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Патент USA US3041893

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July 3, 1962
c. s. CHRISTIANSEN
3,041,885
BELLOWS
Filed May 11, 1959
_
'
l2
INVENTOR.
CLIFFORD s. GHRISTIANSEN
/
aren't @tiiice
spit-Lass
Patented July 3-, 1%62
2
tioned within said large diameter so as to cover said
3,041,885
ori?ces to allow air from the bellows to escape there
Cli?ord S. Christiansen, Port Clinton, Ohio, assignor, by
through and to prevent objectionable foreign matter from
entering the bellows.
BELLGWS
mesne assignments, to Baldwin-Montrose {Ihemical
Company, incorporated (Baldwin Division) Pontiac,
Mich, a corporation of Indiana
Filed Mia}! 11, 1959, Ser. No. 812,305
17 Claims. (Cl. 74-182)
Another object is to provide a bellows for sealing a
reciprocating rod or the like in an opening including air
exhaust means therefor and ?lters associated therewith
which is simple in construction, easy to manufacture and
ef?cient in use.
This invention relates to a seal or boot and refers more l0
These and other objects, ‘advantages and novel details
speci?cally to a seal in the form of a bellows including ex
of construction of this invention will be made more ap
haust means therefor to permit rapid operation of the bell
lows without deforming the bellows and also including
?lters associated with the exhaust means to prevent foreign
parent as this description proceeds, especially when con
sidered in connection with the accompanying drawings,
wherein:
matter from entering the bellows through the exhaust 15
Fl JURE l is an elevational view of the bellows of the
means during operation of the bellows.
invention as it is formed on a mandrel and which is
In industry it is often necessary to make use of me
partly in section to show the mandrel.
chanical members such as a rod and a piston so related
FIGURE 2 is an elevational view of of the bellows of
that the rod reciprocatcs between two relatively ?xed posi
FIGURE 1 in a compressed position after removal from
tions with respect to a cylinder housing. These me 20 the mandrel and with openings in the end surface of the
chanical members in devices such as automobiles or the
sleeves.
like are quite likely to be located in positions where they
FIGURE 3 is a partial section of the bellows of PEG
are exposed to dirt, grease and other matter harmful to
URE 1 showing one of the rectangular sleeves thereof
the operation thereof. it is therefore desirable and com
with openings out in the end surface thereof and a ?lter
mon practice to place seals around the rods which are
inserted within the sleeve covering the openings.
attached to the cylinder housing to prevent foreign matter
FIGURE 4 is a partial section of a bellows ‘similar to
from entering said cylinder housing through the opening
that of FIGURE 1 showing a modi?ed circular sleeve
therein for said rod or otherwise interfering with the re
having the tip removed and constructed to positively grip
ciprocation of said rod.
1a ?lter placed therein.
‘in the past seals for these members have taken the 30
FIGURE 5 is a partial elevation partly in section of
form of bellows made of plastic, rubber or other ?exible
a bellows similar to that of FIGURE 1 which includes
material. However, with fast acting reciprocating rods
an extra large diameter portion supporting circular up
such as are used in connection with automobile power
brakes and the like it has been found that during the re
traction of the rods the bellows tend to deform due to the
air trapped therein. The problem then confronts industry
wardly extending air exhaust sleeves at a point thereon
radially outward from the large diameter portions above
the sleeves to prevent the sleeves from interfering with
the movement of the bellows.
FIGURE 6 is a partial elevation partly in section of a
bellows similar to that of FIGURE 1 wherein the sleeves
of how to rapidly exhaust the air from the bellows ‘and
draw lair back into the bellows during the contraction and
expansion thereof respectively in a simple economical man
are replaced by circumferential slots in one large diam
ner without allowing foreign matter to collect inside of the 40 eter portion thereof and an internal ?lter ring covering
bellows. Prior known devices such as screens around the
outside of the small diameter of the bellows operative in
conjunction with ori?ces in the small diameter and re
quiring expansion rings on the interior of adjacent large
the slots is provided within said large diameter portion.
FIGURE 7 is a partial elevation partly in section of a
bellows similar to that of FIGURE 5 wherein the sleeves
are turned into the bellows as shown and are attached
diameters of the bellows have been complicated, expensive 45 to the bellows at an angle such that no interference be
and often unsatisfactory solutions to this problem.
tween the sleeves and the sides of the bellows results
It is therefore one of the objects of the present inven—
when the sleeves are turned into the bellows.
tion to provide a seal to extend between a reciprocating
One embodiment of a bellows generally indicated it)
rod or the like and an opening in which the rod is movable,
and constructed according to the invention is illustrated
including air exhaust means therefor and ?lters ‘associated
in FIGURE 1 in which the seal or bellows is shown on
with said air exhaust means.
the formed mandrel on which it is produced by dipping.
