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Патент USA US3042044

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July 3, 1962
J. H. BRODIE
3,041,994
KIT SAIL FOR BOATS
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
Filed Aug. 1, 1960
JAMES
BRODIE) INVENTOR
BY ROBERT M. Dunnma
ATTORNEY
July 3, 1962
J. H. BRODIE
3,041,994
KIT SAIL FOR BOATS
Filed Aug. 1, 1960
2 Sheéts-Sheet 2
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JAMES H. BkOD/E, , INVENTOR
BY ROBERT M. DUNNING
ATI‘ORNEY
United States Patent 0 ’ ice
3,041,;‘594
Patented July 3, 1962
2
1
3,041,994
when sailing into a landing or to a dock with the wind
from the stem, the boom can be allowed to swing all
James H. Brodie, 1972 Grand Ave., St. Paul 5, Minn.
boat to drift to a gentle stop. With other types of sailing
KIT SAIL FOR BOATS
the way forward, spilling all the wind, and allowing the
Filed Aug. 1, 1960, Ser. No. 46,691
8 Claims. ((11. 114-39)
rigs, involving side stays for the mast, such stays 0b
struct full swinging of the sail and it is necessary to
maneuver the boat to sail up into the wind in order to
stop, a sometimes difficult sailing maneuver. Rather
This invention relates to an improvement in kit sails
for boats and deals particularly with a structure which
may be supplied in kit form and used to convert a canoe,
rowboat, or other small boat into a sail boat.
than to provide ropes and ?llings for raising and lower
10 ing the sail, the mast extends through a hem in the ver
Many types of units have been produced for convert~
ing canoes, rowboats or the like into sail boats. In most
instances, these units have been undesirable in that they
tical edge of the sail. The mast is formed of hollow
tubular members. The top of the sail is supported by a
pivotable member which telescopes into the top of the
mast and which includes a radially extending arm de
necessitate material revision to the boat itself. For ex
ample, in most instances the sail is supported at a point 15 signed to extend through a horizontal hem at the top of
the sail.
substantially even with the side edges of the boat, and
A further feature of the present invention resides in
also at the bottom of the boat. Usually one part or the
the provision of a boat attachment of the type described
other of this support is ?xed to the boat in such a way
in which the top swivel member not only acts to support
that cannot be readily removed. It is an object of the
present invention to provide a sail structure which may 20 the sail in elevated position, but also provides an in
crease in the area of the sail due to the fact that the sail
is of trapezoidal outline, rather than triangular in outline.
may be driven by the wind in the manner of a sail boat.
A further feature of the present invention resides in
The construction is such that the unit may be added to,
the provision of a transverse mast support having lee
or removed from, a boat of the type described without
modifying the boat or changing the boat in any way and 25 boards on the ends thereof which extend downwardly and
rearwardly at an angle of substantially 45 °. As a result
that the unit is a structural entity in itself not depending
of‘this arrangement, as the boat tends to tip to one side,
on the boat hull to complete its structural pattern.
be applied to a boat, such as a canoe, so that the boat
An object of the present invention resides in the pro
the centroid of lateral resistance provided by the lee
board shifts forwardly as the leeward board is submerged
deeper. This creates a force couple between the wind
like capable of supporting a mast in an upright position.
force on the sail and the side resistance of the leeboard
This device includes a supporting member extending
against the water, which tends to turn the bow of the
transversely across the top of the boat,‘and a generally
boat into the wind and spill the wind from the sail and
V-shaped frame or bracket attached to the cross mem—
thus the tendency of the boat to tip over is automatically
her and extending downwardly or upwardly therefrom.
The cross member includes an aperture through which 35 relieved.
