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Патент USA US3041849

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July 3,
CONCRETE FILE FORM‘
J. WITH
J. KUPKA
PNEUMATICALLY EXPANSIBLE
'
Filed Feb. 24, 1959
AND CONTRACTIBLE REMOVABLE DRIVE CORE
5 Sheets-Sheet 1
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July 3, 1962
J. J. KUPKA
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3,041,839
CONCRETE PILE FORM WITH PNEUMATICALLY EXPANSIBLE
‘ AND CONTRACTIBLE REMOVABLE DRIVE CORE
Filed Feb. 24, 1959
5 Sheets-Sheet 2
INVENTOR.
BY
July 3, 1962
3,041,839
J. J. KUPKA
CONCRETE FILE FORM WITH PNEUMATICALLY EXPANSI BLE
AND CONTRACTIBLE REMOVABLE DRIVE CORE
Filed Feb. 24. 1959
5 Sheets~$heet 3
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‘ INVENTOR.
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BY 2 9‘ X
July 3, 1962
J. J. KUPKA
3,041,839
CONCRETE PILE FORM WITH PNEUMATICALLY EXPANSIBLE
AND CONTRACTIBLE REMOVABLE DRIVE CORE
Filed Feb. 24, 1959
5 Sheets-Sheet 4
INVENTOR.
JOHN J Kl/PKA'
July 3, 1962 CONCRETE
3,041,839
J. J. KUF’KA
FILE FORM WITH PNEUMATICALLY EXPANSIBLE
AND CONTRACTIBLE REMOVABLE DRIVE CORE
19 ? Q6/PT97fS'/ZW?FE
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INVENTOR.
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United States Patent 0 ice
1
2
3,041,839
15 and it is shown as having a driving point 16 engaged
by a drive head 17, FIG. 2, on the lower end of the ‘re
CONCRETE PILE FORM WITH PNEUMATICALLY
EXPANSIELE AND CONTRACTIBLE REMOVA
BLE DRIVE CORE
John J. Kupka, Gladstone, N.J., assignor to McKiernan
Terry Corporation, Harrison, N.J., a corporation of
New Jersey
3,041,839
Patented‘ July 3, 1962
'
Filed Feb. 24, 1959, Ser. No. 795,036
8 Claims. (Cl. 61—-53.72)
movable core.
At the top the core is provided with a driving head
18 by which it is connected with the power hammer, FIG.
1, showing how this is accomplished by a cross key 19
extending through slots 20 in the head and having its
ends connected with cables 21 which are looped up over
the top of the hammer structure indicated at 22.
The invention herein disclosed relates to concrete pile 10
The driving head 18 is shown in FIG. 1 as having a
forms of the type covered in copending patent applica
cushion 23 of wood or-other suitable material seated in
tion Serial No. 709,604, ?led January 17, 1958, issued
the top of it and as open at the bottom at 24 to accom
February 28, 1961, as Patent No. 2,972,872 wherein the
modate the drive cap 25 in the upper end of 'the core.
shell which provides the form for the concrete is driven
The drive head 18 is ?nished with a drive shoulder 26
by a split tube that is expanded into gripping engage~ 15 in engagement with the upper end of drive cap 25.
ment with the shell for drive purposes and is contracted
to e?ect separation from the shell when the core is to be
The drive cap 25 as shown in FIG. 1 bears upon the
upper end of the split drive tube 27 and the latter, as
withdrawn from the driven shell.
1
shown in this view, is disposed within the shell and car
In that patent a system of wedge cams and toggles is
ries a sleeve of rubber-like gripping material 28 engage
' provided for etfect-ing the expansion and contraction of 20 able with the shell.
the split drive tube.