Another object is to provide a bellows for sealing a
The bellows do is illustrated in FIGURE 1 in its fully
reciprocating rod or the like in an aperture, including air
expanded position. As shown the bellows ltl comprises
exhaust means therefor having iair ?lters associated there
an elongated ?exible member having alternate large and
with and including means to prevent the ?lters from be
small diameter portions ‘12 and 14 along the length there
coming dislodged during expansion and contraction of
of forming adjacent ‘folds or convolutions 16. Also it
the bellows with movement of the rod.
will be noted that the adjacent convolutions have progres
More speci?cally it is an object to provide a bellows for
sively smaller diameters in the direction of end 18. The
sealing 1a reciprocating rod or the like in an opening, the
bellows It) is further provided with bead 2s at the end 22
bellows having alternate large and small diameter por
and nipple 24 at end 18. Rectangular nipples or sleeves
tions to produce a collapsibe ‘accordion effect, and includ
26 as shown in FIGURE 1 are also provided in the manu
ing sleeves projecting from the outer portion of at least
facture of the bellows near the large diameter of one
one of the large diameter portions, said sleeves being open
or more convolutions 16.
at their outer ends, ?lters secured within said sleeves, and
The bellows 10 is particularly adapted to be attached
means within said sleeves to permit the dislodgernent of
to a relatively large housing member (not shown) having
said ?lters.
a reciprocating rod (not shown) extending therefrom.
More speci?cally it is an object to provide a ?exible
bellows for ‘sealing ‘a reciprocating rod or the like in an
opening, the bellows having {alternate large and small
diameters progressively decreasing in size toward one end
thereof, also having ori?ces in the periphery of at least
one large diameter and including an annular ?lter posi
In such installation end 22 of the bellows it} may be
secured to the housing by bead 2.4} in conjunction with
a mating groove on the housing.
Alternatively, an ex
pander ring or ?ange plate may be used to secure the
bellows 10 to a housing. The reciprocating rod is passed
through end 18 of the bellows and is tightly surrounded
3,0a11,885
e1)
.
by nipple 24 which has had the tip thereof removed as
indicated in FIGURE 2 to allow passage of the rod there
through.
the mandrel 40 after setting or curing may be stripped
from the mandrel to provide the bellows 1t). Openings
25 may then be cut in sleeves 26 as desired ‘for a par
The purpose of a bellows 10‘ in such an installation is
ticular bellows installation. The bellows It} will be inside
to prevent dust, grit and other matter from passing
through the opening in which the rod reciprocates, as
out relative to the bellows as shown in FIGURE 1 on
If such means are not provided the bellows will become
collapsed position. It will be noted that in the collapsed
being stripped from the mandrel and the sleeves 26 may
be extending into the interior thereof. It is then neces—
for example into the interior of an automobile. A bel
sary to turn the bellows lltl right side out to produce a
lows type cover is necessary to follow the reciprocation
bellows as shown in FIGURES 1 and 2 having the sleeves
of the rod, the bellows being expanded as in FIGURE 1
on extension of the rod and collapsed as in FIGURE 2 10 26 extending outwardly therefrom.
In the manufacture of the bellows It) it is necessary
on retraction of the rod.
to have suf?cient clearance between the sleeves 26 there
In installations such as in connection with power brakes
of and the adjacent convolutions 16 to prevent the liquid
for automobiles the reciprocating action of the rod is
rubber or other ?exible material from bridging across
often very fast. It is necessary therefore to provide
between the sleeve end 27 and the adjacent convolution
means for allowing air within the bellows to escape dur
of the bellows during the dipping process.
ing collapse of the bellows and to provide means for
In FIGURE 2 there is shown the bellows It) in its
allowing air to enter the bellows on expansion thereof.
position the convolutions of bellows It} nest within each
action of the rod and deteriorating quickly. The means 20 other. This nesting of successive convolutions is facili
tated by each convolution in applicant’s device being
for allowing air to pass into and out of the bellows on
deformed during reciprocation of the rod retarding the
reciprocation of the rod must not however allow foreign
matter such as dust or grit to enter the bellows as this
would defeat the purpose of the bellows which is to act
as a seal for the opening.
Applicant therefore provides nipples or sleeves 26 on
bellows It] in the manufacture thereof. Before installa
made of slightly dilferent diameter from the adjacent ones
as previously explained and shown in the ?gures.
