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Патент USA US3042134

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July 3, 1962
A. G. |_. ANDERSSON
3,042,124
son. SAMPLING EQUIPMENT
Filed Oct. 27, 1959
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
.,
l
I
l/V VEN TOR
ANDERS
G-
L.
ANDERSSON
BY
77W a‘ ,6.
HTTORNEYS
July 3, 1962
A. G. L. ANDERSSON
3,042,124
SOIL SAMPLING EQUIPMENT
Filed Oct.‘ 27, 1959
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
ANDERS
G. L. ANDERSSON
r,
tates Patent
3,042,124
SOIL SAMPLING EQUIPMENT
Anders G. L. Audersson, 1415 Queens Ave.,
West Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
Filed Oct. 27, 1959, Ser. No. 848,992
6 Claims. (Cl. 175-20)
This invention relates to soil sampling equipment.
1C6
3,042,124
Patented July 3, 1962
ing a detail of the means for interlocking the rod and
the casing,
FIGURE 11 is a cross-sectional view on the line 11
11 of FIGURE 8, and
FIGURE 12 is a cross-sectional view on the line 12-
12 of FIGURE 9.
The sampler consists essentially of a casing indicated
generally at 12, a piston 14,
In investigations of the distribution, type and physical
the upper end of piston 14.
properties of the soil below ground surface level, it is 10 The casing 12 consists of
often desirable to be able to extract continuous, prefer
functions as a sampler tube
ably undisturbed, samples of soil. The sampling method
a sharp cutting edge 20, and
and a rod 16 connected to
a lower section 18 which
and which is formed with
an upper section 22 which
of subsurface exploration provides practically continu
is provided with a portion 24 of enlarged internal di
ous and representative samples of the sub-soil and is
ameter. The diameter of the cutting edge 20 is such
15
probably the best method yet devised for obtaining de
that it forms a snug ?t around the head portion of pis
tailed and reliable information on the characteristics of
ton 14 and is preferably formed by first spinning the
the sub-soil. The most common and e?icacious type of
edge of the casing in and thereafter machining it to a
sampler is the drive sampler which consists essentially
cutting edge 20 with an inside diameter smaller than
of a tube which is advanced into the soil in the axial
the rest of the casing. If desired, however, the integrally
direction. There are various types of drive samplers in 20 formed cutting edge may be replaced by a detachable
general use and these may be broadly classi?ed in two
shoe of, for example, hardened steel, coupled to the
groups, namely, open samplers and piston samplers. In
lower section 18 of casing 12 in any suitable manner.
the case of open samplers, the tube is always open at
The upper end of section 18 and the lower end of sec
its lower end; the soil enters the tube as soon as it is
tion 22 are provided with shoulders whereby the two
25
forced into the ground. With piston samplers, on the
sections may be ?ush-jointed with each other to provide
other hand, the lower end of the tube is temporarily
a streamlined exterior surface. The upper section 22
sealed as by a piston or a plug so that soil can be pre
vented from entering the sampler until it has been
driven into the soil to the desired sampling depth, whereat
the piston is released or retracted where-after further
advance of the sampler into the soil forces a sample into
the lower end of the tube.
The present invention is particularly concerned with
soil sampling equipment of the retractable-piston type and
it is a primary object of this invention to provide sam
is preferably formed as a single unit but may, if de
sired, be formed from a number of interconnected sec
tions.
-
The piston head is of generally conical form and the
piston neck is provided with an 0 ring 28 which, upon
the complete retraction of the piston, ensures a perfect
seal between the piston and the casing. The neck of
piston 14 is of smaller diameter than the bore of cas
ing 12 and is provided with an arcuate longitudinal ex
tension 39 which in the embodiment shown extends
around the neck through a 120° sector. The rod 16 is
preferably formed as an integral unit machined from
It is a further object of the invention to provide a 40 one piece of material, although it may, if desired, be
sampler of this type which can be subjected to practically
formed from a number of interconnected sections. The
unlimited driving force if so required in order to ad
rod 16 is provided at one end with an externally-threaded
vance it into the sub-soil, thereby rendering it suitable
portion 34 adapted to be threaded into the internally
for use in practically all types of soil.
threaded portion 36 of the piston base. The rod 16 is
It is another object of the invention to provide a sam
also provided with a number of spaced~apart arcuate
pler of the retracted-piston type in which prior to its
lugs 32 each of which in the embodiment shown extends
withdrawal a partial vacuum is created above the sample
around the rod through a 150° section. Preferably, the
to assist in retaining the sample during withdrawal.
lugs 32 are machined out of the material forming the
It is a still further object of the invention to provide
rod, although they may, if desired, be formed as sepa
a sampler which is of simple, yet robust, construction and 50 rate units which are securely attached to the rod either
which has no delicate parts liable to malfunction under
permanently or detachably in any suitable manner. The
exacting ?eld conditions.