Slots 29 in the sides of the drive cap provide- free pas
The present invention utilizes the principle of the split
sage for the key 19 and allow for necessary freedom of
drive tube but involves a substitution of pneumatically
movement between the parts.
actuated means vfor effecting expansion and contraction
The pneumatic expansion means comprises an annular
of the drive tube in place of mechanical means such as
expansion bag or tube 30 ?tted to the Wall of the split
mentioned.
tube and carried by a center pipe 31 ported at 32, FIG.
The use of pneumatic means results in fewer parts
'1, to supply air to and release it from the expansion bag.
and less complication and has other advantages over
The center pipe 31 has an annular head orring 33
a mechanical system.
at the top, FIG. 1, slotted at 34 for loose passage of the
Other desirable results attained will appear as the 30 supporting key 19.
.
speci?cation proceeds and ‘further objects of the inven
tion also will become apparent.
A special object that is particularly important has been
to make certain that in the event of any failure in the
The center supply pipe 31 is thus hung on the through
key 19, supporting the air bag in position for engage
ment with the drive tube, independently of the drive
head and split drive tube and the drive head 18 and the
pneumatic system warning will be ‘given or’the machine 35 drive cap 25 by reason of the slots 20 and 29 have lim
may be shut down, thus to avoid injury to equipment
or personnel should failure occur which would not nor
-mally be immediately apparent.
The drawings accompanying and forming part of this
speci?cation illustrate present practical embodiments of
the invention. It will ‘be appreciated however that struc
ture may be further modi?ed and changed as regards the
immediate illustration all within the true intent and broad
scope of the invention as hereinafter defined and claimed.
‘FIGS. 1 and 2 in the drawings are broken vertical sec
,tional views of the upper and lower ends respectively
of a concrete pile form embodying the invention.
FIGS. 3, 4 and 5 are similar views of these parts taken
on a plane at right angles to the plane of FIGS. 1 and 2‘
and omitting the outer shield.
FIG. ‘6 is an outside view of the‘complete‘pile form,
broken to indicate the variable length of the structure.
ited movement independent of the center pipe.
The upper end of the center supply pipe is shown closed
by a plug 35, FIG. 1, which may be secured by an‘over
standing snap ring inserted in the groove 36. This plug
is shown as having an enlarged slot 37 for the key 19
and as provided with a screw socket 38 normally closed
by screw plug ‘39 and which after removal permits en
gagement of a screw threaded lift rod for pulling the plug
out of the socketed end of the center pipe.
The center plug 35 is sealed air-tight as by a sealing
ring inserted in the surrounding groove 40, FIG. 1.
Compressed air is supplied to and exhausted from the
‘center pipe through pipe or tube connections indicated
at 41 in FIG. 1.
'
The air bag 30 is shown as secured at opposite ends
on the center pipe by clamp bands 42 engaged over re
duced neck portions at the ends of the bag.
To avoid possible endwise creepage these clamps are
FIG. 7 is a horizontal sectional view on substantial
- ly. the‘ plane ‘of line 7—7 of FIG. 1 showing the trans
abutted against ?xed shoulders on the pipe.
verse key provided to tie the'head parts of the form to 55
The upper clamp 42 is “shown in FIG. 1 as engaged
gether and to suspend it from the pile hammer used to
against the lower end of the pipe head or sleeve 33 and
drive the form.
the clamp 42 at the lower end, appearing at the top in
FIGS. 8 and 9 are cross sectional views on substan
FIG. 2, the latter considered as an extension of FIG. 1,
tially the planes of lines 8—8 and 9—9 of FIG. 1 show
is shown as abutting against a ?ange or ring 59 on the
ing on a larger scale the contracted and expanded rela 60 lower end of the pipe.
‘
tion of the parts.
To avoid extrusion of the end walls of the bag, sup
FIG. 10 is a partly sectioned perspective view of up
porting rings 44 beveled or rounded to fit the shoulders
per and lower core sections showing vhow these sections
at the ends of the bag are held by the clamps ‘in engage
are joined by companion pin and socket coupling ele
ment or approximate engagement with these end wall
ments on opposite ends of the center pipes which carry
the expansion sleeves.
