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Патент USA US3041859

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July 3, 1962
J. R. HARNISH
3,041,849
HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS
Filed Sept. 25, 1959
,_.
|
INVENTOR.
Janis RJ/Amv/s/I.
BY
United States Patent O??ce
1
3,041,849
Patented July 3, 1962
2
3,041,849
multi~cylinder compression means sized for partially un
James R. Hamish, York, lPa., assignor to Borg-Warner
Corporation, Chicago, llL, a corporation of Illinois
Filed Sept. 25, 1959, Ser. No. 842,504
6 Claims. (Cl. 62--215)
fully loaded operation during low-temperature heating
loaded operation during the cooling operation and for
HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS
operation. Yet another object of the invention is to pro
vide a heat pump system of the type above-mentioned,
wherein means are provided for automatically unloading
at least one compressor cylinder above a certain pre
This invention relates to air source heat pump systems,
and, more speci?cally, to a single stage heat pump system.
selected outside air temperature.
The invention consists of the novel constructions, ar
In an air source heat pump system, as the temperature
rangements and devices to be hereinafter described and
of the air drops, the capacity of the system likewise drops
claimed for carrying out the above-stated objects and
at the very time when heating requirements are the great
such other objects as will appear from the following de
est. Various methods have been devised to o?fset this
scription of preferred embodiments of the invention de
decrease in capacity. These take the form of electric
scribed with reference to the accompanying drawings, in
supplementary heat, compound compression systems, etc. 15 which:
Generally, on single stage air source heat pump sys
FIG. 1 comprises a diagrammatic representation of a
tems, the compressor is selected for the cooling operation,
heat pump system embodying the invention; and
resulting in an oversized compressor for the heating oper
vFIG. 2 is a partial view shom‘ng a four-way reversing
ation. The horsepower required by the compressor is a
valve in its alternate position.
function of both the suction pressure and the discharge 20
Like numerals refer to like parts throughout the two
pressure. For the cooling operation, the suction pres
views.
sure is relatively constant at between approximately 35°
Turning now to FIG. 1, a compressor 10 is driven by
F. and 40° F. equivalent temperature. During the heat
an electric motor .11 by way of a belt drive 12. An in
ing operation, the evaporator temperature, on colder days,
door heat-exchanger 13 and an outdoor heat-exchanger
is well below this, resulting in a considerably lower equiv 25 14 are provided and are connected together by way of a
alent suction pressure. This results in a lower density
liquid line 15, including a capillary 16 therein.
refrigerant gas being handled‘ by the compressor and,
A typical four~way valve 17 serves to direct refrigerant
since the discharge pressure in heating ‘does not vary very
‘from compressor 10 to the outdoor heat-exchanger 14
much from that in cooling, there is a consequent reduction
or the indoor heat-exchanger 13, depending on whether
in horsepower required. Thus, if a compressor is se 30 cooling or heating is desired. The discharge of com
lected for cooling operation, it requires ‘a given motor
pressor 10 is connected with four-way valve 17 by way
size, and when used on heating operation, extra motor
of a gas line 18. A gas line 19 leads from the four-way
capacity is available over and above that required for
valve 17 back to the suction of compressor 10. A gas
full load operation.
line 20 leads from indoor heat-exchanger 13 to four-way
Applicant has devised a relatively simple ‘and inexpen
valve 17, and a gas line 21 similarly extends between
sive method of providing additional capacity. In select
outdoor heat-exchanger 14 to four-way valve 17.
ing the compressor capacity, additional compression cyl
In denoting heat-exchangers 13 and 14 as “indoor”
inders are provided over and above that required for
and “outdoor,” I am referring to their function rather
the cooling load. For example, the system may require
than their physical location.
six cylinders to provide design cooling requirements.
Indoor heat-exchanger 13 is in heat-exchange relation
However, an eight cylinder compressor would be pro
vided having a motor only su?iciently large to handle
the six cylinder cooling load. During the cooling oper
ation, the two extra cylinders will be maintained auto—
with air to be conditioned and supplied a building, while
outdoor heat-exchanger 14 is in heat-exchange relation
with outside air, dissipating heat thereto or picking up
heat therefrom.