_
interior of the casing is provided with a like number of
Other features which may be included in accordance
arcuate segments 40 extending around the casing through,
with the invention will hereinafter be described and re
for example a 150° section, the lower edge of the lower—
ferred to in the appended claims.
most segment forming a bumper adapted to abut the
The invention will be more fully understood from the
arcuate extension 34} of piston 14 upon retraction of
following description taken in conjunction with the an
the piston from its driving to its partially retracted po
nexed drawings which show by way of example one
sition. A key 42 is formed on the outer surface of rod
embodiment of the invention and in which:
16 above the uppermost of said segments and the key
FIGURES 1 and 2 are longitudinal sectional views 60 co-operates with a keyway 44 formed in a ring 46 to
through the lower and upper ends respectively of the
prevent rotation of the rod 16. The ring 46 is secured
sampler with the piston at its fully-advanced position.
to the inner surface of the casing 12 in any suitable man
FIGURES 3 to 7 inclusive are cross-sectional views
ner
and to facilitate assembly it is preferably formed in
on the lines ‘3—3, 4—4, 5-5, 6-—6 and 7—7 respec
two halves.
tively of FIGURES l and 2,
65
A plurality of arcuate stop members 48 are located
FIGURE 8 is a longitudinal sectional view through
within
casing 12, each stop member 48 extending through,
the lower end of the sampler with the piston in its par
for example, a 45° sector thereby leaving a 71/2” play
tially retracted or sampling position,
on each side of the lugs 32 and each aligned with the
FIGURE 9 is a longitudinal sectional view through
through the lower end of the sampler with the piston 70 space between two adjacent ones to segments 40. The
stop members 48 may be formed integrally with the cas~
at its fully retracted withdrawal position,
ing 12 although they are each preferably formed as a
FIGURE 10 is a fragmentary perspective view show‘
pling equipment of this type which can be operated by
means of a single line of extensions thereby materially
reducing the advancing and withdrawal time.
3,042,124.
3
1%
separate piece securely attached to the casing 12 by means
drawal of the sampler, an upward force is exerted on
the rod and piston to pull them to the fully retracted
of screws 50‘.
position of the piston, whereas each of the lugs abuts
against the uppermost edge of its associated recess and
The top of the uppermost section 22 of casing 12 is
enlarged to form a sleeve into which the enlarged sec
the leading edge of the neck of the piston moves into
the casing. In moving the piston from the partially re
tracted to fully retracted position two actions take place.
During the initial part of this movement of the rod and
piston relative to the casing, the piston rid becomes ef
tion of rod 16 snugly ?ts. The sleeve and the enlarged
section co-operate to increase the resistance of the sam
pler to bending. Below the enlarged section any bend
ing movement is taken jointly by the rod and the cas
ing. An 0 ring 54 is provided in the enlarged section
of rod 16 and this 0 ring effectively seals the sampler 10 fective to seal the lower end of the casing against in
gress of air. During the ?nal part of the movement,
against the ingress of air or other matter during advance
the piston ring by its travel creates a partial vacuum
ment of the sampler into the soil. Above the enlarged
above the sample. This partial vacuum helps to pre
section, the rod is provided with a head 56 having shoul
vent loss of the sample during the withdrawal opera
ders 58 adapted to engage the upper edgeof casing 12
when the sampler is being driven into the ground. The 15 tion. With the piston in its fully retracted position, fur
ther upward movement of the rod serves to withdraw
head 56 is provided with an internally-threaded recess
the sampler and its enclosed sample to ground surface
59 into which extension pieces 69 for rod 16 may be
level.
?tted.
What I claim as my invention is:
With the sampler assembled and the piston 14 in its
1. Soil sampling equipment comprising in combination
lowermost position, whereat it seals olf the lower end of 20
a tubular housing, a sample tube detachably connected
the casing, the sampler is advanced into the ground in
at its upper end to the housing and formed at its lower
end with a cutting edge, a piston slidably mounted within
said sample tube ‘and adapted to seal off the lower end
lower end of the casing, thereby preventing any soil en
tering the sampler during advancement thereof. It is 25 thereof, a piston rod connected to the upper end of the
piston and extending upwardly through the sample tube
also to be noted that during advancement when the resist
and the housing, said piston rod being formed at its upper
ance to the driving force is greatest, the driving force is
any suitable manner.