FIG. 11 is a diagrammatic view illustrating the safety
warning and control system.
portions of the bag.
’
For a relatively short concrete pilesuch as about twenty
feet the expansion bag and center pipe may be all in a
‘single unit, one length of bag and one length of pipe.
FIG. 12 is a broken sectional ‘detail of the di?ierential
“In such event the lower end of the center pipe is
pressure valve serving in this instance to operate a warn 70
sealed 0E and seated in the lower driving‘bead 17 as
ing ‘signal.
shown at the bottom in FIG. 2.
In the several views the shell of the form is designated
——
3,041,839
4
3
This is accomplished through the provision of a plug
and pin forming extension 45 on the lower end of the
center pipe 31 which ?ts in the socket 46 in the drive
head 17, seating on a cushion 47 at the bottom of that
socket.
The parts are pinned in this relation by a cross key
expansion and applying spring force to close the tube
on release of pressure.
-
The ends of these hinge slots are shown as enlarged
at 65 to form. terminals relieving strain and avoiding
possible fracture at these points.
The hingedly connected sections of the split tube pro
48 extending through registering slots in the pipe exten
vide a subsstantially continuous interior surface for the
sion 45 and drive head 17, the slots in the latter being
enlarged as indicated in broken lines in FIG. 2 to permit
the limited independent movement of pipe and drive
air bag to act upon and this extended area of contact en
ables satisfactory operation at reasonably low pressures.
mechanism hereto-fore explained.
The longitudinally coupled sections of the core are
interchangeable so that they may be made up as a stand
This cross pin or key 48 is shown held in place by a
surrounding retainer ring 49 seated in the groove 5% in
the drive head.
Ports 51 through the extension 45 are shown in FIG. 2 15
coupling elements at opposite ends enabling it to be used
as a single section joined at the top to the driving head
and at the bottom to the driving shoe or to be joined
as closed by screw plugs 52.
interchangeably to one or more other such sections.
FIG. 3 illustrates the single length drive section, con
nected at the top with the drive head 18 and having the
pin extension 45 of the center pipe at the bottom directly
engageable in the drive point 17.
detachably securing the sections together and to the drive
head, drive point and the driving rings which are inter
posed between adjacent ends of the split drive tubes.
ard expansible section having companion pin and socket
The transverse keys form simple substantial means for
If longer piles are to be driven, say on the order of
To prevent damage or injury in case of failure of the
forty or sixty feet, separate top and bottom sections will
air supply the expansible core or mandrel may be con
nected as shown in FIG. 11 where a high pressure line 66
is shown coming from the compressor or other source
be used with one or more intermediate sections con
nected between them.
To provide for such requirements the top, bottom and 25 of air supply with a reducing valve 67 interposed to cut
intermediate sections of the pile form are preferably made
with interchangeable pin and socket connections, that is
with the socket forming sleeve members 33 on the upper
ends of the center pipes and the companion pin projec
tions 45 on the lower ends of the center pipes.
Also where sections are joined together in end to end
the pressure down in the line 68 leading to the mandrel.
A di?ierential pressure valve 69‘ is connected by pipes
70 and 71 across the high and low pressure sources and
is used in the illustration to set off a warning whistle 72
when pressure drops in the supply line to the mandrel.
FIG. 12 shows this differential pressure valve as having
relation, blow transmitting collars 53 are interposed be
large and small cylinders 73, 74 at opposite ends con
tween the opposing ends of the drive sleeves of those
sections as shown in FIGS. 2, 4 and 5.
nected with the low and high pressure sources and con~
taining a di?erential piston having corresponding large
These intermediate drive collars 53‘ are shown as shoul 35 and small ends 75, 76 with the warning whistle con
dered at 54 at one end to center in the drive tube of
nected with the smaller cylinder by a port 77 normally
the adjoining section at that end and as held in place on
the center pipe by cross pin or key 55 held against dis
placement by a surrounding retainer ring 56.
closed by the smaller piston, with the piston upraised in
the normal operating position.