A further feature of the present invention resides in
the mast may extend, and the apex of the V-shaped frame
the provision of a transverse mast support having lee
member is socketed to receive the lower end of the mast.
boards on the ends thereof which extend into the water
As a result, the entire mast support is formed as a unit
and which are spaced laterally from the sides of the boat.
which may be detachably clamped to the gunwales ex
40 As a result of this arrangement a stabilizing effect due to
tending along the upper edge of the boat hull.
the buoyancy of the leeboards is applied to the boat. As
A further feature of the present invention resides in a
one leeboard is submerged, ‘when the boat tips, its addi
novel method of stopping the mast into the transverse
tional displacement on a transverse moment arm pro
structural assembly unit, thus eliminating the need for a
vides a righting moment to the boat.
imultaneously,
mast stop secured into the bottom of the boat. By stop
ping the end of the mast in the bracket attached to the 45 as the opposite leeboard is raised clear of the water its
vision of an attachment for canoes, rowboats and the
transverse member, the mast is supported as a cantilever
additional deadweight on a transverse moment arm pro
vides an equal righting moment to the boat. Thus, this
feature provides for additional inherent stability to the
boat.
A further feature of the present invention resides in
ing. These stresses are transmitted to the boat hull at 50
the provision of a mast support and leeboard construc
the gunwale clamps only and hence no socket or mast
tion which may be clamped to, or removed from, the
stop is required in the bottom of the boat, and no rope
gunwales of the boat and to provide a rudder which may
or wire stays are required to be attached to the boat to
be detachably secured to the rear of the boat and by means
support the mast.
entirely by the transverse member. As a result, the
transverse member accommodates the fore and aft stresses
of the mast in torsion, and the sideways stresses, in bend
A further feature of the present invention resides in the 55 of which the boat may be steered. With such an an
rangement, it is unnecessary to bore through the boat or
provision of a structural assembly combining the sup
drive screws into the boat, thereby preventing any change
port for the mast and the attachment and support of the
two leeboards which prevent sideways drifting of the
in the boat structure.
These and other objects and novel features of the
boat when sailing ahead and also provide stability to the
boat to resist tipping. It is usual practice to mount the 60 present invention will be more clearly and fully set forth
leeboards by some sort of separate attachment somewhat
in the following speci?cation and claims.
to the rear of the mast so that the leeboards are located
FIGURE 1 is a perspective view of a boat showing
transversely of the center of the sail area. In the pres
‘the sail, leeboards, mast ‘and mast support, as well as
ent construction, the leeboards are angled at about 45°
the rudder, attached thereto.
rearwardly from the mast support so that their centroid 65
FIGURE 2 is a. transverse sectional view through the
of underwater areas are normally in the proper location
boat adjacent to one of the gunwales of the boat showing
relative to the center of the sail area.
the manner in which the cross member may be clamped
A further feature of the present invention resides in
to the boat.
the provision of a novel means of mounting the sail so
FIGURE 3 is a sectional view through the upper por
that it may rotate 360° about the mast if desired. With 70 tion of the mast showing the manner in which the sail is
this arrangement, the sail may be‘ properly positioned for
much simpler and easier maneuvering. For instance,
supported.
3,041,994
a
4
3
FIGURE 4 is a side eievational view of the rudder
attached to the rear of the boat.
any desired angle relative to the boat throughout the full
360° circle.
A pair of wedge shaped blocks 41 ‘are designed to ac
commodate the reinforcement 42. at the forward edge
of the boat which is usually V-shaped in cross section.
Arms 43 having right angmlarly turned ends 44 are sup
FIGURE 5 is a top plan view of the rudder showing
the manner in which the rudder is attached to the boat.
The invention comprises a kit sail designed for
attachment to a boat such ‘as the canoe A. The attach
ment may also be used on a row boat or similar small
boat.
ported outwardly of the blocks 41 and are designed to
engage behind the edges of the reinforcement 42. A
The kit includes a mast support, a mast, a sail,
leeboards, and a rudder assembly.
bolt 45 extends through the members 43 and through the
' The mast support is illustrated in FIGURE 1 of the 10. blocks 41 to clamp these elements together. As indicated
drawings and includes a cross member it} designed to
rest upon the gunwales of the boat to extend transversely
of the boat axis. The cross member 10‘ is provided with
a central aperture 12 designed to accommodate the lower
section 13 of the mast which is indicated in general by
the numeral 14.
in FIGURE 4 of the drawings, the hook shaped arms
43 are longitudinally slotted so as to accommodate various
widths of reinforcing members.
