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Патент USA US3041187

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United States Patent O? ice
3,041,177
Patented June 26, 1962
1
2
various ‘dehydrated modi?cations of this product contain
3,041,177
BAKING ACID AND BAKING POWDER
CONTAINING THE SAME
Robert M. Lauck and James W. Tucker, Park Forest, 111.,
assignors to Stau?er Chemical Company, New York,
ing from zero to four moles of hydrate water have also
been found satisfactory. These compounds are disclosed
in Knox et a1. application Serial No. 659,477, ?led May
16, 1957.
‘
An amorphous form of this product having the em
N.Y., a corporation of Delaware
No Drawing. Filed July 18, 1960, Ser. No. 43,287
10 Claims. (Cl. 99-95)
pirical fonnula NaA‘l3H11(PO4)7-5—8H2O has also been
found satisfactory. This product gives a blank powder
X-ray diffraction pattern which indicates its amorphous
This invention relates to a new baking acid compo 10 nature. Since it cannot be crystallized and thus puri?ed
sition and to baking powders incorporating the same.
for further characterization, the above formula is ‘only
In particular this invention relates to a new baking
an empirical formula based upon analytical data. The
acid comprising the combination of sodium aluminum
product is described and claimed in Dyer application,
phosphate and an edible aluminum salt. This combina
Serial No. 860,191 ?led December 17, 1959.
tion has been found to be particularly advantageous in 15
Other similar compounds which we have found suita
baking cakes both commercially and in prepared cake
ble for use in our invention may be represented by the
mixes.
formulas
_ By using this combination we have found that the
tolerance to variation in the proportions of ingredients
is markedly increased without sacri?cing the quality of 20 and
the ?nished cake. This is most noticeably true in cakes
NaAl3H17
using the recently developed lactylated shortenings.
It is well known in the art to use various acid phos
9'
It is dif?cult to positively identify such complex com
phate salts as leavening agents. It is also well known
pounds. The term sodium aluminum phosphate (SAP)
to use certain acid aluminum salts such as sodium alumi
num sulfate for this purpose. In addition, the use of
used herein is intended to include all of the above de
sodium aluminum phosphate (hereafter SAP) as a bak
ing acid is disclosed in US. Patents 2,550,490 and 2,550,
We have found that our improved baking acid com
bination is of particular value when used in cake recipes
491.
‘
*
‘
1
We have now found that an unexpectedly new result
is accomplished if a source of a trivalent aluminum cat
ion is added to the SAP baking acid. This result is ap
parently due solely to the presence of this aluminum
ion, since addition of more aluminum during the manu
facture of SAP does not produce this same result. This
is thought to be due to the fact that SAP ionizes so as to
leave the aluminum in the complex anion.
Therefore
scribed compositions.
'
using the so-called lactylated or GLP type shortenings.
This highly emulsi?ed "type of shortening usually pro
duces fast whipping, very light cake batters. These short
enings are manufactured by combining with the usual
mono- and diglyceride one or more molecules of lactic
acid. Similar highly emulsi?ed shortenings are also pro
duced by adding propylene glycol to various well known
shortenings. See for example, Cereals as Food and Feed,
by S. A. Matz (Avi 1959), p. 346 et seq.
the addition of additional aluminum in the form of a
The improved results which we have obtained by the
cation appears to produce our new and unexpected re
use of our new combination may be best described sim
sults. We have also determined that this is due to the 40 ply as increased tolerance to the many variables in
aluminum ion and not the sulfate ion since equivalent
volved in baking. In particular, we ?nd that standard
amounts of sodium sulfate or calcium sulfate do not
recipes may be varied widely, with respect to the amounts
produce this effect.
of ingredients, with less adverse effects than would re
The aluminum salts most suitable for our invention
sult from similar variances when using the common'well
appear to be most any salt which will furnish trivalent
known baking acids. We ?nd the most signi?cant results
aluminum ion. It is of course necessary that a baking
lie in the area of liquid tolerance and leavenlng tolerance.
acid contain only edible salts. Typical salts which we
In addition we ?nd improved results with respect to
have found satisfactory include aluminum sulfate, alumi
num acetate and aluminum formate.