It is contemplated however that in certain installations
- vertically extending sleeves 26a similar to those shown
in FIGURE 4 will be required. Such sleeves on a bel
lows as shown in FIGURE 1 would interfere with the
complete collapse of bellows it}. Such interference may
tion of the bellows the openings 25 are cut in the end
cause excessive wear at contact points between the tips
surface 27 of sleeves 26 providing access to the interior
of the bellows 1th from the outside thereof as best shown 30 of sleeves 26d and adjacent convolutions 16 of the bel
lows 10. Therefore to prevent such interference in in
in FIGURES 3 and 4. Filter elements 28 are then
stallations where it is objectionable applicant provides
placed in the tips of the hollow sleeve structure 26 as
the structure shown in FIGURE 5. In FIGURE 5 the
shown in FIGURES 3 and 4 to allow air to pass freely
in and out of bellows ‘10 while ?ltering the dirt and grit
therefrom.
Various ?lters 28 and methods of securing them with
particular convolution 16 of a bellows 10a supporting
the sleeves 26a is made of larger diameter than normal
in sleeves 26 as well as various shapes and forms for
tions of the bellows with the bellows in the collapsed
as shown so that sleeves 26a do not contact the convolu
sleeves 26 are contemplated by applicant depending on
the requirements therefor in a particular seal application.
position.
In FIGURE 3 there is shown a screen type ?lter 28 hav
place sleeves 26a inwardly of the bellows in particular
ing flock bonded thereto to increase the ?lter action there
of positioned within a rectangular sleeve such as is indi
installations as shown in FIGURE 7. (In such installa
tions it will of course be necessary to produce sleeves
26a with the same angle with respect to the vertical as
side 42 of the bellows to which it is attached has in the
cated in FIGURE 1. It will be understood that one or
several sleeves 26 may be positioned around a single
large diameter of the bellows or the sleeves may be dis
tributed over several large diameters of the bellows. The
number and area of the openings 25 in sleeves 26 will
of course be determined by the application of the bel
Also it is considered that it would be desirable to
extended position of the bellows to prevent interference
between the sleeves 26a and the side of the bellows.
A modi?cation of the invention is shown in FIGURE
6. In FIGURE 6 air inlet and discharge slots 42 are
provided around the periphery of at least one of the
bellows the opening area must be increased. Filter 50 convolution of bellows 10b An annular ?lter 44 which
may be a screen having ?ock bonded thereto is posi
28 may also be bonded to the sleeve 26 with suitable
tioned within the bellows in registration with the slots
adhesive or may alternatively be held therein through
4-2 to prevent objectionable matter from entering the
frictional forces. It will also be noted that in the cutting
bellows through slots 42. Alternately the ?lter may be
of openings 25 in the surface 27 of sleeves 26 to form
the sleeve structure of FIGURE 3 that the surfaces 27 55 a spring wire supporting cigarette type ?lter material or
other types of annular ?lters.
are cut so as to leave an inwardly projecting 'lip 30
The bellows ltlb of the modi?cation may be formed
around the edge 32 of the sleeve structure. The lip
as the bellows 10 of FIGURES 1—-2 ‘and 5 but without
30 aids in the retaining of the ?lter 28 within sleeve 26.
sleeves 26. The slots 42 may later be out therein as
In FIGURE 4 a cigarette type ?lter is shown secured
within a slightly modi?ed sleeve 26a. The sleeve 26a 60 desired for a particular application. Filters 44 may be
placed in bellows 1022 after the manufacture thereof and
in FIGURE 4 is circular in cross-section and is pro
lows. In general with faster acting rods and with larger
vided with an internal annular recess 34 formed as shown
into which ?lter 28a may be placed by stretching the
lip 30. Filter 28a is therefore secured in place by the
the cutting of slots 42. Alternatively ?lters 10 may be
positioned on mandrel 40 before the dipping process ‘and
thereby be bonded into the bellows 1% during the dip
mechanical means of abutment 36 and lip 30. The 65 ping process.
The drawings and the foregoing speci?cation consti
recess 34 in FIGURE 4 may be formed in the manufac
tute a description of the improved bellows in such full,
ture of bellows 10 by providing an annular ring on the
clear, concise and exact terms as to enable any person
sleeve forming projections ‘Such as 33 of a mandrel such
skilled in the art to practice the invention, the scope of
as 449 shown in FIGURE 1.
Bellows It) may be produced by a dip process. A 70 which is indicated by the appenedd claims.