One of the blocks 41 is provided with a pair of ver
1
tically aligned screw eyes. A tiller board 50 is provided
The under surface of the cross mem
with a pair of similar screw eyes 49, and the rudder 47
is pivotally attached to the tiller board by a horizontal
15 which are connected by a center block 16. Wedge
bolt so that the rudder 47 may swing upward if it strikes
shaped blocks 17 between the braces 15 and the cross
an underwater obstruction, or may be lifted manually.
member 10 assist in thoroughly securing the wide braces
The tiller board 50 extends above the level of the rudder
to the cross member. The central member 16 is provided
47 and is pivotally connected to a tiller handle 51 by
with a socket 19 designed to accommodate the lower
means of which the rudder may be pivoted. A pivot
end of the lower section 13 of the mast 14.
pin 52 extends through the screw eyes to connect the
The cross member 10 extends laterally beyond the
tiller board to the boat.
sides of the boat A and is provided with reinforcing 25 Because of the construction of the mast support, it may
blocks 20 at its extremities. As indicated in FIGURE 2
be used with virtually any type of small boat. In some
of the drawings, these blocks 20 are secured to the ends
instances, the cross member is connected to gunwales
of the side board by any suitable means and are‘ provided
which extend outwardly of the boat rather than inwardly
with a transverse aperture ‘21 extending therethrough. A
therefrom. However, the cross member 10 is of suf
bolt such as 22 extends through a leeboard 23 and through 30 ?cient length to be useful in conjunction with virtually
the transverse aperture 21 in the block 20. A not 24 is
any boat of small size.
attached to the end of the bolt 22 to secure the leeboard
The assembly of the unit is extremely simple. The
23 in place. Each of the leeboards 23‘ are pivotally
cross member, together with the generally V-shaped
secured to the cross member 10 in a similar manner and
depending frame and the leeboards may be attached to
the angle between the leeboards and the plane of the
the boat by merely tightening four clamping bolts. The
ber It} includes a pair of downwardly converging braces
cross member may be changed, but is usually ‘about 45°
from the horizontal.
As indicated in FIGURE 2 of the drawings, two strips
lower section of the mast may be inserted through the
cross member 10 and into the socket 19/ of the sus
pended frame. The upper section 37 may be telescoped
into the lower section. The swivel shaft 36 may be in
member 10 on opposite sides thereof. These strips 25' 40 serted into the hem 40 of the sail and the hem 30‘ may
and 26 are somewhat longer than the width of the cross
be threaded over the mast, the eye [33 of the boom slid~
member 10 and the ends of the strips are connected by
ing the sail downwardly. When the swivel 36 is inserted
clamping bolts 27. These strips are adjustable transverse
into the top of the mast section 37, the assembly of the
ly of the cross member 16 ‘and may be clamped to hold
sail itself is complete.
the cross member it} against the gunwales 11 of the boat, 45
The rudder unit may be attached to the boat by merely
the strip 25 extending above the cross member and the
tightening the clamping bolts 45 to hold the structure on
strip 26 extending beneath the gunwale as indicated in
the rear of the boat.
FIGURE 2. The clamping action of strips 251 and 26
The angular leeboards are particularly advantageous
transmit the torsional stresses and the shear stresses ap
in that they normally enter the water at a point generally
plied to the cross member 10‘, by the mast 14, into the 50 opposite the centroid of the sail area. However, if the
hull of the boat.
boat tends to tip over, the board on the leeward side of
The sail 29 is of generally trapezoidal shape including
the boat becomes submerged to a greater extent, shifting
a hem v30 extending vertically along the forward vertical
the center of lateral resistance in the water forwardly
edge of the sail to accommodate the mast 14. The
toward the front of the sail. This action tends to direct
lower horizontal edge of the sail is provided with a hem
the bow of the boat into the Wind, reducing the effective
force of the wind upon the sail thus allowing the boat to
31 designed to accommodate an elongated boom 32
of wood 25 and 26 extend transversely across the cross
having an eye 33 at one end which is designed to encircle
the lower section 13 of the mast. If desired, a cord
such as 34 may be enclosed within a hem 35‘ in the diago
right itself.