In particular We
?nd that anhydrous aluminum sulfate gives excellent re
sults.
‘
.
We have found that we may add as little as l to 2
parts of aluminum salt per 100i parts of SAP withrirm
sugar tolerance, shortening tolerance, mixing tolerance
and baking time tolerance.
In addition, we find that
variations between different flours are minimized when
using our new baking acid. These tolerances are dis-'
cussed more fully in connection with the subsequent
examples.
' We also ?nd that the use of our new baking acid pro
proved results. It is also possible to add as much as 15
parts of aluminum salt per '100‘ parts SAP in some cases. 55 vides an improved eating quality in the ?nished product.
The products are more tender and less gummy. Also in
As this high level is approached, however, there is a
tendency to impair the flavor of the ?nished product.
Our preferred range of proportions is more nearly in
the range‘ of 5 to 10 parts of SAP. A particularly pre
ferred combination comprises 7 parts anhydrous alumi
the case of prepared packaged mixes there is a greater
stability of the product When compared with such com
monly used baking acids as sodium acid pyrophosphate,
the combination of sodium acid pyrophosphate and heat,
num sulfate and 100 parts of SAP.
The SAP which we prefer to use for. the purposes of
treated anhydrous monocalcium phosphate, or the com
this invention is a complex, acidic soluble compound
phate and dicalcium phosphate.
bination of heat treated anhydrous monocalcium phos~
1
In'ev'aluating the performance of our new baking acid
V65 the following general procedure was used. A certain
basic ‘recipe was ?rst adopted for both the commercial
This compound may be either crystalline or amorphous
type cakes and the prepared mix type cakes. These for:
in nature. One satisfactory form of this product is the
mulations are more or less standard in the industry.
crystalline compound of the formula
Variations were then made in the amounts of various in
70 gredients, mixing time, baking temperature, etc. asshown
hereinafter. Each one of these cakes was then baked in
which is disclosed in US. Patent 2,550,490. Further,
an eight inch round pan under standard conditions. The
which may be represented generally by the formula
h
p
‘
ANHA13H14(PO4)8'4HZO
_
_
3,041,177
4
3
resulting cake is then generally cut in half and examined
EXAMPLE 4
as to grain structure, amount of rise or clip from a level
Efleet of Varying Amounts of Sugar
top, tenderness, and eating quality in general.
For the purpose of evaluating the important quality of
symmetry in the cake, that is, whether it is dipped or
rounded, we have devised the following scale based on
an eight inch cake.
Term:
Numerical equivalent
Speci?c Volume
5
Percent sugar
(Based on Flour)
SAP 1
SAP—
SAP
SAP—
A12(S04)3
3. 43
3. 2S
3. 26
3.14
Severe dip ______________________ _. 0.4 inch dip.
Dip (or dipped) _________________ _. 0.3 inch dip.
Slight dip ______________________ __ 0.2 inch dip.
Very slight dip __________________ _. 0.1 inch dip. ‘
AIKSOD;
3. 48
3. 42
3. 43
3.18
Mod. round.
D0.
V. s1. round.
V. s1. dip.
1 In this and the following examples cakes were baked using both SAP
and SAP plus added aluminum in order to compare the present invention
with the prior art. The SAP—-Alz(SO4)3 combination was always in the
Level _________________________ __ No dip.
Very slightly rounded ____________ __ 0.1 inch rise.
Slightly rounded ________________ __ 0.2 inch rise.
Symmetry
15 ratio 01100/7.
Moderately rounded _____________ __ 0.3 inch rise.
EXAMPLE 5
Rounded (or round) ___________ __ 0.4 inch rise.
The following examples illustrate the value of our new 20
E?ect of Varying Amounts of Shortening
baking acid.
.