With loss of pressure at the low pressure larger end
These drive rings or collars 53 may be similar in con 40 the piston will lower to open port 77 and permit high
struction to the drive cap 25, FIG. 1, at the head of the
pressure air to sound the warning signal.
form, having a passage therethrough to slidingly receive
Instead of a whistle, other forms of air operated warn
the upper end socket extension 33 of the center pipe but
ing devices may be used or, if desired, controls of various
di?ering otherwise, as shown in FIG. 5, in that they are
sorts may be utilized to shut‘ down the system when a
slotted at 57 to hold the transverse keys 55 and, in these 45 dangerous drop in pressure occurs.
intermediate installations the slots '58 in the center pipe
The cross keys positively connect the core parts to
extensions 33 are elongated to allow limited freedom be
gether but the lost motion in these connections prevents
tween the center pipe structure and the driving part of
impact on the drive tubes being directly imparted to the
the column as represented by the split drive tubes and
center pipes, while the expansion sleeves provide ?exible
drive rings 53 between them.
Stop rings 59 held by snap rings 60 are mounted on
the center pipe extensions where needed to prevent end
wise creep of the air bags and these may be of a size
to act as centering disks and dirt guards.
FIGS. 6 and 7 show the pile form with the driving
head attached to the same by the cross key, ready for
connection to the power hammer.
The cross sectional views, FIGS. 8 and 9 show how
the air bags may be thickened or otherwise reinforced at
61 across the split in the drive tubes so that under pres
sure, FIG. 9, they will not extrude through the widened
gap.
connection between the center pipes and drive tubes,
assisting in holding the parts together but preventing im
pact on the drive tubes being communicated to the center
pipes.
While one-piece split drive tubes may be preferred,
because in expanding they retain their cylindrical form
and for other reasons, the invention contemplates that
these split drive tubes may ‘be made in separate parts, such
as semi-cylindrical halves, connected by hinge joints or ,
equivalent to enable them to expand and contract as a
substantially cylindrical split tube.
The drive rings between adjoining drive tubes and the
drive cap, constituting a form of drive ring, have a sub
These views also show how the drive tube may be
stantially continuous circular engagement for applying
formed with an integral hinge portion opposite the split
centered, maximum and uniform driving force.
by grooving it longitudinally at 62. This provides a 65 The transverse keys serve as positive mechanical con
I desirable spring hinge effect enabling the tube to evenly
expand under pressure of the air bag and to contract
with release of pressure.
nections between the drive rings, drive tubes and center
pipes with lost motion to allow a desirable amount of
independent movement between these par-ts while the
Other forms of integral spring hinge constructions may
expansion sleeves constitute ?exible impositive mechani
be provided.
70 cal connections, to some extent cushioning the relation
Thus, as shown in FIG. 10, the drive tube, here desig
between these parts.
nated 27a, may be longitudinally slotted opposite the split
What is claimed is:
in longitudinally aligned lengths 63, separated at ad
1. Concrete pile form comprising the combination of a
joining ends by continuous bridge portions 64 which serve
shell to be driven and left in the earth and a removable
as integral spring hinge knuckles, yielding to permit 75 core for driving the shell, said core comprising a split
3,041,839
.