I claim:
1. A conversion kit for equipping a boat for sailing,
nal edge of the sail, or alternatively, this diagonal edge 60 said conversion kit consisting of a system of cantilevers,
beams, brackets and clamps combined to function as an
of the sail may be merely reinforced by the hem itself.
integral structure to transmit bending and torsional
The top portion of the sail is constructed as illustrated
stresses applied by wind forces on a sail to a cantilever
in FIGURE 3 of the drawings. A short rod or tube 36
is telescoped into the upper section 37 of the mast 14 65 mast into the hull of a boat, said conversion kit compris
ing a sail, a cantilever mast supporting said sail, a trans
and a transverse rod 39 extends through the shaft 316 to
verse torsion beam to overlie and span the gunwales of
extend in a generally horizontal direction therefrom.
a boat, a mast support bracket depending from said trans—
The rod 39 bears upon the top of the shaft section 37
verse torsion beam, said transverse torsion beam con
and holds the shaft 36 pivotally supported in the top
taining at the center thereof an aperture to receive said
of the mast. A hem 4G is provided at the upper end of 70 mast, said mast support bracket being rigidly attached
the sail 29 which is designed to accommodate the rod
to said transverse torsion ‘beam and containing thereon a
39. Thus the rod 39 holds the upper part of the sail
socket to receive the base of said mast, said socket being
in proper position. Due to the fact that the boom, the
spaced in a substantially vertical direction away from
swivel formed by the shaft 36 and rod 39, and the sail
said aperture in said transverse torsion beam and said
itself may pivot entirely about the mast, the sail assumes 75 mast support bracket working in conjunction with said
3,041,994
5
6
transverse torsion beam to serve as a lever arm anchoring
either side of a boat, said clamping members being de
the base of said cantilever mast to resist horizontal bend
ing stresses in said cantilever mast and to ?rmly support
said cantilever mast in an upright position on said trans
verse torsion beam, said transverse torsion beam being
and said gunwales of a boat together and said clamping
member being adjustable in transverse dimension along
said transverse torsion beam, said adjustability serving
signed to engage and secure said transverse torsion beam
to accommodate boats of diiferent transverse dimensions
across the gunwales and said clamping means being ad
gunwales of a boat.
justable in depth of engagement with said gunwales to
2. A conversion kit for equipping a boat for sailing,
accommodate boats having gunwales of di?erent vertical
said conversion kit consisting of a system of cantilevers,
beams, brackets and clamps combined as an integral 10 dimension, said clamping members engaging said trans
verse torsion beam at a spaced interval of elongated fore
structure to transmit bending and torsional stresses ap
and aft dimension and engaging the gunwales of a boat
plied by wind forces on a sail to a cantilever mast and
along an appreciable length of the fore and aft dimen
by hydrodynamic pressure on cantilever leeboards into
sion, said clamping members acting as lever arms secur~
the hull of a boat, said conversion kit comprising a canti
ing said transverse torsion beam to said gunwales and
lever mast supporting said sail, a transverse torsion beam
securing said transverse torsion beam against rotation in
to overlie and span the gunwales of a boat, a mast sup
the fore and aft direction.