SERIES I
Percent Shortening
(Based on Flour)
This series of comparative tests was based upon a
100
130
Powdered milk (non-fat milk solids) ________ __
5
Salt
_____________________________________ __ 1.75
Shortening (GLP) _________________________ __
Sodium bicarbonate
_________ __' ________________________ __
SAP—
A12(SO4)3
3.13
3.25
3.25
3.35
3.53
Dipped.__-_ V. 51. dip.
V. 51. dip__._ Mod. round.
3.23
3.36
S1. dip ____ ._
-__-_do _____ -_
Do.
Do.
EXAMPLE 6
E?ect of Varying‘Amounts of Water With
Two Types of Flour
‘55
100
SAP
30
Baking acid (N.V.=90‘) ____________________ __ 1.80
Water
SAP-
3.15
26
_______________________ __ 1.613
Egg white ________________________________ __
SAP
Symmetry
Alz(SO4)a
standard White 130% sugar cake used commercially and
having the following basic formula:
Parts
Flour ____________________________________ __
Sugar ____________________________________ __
Speci?c Volume
35
(a) SNOWSHEEN FLOUR
EXAMPLE 1
Effect of Varying Amounts 0]‘ Added
Aluminum Sulfate
Percent Water
40
(Based on Flour)
S eci?c Volume
p
SAP
Symmetry
SAP—-—
SAP
SAP—
A12(SO4)a
SAP, Percent
A1;;(SO4)3
Speci?c
Symmetry
Volume 1
_____________________________________ __
3.29
2
5
9
13
17
3.22
3.22
3. 29
3. 32
3.39
A12(S04)a
3.16
3.17
3.26
3.29
3.01
3.18
Mod. round. Mod. round.
.____do _____ __
Do.
age.
Do.
V. sl. dip.
S1. round.
Mod. round.
Do.
100 _______________ __
50
1 Represents volume in cc. per gram of cake.
D0.
S1. shrink-
Si. dip.
2.90
3.11
Mod.
S1. round.
2.72
3.32
Excessive
Round.
shrinkage.
shrinkage.
(b) SOFT-A-SILK. FLOUR
EXAMPLE 2
Speci?c Volume
Symmetr
Percent Water
(Based on Flour)
E?ect of Varying Amounts of Aluminum Acetate
y
SAP
SAP—-
Al Acetate
Speci?c
98
3. 42
Dipped.
4
5. 5
3. 49
3. 51
S1. round.
Do.
7. 5
3. 47 ‘
Do.
3. 49
3. 33
Do.
2
9
17
3. 50
S1. round, 51. tendency
to dip.
A1 Formate
3.34
3.38
2.51
3.09
Dipped_____ V. 51. round.
Mod. dip--- Mod. round.
S1. dip _____ _.
Do.
2. 55
3.00
V. 51. dip.__-
D0.
EXAMPLE 7
E?ectv 0)‘ Added Aluminum Ion in Combination
With Other Well Known Baking Acids
Do.
Speci?c
2.51
2.50
60
EXAMPLE 3v
. Effect of Varying Amounts of Aluminum Formats
SAP, Percent
Alz(SO4)3
. Symmetry
Volume
100 _____________________________ __
SAP—
A12(SO4)a
55
SAP, Percent
SAP
Symmetry
olume
3.38
S1. dipped.
3.31
V. 31.
3. 29
Mod. round.
dipped.
65
>
Baking Acid
Speci?c
Symmetry
Volume
70 Heat treated anhydrous monocalcium ‘
nhnsnhafe
Heat treated anhydrous monoealcium
3.05
Dipped.
phosphate+Al1 (S003 (100/7) .......... __
Sodium acid pyrophosphate _____________ ._
2.89
2.60
Do.
.
Severe dip.
Sodium acid pyrophosphate+A1z(SO4)a
(100/7) _________________________________ __
is
2. 54
Do
3,041,177
5
<
6
SERIES I
ared
Thiswhite
seriescake
of comparative
mix havin the
testsfollowin
Was based
basic
upon
formula:
a pre,p.
g
g
1
.
Flour ------ -Sugar
_
Percent
'
_
.
-
.