During the advancement of the
sampler into the soil, the piston effectively seals off the
end with an enlarged head portion adapted with the
piston in its fully extended position to engage the upper
edge of the housing whereby downward pressure applied
transmitted directly to both the piston and the casing
from the rod. The casing transfers the driving force
to the sample tube, whilst the lugs and segments do not
transfer any force during this operation.
to the upper end of the rod is transmitted to both the
housing land the piston, ‘a plurality of arcuate lugs on
When the desired sampling depth has been reached,
rod 16 and piston 14 are retracted to a position whereat
the rod spaced-apart longitudinally thereof, a plurality
of arcuate segments formed on the inner surface of the
the arcuate extension 30 of the piston abuts the lower
edge of the lowermost one of segments 40.
The cas
ing is prevented from retraction at this time by the fric
tion between the outer wall thereof and the surround
ing soil. Furthermore, during this initial retraction of
the piston, as soon as the piston is withdrawn from the
cutting edge 20, air can pass into the section 18 of the
casing therebelow through the small clearance between
the piston and the casing and consequently creation of
a vacuum below the piston is prevented at this stage. The
35
housing and spaced-apart longitudinally thereof, said lugs
and said segments adapted to cooperate releasably to lock
the rod and the housing in downwardly drivable engage
ment upon partial retraction of the piston through the
sample tube ‘and in upwardly drivable engagement upon
further retraction of the piston to its fully retracted posi
tion, a plurality of stop members on the inner surface
of the housing intermediate said arcuate segments, said
step members cooperating with the arcuate lugs to limit
the rotational movement of the rod relative to the hous
key 42 and associated keyway 44 co-operates to prevent
rotation of the rod relative to the casing during this 45 ing thereby to facilitate alignment of the lugs and the
segments for intercoupling said rod and said housing,
initial retraction. With the piston in its partially retracted
vent means between the piston ‘and the inner surface of
position the key is clear of the keyway and the lugs 32
the sample tube effective with the piston in its partially
are situated opposite the recesses 62 between adjacent
retracted position to vent the section of the sample tube
ones of the segments 44). The rod 16 and piston 14 are
below the piston, and means associated with the piston
now rotated in a clockwise direction through an angle
and adapted upon movement of the piston upwardly from
su?‘icient to bring each lug 32 into a corresponding one
its partially retracted position to seal off the vent means
of said recesses 62 above one of the segments 40. R0
whereby during the further retraction of the piston to its
tation of the lugs 32 past the segments 40 is prevented
fully retracted position a vacuum is created above a soil
by the stopper members 48.
The sampler is now ready for the actual sampling op 55 sample forced into the sample tube upon downward
movement of the housing after said initial partial retrac
eration with the piston 14 adjacent the upper end of
tion of the piston.
the lowermost section of the casing which is now, as a
2. Soil sampling equipment comprising in combination
result, open at its lower end. The sampling is now ef
a tubular housing, a sample tube detachably connected
fected by exerting a downwardly directed vertical force
on the enlarged head of rod 16, which force is transmitted Ch 0 at its upper end to the housing and formed at its lower
end with an annular cutting edge, a piston slidably mounted
from the rod to the casing through the intermediary of the
within the sample tube and adapted to seal off the lower
lugs 32 and segments 49 to advance the casing a dis
end thereof, a piston rod connected to the upper end
tance corresponding to the length of the open portion
of the piston and extending upwardly through the sam!
of the casing, thereby to force a soil sample into the
ple tube and the housing, said piston rod being formed at
lower end of the casing. During sampling, the air below
its upper end with an enlarged head portion adapted with
the piston can escape upwardly through the clearance
the piston in its fully extended position vto engage the
space between the piston and‘ the casing.
The casing
itself may be vented either internally by means of a
bore extending longitudinally through the rod and com
municating with a passage opening into an outlet at or
upper edge of the housing whereby'downward pressure
applied to the upper end of the rod is transmitted to both
the housing and the piston, a plurality of arcuate lugs
on the rod and spaced-apart longitudinally thereof, a
plurality of arcuate segments formed on the inner sur
in the piston or externally through an opening formed
in the ‘ring 46.