port bracket depending from said transverse torsion beam,
5. The structure of claim 4, said transverse torsion
said transverse torsion beam containing at the center
beam
being a substantially flat member of rectangular
thereof an aperture to receive said mast, said mast sup
shape in cross section and of substantially extended
port bracket being rigidly attached to said transverse tor
breadth in fore and aft dimension, designed to overlie the
sion beam and containing thereon a socket to receive the
gunwales of a boat, said extended breadth of said trans~
base of said mast, said socket being spaced in a substan
verse torsion beam spanning and engaging an appreciably
tially vertical direction away from said aperture in said
extended length of said gunwales of ‘a boat, the clamping
transverse torsion beam and said mast support bracket
working in conjunction with said transverse torsion beam 25 members comprising a pair of clamping members, one
equipped with clamping members to grip the two opposite
to serve as a lever arm anchoring the base of said canti
lever mast to resist horizontal bending stresses in said
cantilever mast and to ?rmly support said cantilever mast
in an upright position on said transverse torsion beam,
on each side of said transverse torsion beam and interme
diate the length between the center and the outboard ends
of said transverse torsion beam, said clamping members
being ‘adjustable in transverse dimension and in depth of
said transverse torsion beam being equipped with clamp 30 engagement with said gunwales of said boat, each of said
pair of clamping members each consisting of two elon
ing members to grip the two opposite gunwales of a boat,
gated bars, one of said bars above and the other of said
leeboards depending from the ends of said transverse tor
bars below and extending substantially perpendicular to
sion beam and adapted to extend into the water on either
said transverse torsion beam, the said top elongated bar
side of a boat.
3. The structure of claim 2, said clamping members 35 lying across the top of said transverse torsion beam and
the ‘said bottom elongated bar lying parallel to and under
being designed to engage and secure said transverse tor
neath the ?ange of the gunwale of a boat, said parallel
sion beam and said gunwales of a boat together and said
elongated bars being forcefully urged together by clamping
clamping members being adjustable in transverse dimen
means, securing said transverse torsion beam into‘ pressure
sion along said transverse torsion beam, said transverse
adjustability serving to accommodate boats of different 40 contact with the top edge of the gunwale of a boat, said
elongated bars in gripping an appreciable length of said
transverse dimension across the gunwales and said clamp
gunwales and engaging an appreciably elongated dimen
ing means being adjustable in depth of engagement with
sion in the fore and aft direction of said transverse torsion
said gunwales to accommodate boats having gunwales of
beam providing a lever arm to resist an overturning mo
di?erent vertical dimension.
ment applied by said mast to said transverse torsion beam
4. A conversion kit for equipping a boat for sailing,
in a fore and aft plane and said lever arm transmitting
the conversion kit consisting of a system of cantilevers,
said overturning moment into the gunwales of a boat, said
beams, brackets and clamps combined to function as an
gunwales resisting said overturning moment.
integral structure and to transmit bending and torsional
6. The structure of claim 4, said clamping members
stresses applied by wind forces on a sail to a cantilever
mast into said conversion kit comprising a sail, a canti 50 securing said transverse torsion beam downwardly to said
gunwales providing an anchorage to secure said transverse
lever mast supporting said sail, a transverse torsion beam
torsion beam in lever fashion from uplifting from said
to overlie and span the gunwales of a boat, a mast sup
gunwales due to side forces on said cantilever mast.
port bracket depending from said transverse torsion beam,
7. The structure of claim 2 and in which said leeboards
said transverse torsion beam containing at the center
thereof an aperture to receive said mast, said mast sup 55 are pivotally connected to the ends of said torsion beam
along substantially aligned pivots.
port bracket being rigidly attached to said transverse
8. The structure of claim 1 and in which said mast
torsion beam and containing therein a socket to receive
support bracket comprises a generally V-shaped structure
the base of said mast, said socket being spaced in a sub
with the socket adjacent to the apex of the V.
stantially vertical direction from said aperture in said
transverse torsion beam, and said mast support bracket 60
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
working in conjunction with said transverse torsion beam
to serve as a lever arm anchoring the base of said canti
UNITED STATES PATENTS
lever mast to resist horizontal bending stresses in said
685,943
Pool _________________ _._ Nov. 5, 1901
cantilever mast and to ?rmly support said cantilever mast
2,525,933
Nantz _______________ _._. Oct. 17, 1950
in an upright position on said transverse torsion beam, 65 2,585,599
Tchetchet ____________ __ Feb. 12, 1952
said transverse torsion beam being equipped with clamp
2,631,559
Jones _______________ __ Mar. 17, 1953
ing members to grip the two opposite gunwales of a boat,
2,748,740
Vi‘llar ________________ __ June 5, 1956
leeboards depending from the ends of said transverse
torsion beam and adapted to extend into the water on
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