Percent
Sag
0 mm
-—-b_warb ‘mat 6 ----------------------- -Baking acid (N.V.=90) __________________ __
5
Wheat starch
'
.92
__
2.00
37-20
Shortening (GLP) ________________________ __ 10.40
_
_
43.40
Non-fat milk solids ______ __, _______________ __
3.10
Corn sugar
1.50
_
To 20 oz. of the above mix was added 1%. cups water
and two egg whites.
'
EXAMPLE 8
Effect of Varying Amounts of Shortening
SAP—A12(SO4)s
Shortening
Sp. Vol.
SAP
Grain 3
Sp. Vol.
Baking Acid A 1
Grain
Sp. Vol.
21% (?our basis)___.
3.15‘ Mod. ?ne.
3.13
Mod. ?ne.
3.04
27% _______________ _-
3.11
3.09
_-___do---__
3.05
Fine ____ _.
Grain
Si. ?ne.
Do.
S1. irreg.
32% _______________ __
3.04
Mod. ?ne_
3.00 _____do_____
36% _______________ -_
2.90
Fine ____ __
2.88
2.00
Si. ?ne.
2.87
Mod. ?ne.
S1. irreg___
.
S1. irreg.
Fine ____ __
‘
S1. irreg.
1 Baking Acid A represents a mixture of 60 parts sodium acid pyrophosphate and 40 parts
of heat treated anhydrous monoeaicium phosphate. This mixture is often used com
mercialiy.
2 In Series II “Grain” includes comments on symmetry if noteworthy.
EXAMPLE 9
Effect of Vanying Amounts of Leavening
SAP—A1¢(S04)3
Soda
Sp. V01.
0.64% (total wt.)____
3.31
Grain
Fine,
SAP
Sp. Vol.
Baking Acid A
Grain
Sp. V01.
even.
3.35 __--_do_._..
3.26 .Fine, S].
Irreg
Fine,
3.10
3.26
3.14
3.37 _____do.__..
3.18
S1. ?ne,
Grain
Si. ?ne,
S1. irreg.
Mod. ?ne.
even.
3.30
Mod. ?ne,
S1 irreg.
3.18 _____do_____
3.32 Mod. ?ne,
V. 51.
3.08
S1. irreg
3.20 __.._do...._
3.07
3.21
3.17
3.13
3.06
Si. dipped.
Mod. ?ne,
S1. irreg
S]. coarse,
Irreg.
Coarse,‘
Irreg.
Do.
D0.
IITOg.
EXAMPLE 10
E?‘ect of Varying Amounts of Liquid
SAP—A12(SO4)3
Water
Sp. Vol.
1 cup _____________ __
1% cups ___________ ._
3. 21
3. 22
Grain
V. 51. dip"
S1. round,
SAP
Sp. Vol.
Grain
3. 06
3. 20
?ne,
3.11
Sp. Vol.
Dipped-..
V. s1. rnd.
2. 93
2. 92
Dipped.
S1. dipped.
3. 00
S1. ?ne S1.
Irreg.
Si. coarse
irreg.
1% cups ___________ __
Fine,
even.
2.99 ____.do.....
2.97
Fine.
even.
Mod. ?ne,
1% cups ___________ __
2. 78
2.79
Mod. ?ne.
3.12
2. 77
S1. irreg.
Mod. ?ne.
Grain
?ne, 51.
even.
1% cups ___________ __
Baking Acid A
Irreg.
2. 71
.
compact.
EXAMPLE 11
E?ect of Varying Baking Temperatures
Temperature, ° F.
SAP-1112604):
Sp. V01.
330 ________________ __
_
350 ________________ __
3.26
Grain
Mod.
SAP
Sp. Vol.
a. 13
?n
even.
3.12 .._..do..__.
Baking Acid A
Grain
Mod.
Sp. V01.
Grain
3. 00
Si. ?ne,
?ne,
2.89
S1. irreg.
SLsl?ne,
S1. irreg.
2. 84
Do.
2.85
S1. dip.
irreg.