drive tube within said shell and having a sleeve of elastic
i
6
-
7
end of the core, a drive cap in said head in engagement
with the ‘upper end of the drive tube, a driving shoe en
grippingmaterial surrounding the same, expansible into
driving engagement with the shell and collapsible to re
lease it from the shell, a center pipe extending down
through said drive tube, an expansion sleeve mounted
on said center pipe and expansible into pressure apply
gaged by the lower end of the drive tube and in driving
relation with the shell, a transverse key extending through
said drive head, drive cap and center pipe at the upper
end of the core and a transverse key extending through
ing expanding engagement with said split drive tube and
said driving shoe and center pipe at the lower end of the
means for supplying expansion ?uid to and releasing it
core, said transverse keys at the upper ‘and lower ends
from said expansion sleeve, said split drive tube being
of the core extending through the center pipe with lost
an integral one-piece spring metal tube having a longitudi 10 motion enabling movement of the drive tube under ham
nal slot in one side, giving it the formation of a split tube
mer blows independent of the center pipe, said key at
and a longitudinal groove in the opposite side providing
the upper end of the core having its ends extended beyond
the effect of a spring hinge for the expansion and con
the drive head and connections extending therefrom for
traction of the split drive tube.
suspending said drive head, drive cap and center pipe
2. Concrete pile form comprising the combination of 15 from a power hammer or other support.
a shell to be driven and left in the earth and a remov
6. A concrete'pile form comprising a shell and a re
movable drive core in said shell, said core including a
able core for driving the shell, said core comprising a
split drive tube within said shell and having a sleeve of
center pipe, a split drive tube in spaced relation about
elastic gripping material surrounding the same, expansi
said center pipe and having a surrounding sleeve of ex
ble into driving engagement with the shell and collapsible 20 pansible gripping material expansible into engagement
to release it ‘from the shell, 2. center pipe extending down
through said drive tube, an expansion sleeve mounted on
with said shell, an expansion sleeve on said center pipe
said center pipe and expansible into pressure applying
expanding engagement ‘with said split drive tube and
means for supplying expansion ?uid to and releasing it
vfrom said expansion sleeve, said drive tube being an
integral one-piece spring metal tube having a longitudinal
being in yielding expanding engagement with said split
and in communication therewith, said expansion sleeve
drive tube, a drive ring in engagement with the upper end
of said drive tube and a transverse key securing said cen
ter pipe and drive'ring in connected relation and including
slot in one side, giving it the formation of a split tube
and longitudinally aligned slots in the opposite side ar
lost motion permitting independent relative motion of
said drive ring, drive tube and center pipe.
7. A concrete pile form comprising the combination
ranged with adjoining ends separated by circumferentially
continuous spring binge portions.
of a shell to be driven and left in the earth and a remov
3. Concrete pile form comprising the combination of
a shell to be driven and left in the earth and a remov
able core for driving the shell, said core comprising a
split drive tube within said shell and having -a sleeve of
elastic gripping material surrounding the same, expansi
ble into driving engagement with the shell and collapsible
to release it from the shell, a center pipe extending down
through said drive tube, an expansion sleeve mounted
on said center pipe and expansible into pressure apply
ing expanding engagement with said split drive tube,
means for supplying expansion ?uid to and releasing it
from said expansion sleeve, a shell driving shoe engaged
able, collapsible core for driving said shell, said core
comprising a split drive tube of coextensive circular tube
sections hingedly connected by integral reduced wall por
tions of the tube and having a sleeve of elastic gripping
' material surrounding the same, said split drive tube being
of smaller diameter and located within said shell and said
circular sections through the medium of said reduced
wall portions yieldingly connecting the same being ex
pansible to carry said gripping material into gripping en
40 gagement with the surrounding shell and collapsible to
free the drive tube from such gripping relation with the
shell, means within said drive tube for effecting expan
by the lower end of the drive tube, a seat in said shoe
for centering the lower end of the center pipe and a
cushion for the pipe in said seat.