What I claim as my invention is:
mandrel 4b as shown in FIGURE 1 shaped in the form
l. A bellows for sealing a reciprocating rod or the
desired of the expanded bellows is dipped into a liquid
like in an opening, comprising an elongated flexible rela
rubber or other suitable ?exible plastic material, held
tively impervious member having alternating large and
for a time dependent on the thickness of the bellows
desired ‘and then withdrawn. The material adhering to 75 small diameter portions along the length thereof forming
5
2,041,885‘
6
adjacent convolutions, air exhaust and intake means op~
member having alternating large and small diameter
erably associated with said bellows around the outer
portions forming adjacent convolutions, air intake and
edge of at least one of said portions of said ?exible
outlet ori?ces around the outer periphery of at least one
member to prevent undesirable deformations of said bel
of said adjacent convolutions, and ?lter means relatively
lows on rapid collapsing and expanding thereof, and ?lter
pervious with respect to said ?exible member operably
means relatively pervious with respect to said ?exible
associated with said ori?ces to prevent foreign matter
member operably associated with said air exhaust and
from entering said bellows.
intake means to prevent foreign matter from entering
8. A bellows for sealing a reciprocating rod or the like
said bellows through said air exhaust and intake means.
in an opening, comprising an elongated ?exible relatively
2. A bellows for sealing a reciprocating rod or the like 10 impervious member having alternating large and small
in an opening, comprising an elongated ?exible relatively
diameter portions along the length thereof forming ad
impervious member having alternating large and small
jacent convolutions, air intake and outlet circumferen
diameter portions along the length thereof forming ad
tial slots around the outer periphery of at least one of said
jacent convolutions, air intake and exhaust sleeves at
adjacent convolutions, and ?lter means relatively pervious
tached to and positioned around the outer edge of at least 15 with respect to said ?exible member operably associated
one of said convolutions and opening into said bellows to
with said slots to prevent foreign mater from entering
prevent undesirable deformation of said bellows on rapid
said bellows.
collapsing and expanding thereof, and ?lter means rela
9. A bellows for sealing a reciprocating rod or the like
tively pervious with respect to said flexible member op
in an opening, comprising an elongated ?exible relatively
erably associated with said sleeves to prevent foreign
impervious member having alternating large and small
matter from entering said bellows.
diameter portions along the length thereof forming ad
3. A bellows for sealing a reciprocating rod or the like
jacent convolutions, air intake and exhaust sleeves at
in an opening, comprising an elongated ?exible relatively
tached to and positioned around the outer edge of at least
impervious member having alternating large and small
one of said convolutions and opening into said bellows,
diameter portions along the length thereof forming ad 25 and cigarette type ?lter means relatively pervious with
jacent convolutions, air intake and exhaust sleeves at
respect to said ?exible member positioned within said
tached to and positioned around the outer edge of at
sleeves to prevent foreign matter from entering said
least one of said convolutions and opening into said bel
bellows.
lows, said sleeves being positioned to provide clearance
10. A bellows for sealing a reciprocating rod or the
between the outer end thereof and the convolutions ad 30 like in an opening, comprising an elongated ?exible rela
jacent thereto, and ?lter means relatively pervious with
tively impervious member having alternating large and
respect to said ?exible member operably associated with
small diameter portions along the length thereof forming
said sleeves to prevent foreign matter from entering said
adjacent convolutions, air intake and exhaust sleeves
bellows.
attached to and positioned around the outer edge of at
4. A bellows for sealing a reciprocating rod or the like 35 least one of said convolutions and opening into said bel
in an opening, comprising an elongated ?exible relatively
lows, and ?lters relatively pervious with respect to said
impervious member having alternating large and small
?exible member comprisng screens having ?ock bonded
diameter portions along the length thereof forming ad
thereto positioned within said sleeves to prevent foreign
jacent convolutions of varying diameter, one convolution
matter from entering said bellows.
having a diameter larger than either of the convolutions 40
11. A bellows for sealing a reciprocating rod or the
adjacent thereto and having air intake and exhaust sleeves
like in an opening, comprising an elongated ?exible rela
attached thereto and opening into said bellows, said
tively impervious member having alternating large and
sleeves being positioned around the outer edge of said
small diameter portions along the length thereof forming
one convolution so as not to interfere with the adjacent
adjacent convolutions, air intake and exhaust. sleeves at
convolutions on collapse of said bellows, and ?lter means 45 tached to and positioned around the outer edge of at
relatively pervious with respect to said ?exible member
least one of said convolutions and opening into said bel
operably associated with said sleeves to prevent foreign
lows, and ?lter means to prevent foreign matter from
matter from entering said bellows.