375 ________________ __
2. 97 ____.do_._._
2. 91
V. 81. dip»
3,041,177
8
examples that the use of our new baking acid consistent
Similar cakes baked with modi?cations of this formula
in accordance with the foregoing discussion have shown
ly produces a baked product with a higher speci?c vol
ume, improved symmetry and better grain structure.
fully used in commercial baking powders.
It is very clear, from a close study of the foregoing
that our new baking acid combination may be success
The foregoing description is given for clearness of un
derstanding only and no unnecessary limitations should
These results are all accomplished in the face of extreme
variation in all the variables to which such baking process
be derived therefrom.
We claim:
We have also ‘found that our new improved baking acid
1. As a new baking acid, the combination comprising
combination may be used in other well known modi?ca
tions. Thus it is possible to use this baking acid in com 10 100 parts sodium aluminum phosphate and 1 to 15 parts
of an edible salt yielding a trivalent aluminum cation.
bination with heat treated anhydrous monocalcium phos
2. As a new baking acid, the combination comprising
phate, sodium acid pyrophosphate, sodium aluminum sul
100 parts sodium aluminum phosphate and 1 to 15 parts
fate, dicalcium phosphate, etc. It is also possible to add
is subject.
of aluminum sulfate.
certain well known conditioning agents such as tricalcium
3. As a new baking acid, the combination comprising
phosphate, starch, etc. to improve the free-?owing qual
100 parts sodium aluminum phosphate and 1 to 15 parts
of aluminum formate.
4. As a new baking acid, the combination comprising
100 parts sodium aluminum phosphate and 1 to 15 parts
In preparing commercial baking powders it is custom
ary to use about 30 parts sodium bicarbonate, sufficient 20 of aluminum acetate.
5. As a new baking acid, the combination comprising
baking acid, depending upon the neutralizing value
100 parts sodium aluminum phosphate and about 7 parts
(N.V.), to release all the CO2, and suf?cient starch to
of aluminum sulfate.
total 100 parts by weight. Thus a given weight of any
6. A baking powder composition comprising approxi
baking powder will release the same amount of C02.
The neutralizing value of a baking acid is the amount of 25 mately 30 parts sodium bicarbonate, 30 to 43 parts of the
composition of claim 1 and sufficient starch to total 100
sodium bicarbonate necessary to neutralize the acidity of
ities under some conditions. It is also possible to in
corporate our new baking acid in standard baking powder
formulations.
parts.
100 grams of the acid. In our experience, we have used
various modi?cations of SAP to give baking acids with
neutralizing values of from about 70 to 100. Therefore,
baking powders using these products would have approx
imately the following formulations:
N o ___________________________________ .-
1
2
3
N.V. of Baking Acid _________________ -_
70
90
Sodium bicarbonate, parts.
---_-
30
30
30 .
Baking Acid, parts _ . _ _ _ _ _ . . _ .
_ _ _ __
43
33
30
Starch, redried corn, parts ____________ -_
100
27
37
40
100
100
100
7. A baking powder composition comprising approxi
mately 30 parts sodium bicarbonate, 30 to 43 parts of
30 the composition of claim 2 and sui?cient starch to total
100 parts.
8. A baking powder composition comprising approxi
mately 30 parts sodium bicarbonate, 30 to 43 parts of
the composition of claim 3 and suf?cient starch to total
35 100 parts.
9. A baking powder composition comprising approxi
mately 30 parts sodium bicarbonate, 30 to 43 parts of
the composition of claim 4 and sufficient starch to total
100 parts.
40
EXAMPLE 12
In order to demonstrate the use of these baking pow- I
ders, a 130% sugar cake such as described for Series I
above was baked. In place of the sodium bicarbonate
and baking acid described in the formula, a prepared
baking powder having the composition of Formula 2
~
10. A baking powder composition comprising approxi
mately 30 parts sodium bicarbonate, 30 to 43 parts of
the composition of claim 5 and su?icient starch to total
100 parts.
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
above was used. This resulted in a cake with a slightly
2,372,402
improved speci?c volume and of slightly better quality.
2,550,491
Stokes et al ___________ __ Mar. 27, 1945
McDonald ___________ __ Apr. 24, 1951
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