A compressor cylinder unloading mechanism 22 is pro
matically unloaded.
For operation on colder days, the two additional cyl
inders would automatically come into operation. Since
the compressor horsepower per cylinder is substantially
vided for unloading one or more cylinders of compressor
10, and is controlled by bulb 23 located in the outdoor
‘air stream and connected to unloading mechanism 22 by
less at the lower evaporator temperatures involved on
way of a capillary 24. - Bulb 23 contains a volatile ?uid
cold days, the motor selected for cooling (six cylinders) 50 so chosen as to develop su?icient pressure at the desired
is su?iciently large to handle eight cylinders for this
temperature to actuate unloader mechanism 22.
condition.
The compressor unloading mechanism is not shown in
This arrangement is particularly attractive on most
greater detail since it may take any preferred form and
single stage systems when electric supplementary heat
is no part of the invention per so. For example, the
It 55 compressor and its loading and unloading mechanism
must be provided at lower outdoor air temperatures.
requires the additional expense only for a larger com
pressor to provide the additional heat required, and the
may be that type shown in the Aldinger Patent No.
2,526,922, owned by the assignee of my invention. For
the purpose of this disclosure, the Aldinger disclosure is
electric heaters can be eliminated or held to a minimum.
The motor and starter size, wiring and other equipment,
by reference incorporated herein.
need not be increased in size.
As was pointed out hereinabove, compressor 10 com
It is an object of the invention, therefore, to provide
prises a multi-cylinder compression means driven by
motor v11, selected such that it is only vsu?iciently large
to handle the fully loaded, ‘low temperature heating load.
in a heat pump system a multi-cylinder compressor hav
ing means for unloading at least one of the cylinders
during cooling operation and for operating the compressor
fully loaded during low temperature heating operation,
65
In operation and during the cooling operation, the
volatile ?uid within bulb 23 transmits su?icient pressure
through capillary 24 to unloader mechanism 22 to unload
‘and having a motor sized for the unloaded cooling oper
ation.
one or more cylinders of compressor 10, all as may be
Another object of the invention is to provide a heat
understood
from ‘an inspection of the aforementioned
pump system, including a motor-compressor unit, where
in the motor is used to its fullest capacity during both 70 Aldinger Patent No. 2,526,922. Pour~way valve 17 is
set as shown and refrigerant gas compressed in compressor
cooling and heating operation, the compressor comprising
10 ?ows into line 18 and is directed by four-Way valve
'
3,041,849
4
3. A heat pump comprising an outdoor heat-exchanger,
17 into line 21, whence it flows into the outdoor heat
exchanger 14. The gas which is liqui?ed in flow there
through, flows into line 15 and through capillary 16 en
route to indoor heat-exchanger 13. Passing through
capillary 16, its pressure and corresponding temperature
an indoor heat-exchanger, and a compressor, said com
pressor comprising multi-cylinder compression means, re
frigerant flow lines connecting said compressor unit and
heat-exchangers in a closed refrigerant circuit, means
for ‘directing refrigerant from said compressor through
said closed refrigerant circuit ?rst to said outdoor heat
exchanger during a cooling operation and ?rst to said in—
refrigerant is evaporated and the gas thence ?ows by
door heat-exchanger during a heating operation, means
way of line 20 to four-way valve 17 and is directed into
line 19 back to the inlet of the compressor to complete 10 for expanding refrigerant in the second heat-exchanger of
are dropped to a point Where heat may be picked up
from the air ?owing over indoor heat-exchanger 13. The
the cycle.
the series, means for maintaining at least one of said
As was mentioned, electric motor 11 is of a
cylinders unloaded during said cooling operation and for
size only sufficiently large to operate compressor 10 in
its unloaded condition during the cooling operation.
fully loading said cylinders during said heating operation,
and a motor only of suf?cient size to operate said com
As the outside temperature drops, the system goes on
heating operation and four-way valve 17 is reversed, there
by reversing the function of indoor heat-exchanger 13
and outdoor heat-exchanger 14. The indoor heat
exchanger 13 now operates as a refrigerant condenser
‘and the outdoor heat-exchanger 14 operates as a refriger
ant evaporator. As the outdoor temperature continues to
drop and at some preselected temperature, pressure de
veloped within bulb 23 is insufficient to actuate unloader
22 to maintain compressor 1%} in its unloaded condition,
and all the compressor cylinders may come into oper
15
pressor when unloaded during said unloaded cooling
operation.