entering said bellows relatively pervious with respect to
5. A bellows for sealing a reciprocating rod or the like
said ?exible member bonded with said sleeves to prevent
in an opening, comprising an elongated ?exible relatively
said ?lter means from being dislocated with respect to
impervious member having alternating large and small
said sleeves on collapse of said bellows.
diameter portions about an axis along the length thereof
12. A bellows for sealing a reciprocating rod or the
forming adjacent convolutions, rectangular air intake and
like in an opening, comprising an elongated ?exible rela
exhaust sleeves attached to and positioned around the
tively impervious member having alternating large and
outer edge of at least one of said convolutions at right 55 small diameter portions along the length thereof forming
angles to the axis of the bellows and opening into said
adjacent convolutions, at least one of said convolutions
bellows, and ?lter means relatively pervious with respect
having air intake and outlet ori?ces around the outer
to said ?exible member operably associated with said
periphery thereof, and an annular ?ocked screen ?lter
sleeves to prevent foreign matter from entering said bel
lows.
6. A bellows for sealing a reciprocating rod or the like
in an opening, comprising an elongated ?exible relatively
relatively pervious with respect to said ?exible member
60 positioned on the interior of said bellows in registration
with said ori?ces to prevent foreign matter from entering
said bellows.
impervious member having alternating large and small
13. A bellows for sealing a reciprocating rod or the like
diameter portions along the length thereof forming ad
in an opening comprising an elongated ?exible relatively
jacent convolutions, cylindrical air intake and exhaust 65 impervious member, air exhaust and intake means oper
sleeves attached to and positioned around the outer edge
ably associated with said ?exible member to prevent un
of at least one of said convolutions and opening into
desirable deformation of said bellows on rapid collapsing
said bellows, said sleeves having annular recesses on the
and expanding thereof, and ?lter means relatively per
interior surfaces at the outer ends thereof formed to re
vious with respect to said ?exible member operably asso
ceive ?lter means, and ?lter means relatively pervious with 70 ciated with said air exhaust and intake means to prevent
respect to said ?exible member positioned within said
foreign matter from entering said bellows through said
recesses to prevent foreign matter from entering said
air exhaust and intake means.
bellows.
14. A bellows for sealing a reciprocating rod or the like
7. A bellows for sealing a reciprocating rod or the like
in an opening, comprising an elongated ?exible relatively
in an opening, comprising ?exible relatively impervious 75 impervious member having alternating large and small
3,041,885
E
diameter portions along the length thereof forming adja
cent convolutions, at least one of said convolutions having
air intake and. outlet ori?ces around the outer periphery
thereof, and an annular ?ocked screen ?lter relatively per
vious with respect to said ?exible member positioned in
registration with said ori?ces to prevent foreign matter
from entering said bellows.
15. A bellows for sealing a reciprocating rod or the like
in an opening, comprising an elongated ?exible relatively
impervious member having alternating large and small l0
diameter portions along the length thereof forming adja
cent convolutions, air intake and exhaust sleeves attached
to and positioned around the outer edge of at least one of
said convolutions, said sleeves extending inwardly of and
opening into said bellows and ?lter means relatively per 15
vious with respect to said ?exible member operably asso
ciated with said sleeves to prevent foreign matter from
entering said bellows.
16. Structure as set forth in claim 13 wherein said ?exi
ble member is provided With an enlarged diameter portion 20
and said ?lter means is secured‘ Within said enlarged. diam
ble member has alternating large and small diameter por
tions, said air exhaust and intake meansis an ori?ce in
one of said portions and said ?lter means. is secured in- said
one portion.
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
1,088,954
1,324,850
1,561,928
1,835,770
2,007,501
2,211,817
Wright _______________ __ Mar. 3,
Roberts ______________ __ Dec. 16,
Jaquith _____________ __ NOV. 17,
Gasner et al. __________ __ Dec. 8,
Millmine ______________ .__ July 9,
Huiferd et al __________ .__ Aug. 20,
2,278,764
2,378,046
Boyle ________________ __ Apr. 7, 1942
Stergis ______________ -_ June 12, 1945
2,384,056
2,464,988
2,465,546
2,761,694
Tritt _________________ __ Sept. 4,1945
Payne ______________ __ Mar. 22, 1949
Marslek ____________ __ Mar. 29, 1949
Graham _____________ __ Sept. 4, 1956.
1,081,076
France ________________ __ June 2, 1954
FOREIGN PATENTS
eter portion.
17. Structure as set forth in claim 13 wherein said ?exi
1914
1919
1925
1931
1935
1940
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