom Wall of the metal of the between said annular portions. 6. A light weight body including a member of light weight metal of high heat conductivity exposed on its ex ternal surface, spaced elements of relatively harder metal encircling said member ?ush with said external surface and separated by an exposed surface of the light weight metal disposed between them, said elements being inti mately secured to said light weight metal in good heat piston body between said side walls. 2. In a ring carrying piston member having an external wall of exposed aluminum alloy, two separate and spaced annular elements of hard metal embedded in the piston 10 exchange therewith, said elements providing particles of externally flush with said wall and molecularly fused to high melting point at the interface surfaces dispersed in unoxidized aluminum alloy and de?ning a piston ring groove exposing the aluminum alloy between them, said hard metal constituting bearing surfaces for the sides of the ring. intimate fused contact with unoxidized light weight metal. 7. A piston compn'sing a piston body of high heat con ductive metal having spaced wall portions circumferential 15 ly around it de?ning a rounded contour, a layer of par 3. A ring carry piston member of aluminum having an external wall of exposed aluminum and an initial groove in said wall curved cross-sectionally and a second groove at the bottom of the ?rst extending into the aluminum and separating the initial groove into groove sections, an annular element in each of said initial groove sections on opposite sides of the second groove and molecularly bonded to the aluminum body de?ning said initial groove sections, said elements in conjunction with said second groove de?ning between them a compression ring groove at the bottom of which the aluminum is exposed for heat 25 exchange contact with a ring in the ring groove. 4. An article of manufacture comprising a ‘body hav ing an exposed wall of a metal containing aluminum, a coating including particles of a metal whose melting point is above the boiling point of aluminum intermixed with unoxidized aluminum at the interface over a portion of said wall, said coating having a channel therethrough ex posing said metal containing aluminum at the bottom of said channel for heat exchange contact with an element 35 received in said channel. 5. A light weight piston comprising a body made of aluminum alloy exposed on its external surface and hav ticles of molybdenum on each wall portion whose inner most particles are molecularly mixed with unoxidized metal of said wall portions, a body of stainless steel bonded to each layer upon each wall portion and de?ning a radial groove therebetween extending through to said high heat conductive metal for receiving a piston ring therein in direct heat exchange contact with said high heat con ductive metal at the inner portion of the groove. References Cited in the ?le of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,127,758 2,297,460 2,403,455 2,575,214 2,776,176 Schmitz _____________ __ Aug. 23, Dietrich _____________ __ Sept. 29, Phillips _____________ __ July 9, Garland et a1. ________ __ Nov. 13, Daub ________________ _._ Ian. 1, 1938 1942 1946 1951 1957 2,833,264 2,833,603 2,833,668 2,905,512 Dailey et al. __________ __ May 6, Dailey et al. __________ __ May 6, Dailey et al. __________ __ May 6, Anderson ____________ __ Sept. 22, McCullough __________ __ Oct. 18, 1958 1958 1958 1959 1960 2,956,846 ing a piston ring groove therein, spaced annular portions mounted upon said piston on opposite side of said groove flush with said external surface and of a material harder 40 than the aluminum alloy, said annular portions and said aluminum alloy being intimately fused ‘in unoxidized metal to metal contact at their respective interfaces in good heat exchange relationship, and said aluminum alloy FOREIGN PATENTS 548,239 Germany ____________ __ Jan. 5, 1933 OTHER REFERENCES Reimann: German application, Ser. No. I 2,520, printed June 14, 1956 46C1 9),.‘ ' ‘ "