4. In a heat pump comprising an outdoor heat-ex
changer, an indoor heat-exchanger, a compressor, refrig
erant ?ow lines connecting said compressor unit and heat
exchangers in a closed refrigerant circuit, means for
directing refrigerant from said compressor through said
closed refrigerant circuit ?rst to said out-door heat-ex
changer during a cooling operation and ?rst to said indoor
heat-exchanger during a heating operation and means for
ation if required by the building heating load. However, 25 expanding refrigerant in the second ‘heat-exchanger of
the series, the improvement comprising a multi-cylinder
because of the lower horsepower requirements per cyl
compressor, means for maintaining at least one of said
inder during low temperature operation, motor 11 is su?i
cylinders unloaded during said cooling operation and for
ciently large to maintain the compressor in operation.
operating said compressor fully loaded during low tem
It will be apparent that more heat will be provided by
perature heating operation, and a motor only of su?icient
the compressor with the additional cylinders in operation
and at a cost only slightly more than would be the case
if compressor 10 were sized for the cooling load.
Fur
size to operate said compressor when unloaded during
said unloaded cooling operation.
5. In a heat pump according to claim 4, means for
ther, motor 11 is used at optimum capacity at all times.
automatically loading and unloading said compressor cyl
I wish it to be understood that my invention is not
to be limited to the speci?c constructions and arrange 35 inders according to a predetermined low outside air tem
perature.
ments shown and described, except only insofar as the
6. In a heat pump comprising an outdoor heat-ex
claims may be so limited, as it will be apparent to those
skilled in the art that changes may be made without de
parting from the principles of the invention.
What is claimed is:
l. A heat pump comprising an outdoor heat-exchanger,
‘and indoor heat-exchanger, and a compressor, said com
pressor comprising multi-cylinder compression means, re
frigerant (?ow lines connecting said compressor unit and
heat-exchangers in a closed refrigerant circuit, means for
directing refrigerant from said compressor through said
closed refrigerant circuit, ?rst to said outdoor heat
exchanger during 1a cooling operation and ?rst to said
indoor heat-exchanger during a heating operation, means
for expanding refrigerant in the second heat-exchanger
of the series, means for maintaining at least one of said
cylinders unloaded during said cooling operation and for
operating said compressor fully loaded at least part time
during said heating operation, and a motor only of su?‘i
cient size to operate said compressor when unloaded
during said unloaded cooling operation.
2. A heat pump as set out in claim 1, and automatic
means for loading and unloading said cylinders according
to a preselected outside air temperature.
changer, an indoor heat-exchanger, a compressor, refrig
erant ?ow lines connecting said compressor unit and
heat~exchangers in a closed refrigerant circuit, means for
directing refrigerant from said compressor through said
closed refrigerant circuit first to said outdoor heat-ex
changer during a cooling operation and ?rst to said indoor
heat-exchanger during a heating operation and means for
expanding refrigerant in the second heat-exchanger of
the series; the improvement comprising a multi-cylinder
compressor, means for maintaining at least one of said
cylinders unloaded during said cooling operation and for
fully loading said cylinders during said heating operation,
and a motor only of sui?cient size to operate said com
pressor when unloaded during said unloaded cooling
operation.
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
2,498,861
2,619,326
2,912,833
Newton‘ ______________ __ Feb. 8, 1950
McLenegen __________ __ Nov. 25, 1952
McGrath ____________ __ Nov. 17, 1959
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