4. Concrete pile form comprising the combination of
a shell to be driven and left in the earth and a remov
able core for driving the‘ shell, said core comprising a split
drive tube within said shell and having a sleeve of elastic
gripping material surrounding the same, expansible into
driving engagement with the shell and collapsible to re
lease it from the shell, a center pipe extending down
through said drive tube, an expansion sleeve mounted
on said center pipe ‘and expansible into pressure apply
ing expanding engagement‘ with said split drive tube,
means for supplying expansion ?uid to and releasing it
from said expansion sleeve, a drive ring engaged with the ,
upper end of the drive tube and a connecting key ex
sion and contraction of the same in respect to the sur
rounding shell, a drive member in driving engagement
with the upper end of said split drive tube and a shoe
for driving the shell engaged by the lower end of said
drive tube, said means for effecting expansion and con
traction of the split drive tube being free and clear of said
drive member and thereby una?ected by impact of the
drive member on said drive tube.
8. A concrete pile form comprising the combination
of a shell to be driven and left in the ground and a remov
able collapsible core for driving the shell, said core com
prising an expansible drive tube having a surrounding
sleeve of compressible gripping material, within said
shell, expansible into driving engagement with the sur
rounding shell, a drive head in engagement with the
upper end of said drive tube, a drive shoe at the lower
end of the shell engaged by the lower end of said drive
tended transversely through said drive ring and center 60 tube, said sleeve of compressible gripping material being
pipe, said center pipe having oversize openings for said
contractible to exert collapsing force on said expansible
key to keep the center pipe ‘free of impact from the drive
drive tube and expansible by the relatively expansible
ring.
movement of said drive tube into gripping engagement
5. Concrete pile form comprising the combination of
with the surrounding shell, a center pipe extending down
a shell to be driven and left in the earth and a removable 65 through the center of said drive tube, said pipe being held
core for driving the shell, said core comprising a split
drive tube within said shell and having a sleeve of elastic
centered within the drive tube at the upper end by said
drive head and at the lower end by said drive shoe by
gripping material surrounding the same, expansible into
slip connections permitting movement of the drive tube,
driving engagement with the shell and collapsible to re
drive shoe and drive head independent of the pipe and
lease it from the shell, a center pipe extending down 70 thereby protecting the pipe against impact ‘of hammer
blows on the drive head, means at the upper end of said
through said drive tube, an expansion sleeve mounted on
center pipe for admitting pressure ?uid into and exhaust
said center pipe and expansible into pressure applying ex
ing it ‘from said center pipe and an elongated ?exible
panding engagement with said split drive tube, means for
supplying expansion ?uid to ‘and releasing it from said
elastic annular expansion sleeve mounted in surrounding
expansion sleeve, a hammer driven ‘head at the upper 75 relation on said center pipe and in pressure applying en
3,041,839
,8
7
‘gagement' with said drive tube and in pressure ?ow com
munication With said center tube and whereby expansion
of said drive tube and surrounding compressible gripping
sleeve into driving engagement with the shell may be
effected by admission of pressure ?uid into said center
pipe and release of the drive tube and gripping sleeve
from driving engagement with the shell be effected by ex
haust of pressure ?uid from the center pipe and con
sequent ccntraction of the drive tube by the sleeve of
compressible gripping material surrounding the same. '
10
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
967,879
Bilyeu ______________ __ Aug. 23, 1910
1,403,766
Gillies ______________ __ Jan. 17, 1922
1,856,608
2,181,336
2,313,625
2,334,386
2,437,043
2,633,098
2,741,093
2,830,443
2,881,592
2,881,593
2,972,872
3,006,151
Watt ________________ __ May 3, 1932
McCurdy ____________ __ Nov. 28, 1939
Cobi ________________ __ Mar. 9, 1943
755,498
Great Britain _________ __ Aug. 22, 1956
Cortella _____________ __ Nov. 16, 1943
Riemenschneider et al. ____ Mar. 2, 1948
Ellis ________________ __ Mar. 31, 1953
Ricker ______________ __ Apr. 10,
Burrell ______________ __ Apr. 15,
Cobi _______________ __ Apr. 14,
Cobi ________________ __ Apr. 14,
Kupka _______________ __ Feb. 28,
Jourdain ____________ __ Oct. 31,
1956
1958
1959
1959
1961
1961
FOREIGN PATENTS
15
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