face of the housing and spaced-apart longitudinally there
After the sample has been taken, the sampler is now
of, said lugs and said segments adapted upon withdrawal
ready for withdrawal out of the ground. To effect with 75 of therpiston a predetermined distance towards the upper
5
3,042,124
6
end of the sample tube and rotation of the rod relative
to the housing to interconnect the rod and the housing
whereby subsequent downward pressure exerted on the
upper end of said rod is transmitted through the lugs and
segments to the housing to urge the latter downwardly
thereby to force a soil sample into the sample tube, said
lugs and said segments effective upon further withdrawal
of the piston through the sample tube after collection of
the soil sample to couple the rod and the housing in up—
eter thereby to seal off the lower end of the sample tube,
a piston rod connected to the upper end of said piston
and extending upwardly through the sample tube and the
housing, said piston rod being formed at its upper end
with an enlarged head portion adapted with the piston in
its ‘fully extended position to engage the upper edge of
the housing whereby downward pressure applied to the
upper end of the rod is transmitted to both the housing
and the piston, a plurality of arcuate lugs on the rod
wardly drivable relationship whereby subsequent re~ l0 spaced-apart longitudinally thereof, a plurality of arcuate
traction of the rod is effective to retract the housing and
segments formed on the inner surface of the housing and
the sample tube, a plurality of stop members on the in
spaced~apart longitudinally thereof, said lugs and said seg
ner surface of the housing intermediate said arcuate seg
ments adapted to cooperate releasably to lock the rod and
ments, said stop members cooperating with the arcuate
the housing in downwardly drivable engagement upon
lugs to limit the rotational movement of the rod relative 15 partial retraction of the piston through the sample tube
to the housing thereby to facilitate alignment of the lugs
and in upwardly drivable engagement upon further re
and the segments for intercoupling said rod and said hous
traction of the piston to its fully retracted position, a
ing, vent means between the piston and the inner surface
plurality of stop members on the inner surface of the hous
of the sample tube effective with the piston in its partially
ing intermediate said arcuate segments, vent means be
retracted position to vent the section of the sample tube 20 tween the piston and the inner surface of the sample tube
below the piston, and means associated with the piston
above said portion of reduced diameter effective to vent
and adapted upon movement of the piston upwardly
said sample tube to the housing, and means associated
from its partially retracted position to seal off the vent
with the piston and adapted upon movement of the piston
means whereby during the further retraction of the piston
upwardly from its partially retracted position to seal off
to its fully retracted position a vacuum is created above 25 said vent means whereby during the further retraction of
the soil sample.
the piston to its fully retracted position a vacuum is
3. Soil sampling equipment comprising in combination
created above a soil sample forced into the sample tube
a tubular housing, a sample tube detachably connected at
upon downward movement of the casing after said initial
its upper end to said housing, said sample tube formed
partial retraction of the piston.
at its lower end with a portion of reduced internal diam 30
5. Soil sampling equipment comprising in combination
eter terminating in a cutting edge, a piston slidably
a tubular housing, a sample tube detachably connected
mounted within the sample tube and adapted in its fully
at one end to the housing and provided at its other end
extended position to form a snug ?t in said portion of
with a cutting edge, a piston slidably mounted within the
reduced diameter thereby to seal off the lower end of the
sample tube and adapted to seal off the lower end of the
sample tube, a piston rod connected to the upper end of
the piston and extending upwardly through the sample
r sample tube, a piston rod connected to the upper end of
of arcuate segments formed on the inner surface of the
formations on the outer surface of the rod and the inner
the piston and extending upwardly through the sample
tube and the housing, said piston rod being formed at its
tube and the housing, said piston rod being formed at
upper end with an enlarged head portion adapted with
its upper end with an enlarged head portion adapted with
the piston in its fully extended position to engage the
the piston in its fully extended position to engage the
upper edge of the housing whereby downward pressure 40 upper
edge of the housing whereby downward pressure
applied to the upper end of the rod is transmitted to both
applied to the upper end of the rod is transmitted to both
the housing and the piston, a plurality of arcuate lugs on
the housing and the piston, a plurality of complementary
the rod spaced-apart longitudinally thereof, a plurality
surface of the housing, said formations spaced-apart longi
housing and spaced-apart longitudinally thereof, said lugs
tudinally of the rod and the housing and effective upon
partial retraction of the piston through the sample tube
and rotation of the rod relative to the housing to couple
the rod and the housing in downwardly drivable engage
ment and in upwardly drivable engagement upon further
retraction of the piston to its fully retracted position, a
plurality of stop members on the inner surface of the hous
ing intermediate the formations thereon, said stop mem
bers cooperating with the formations to limit the rotational
movement of the rod relative to the housing thereby to
and said segments operable releasably to interconnect the
rod and the casing in downwardly drivable engagement
upon partial retraction of the piston through the sample
tube and in upwardly drivable engagement upon further
retraction of the piston to its fully retracted position, a
plurality of arcuate stop members on the inner surface
of the housing intermediate the arcuate segments, said
stop members cooperating with the arcuate lugs to limit
the rotational movement of the rods relative to the hous—
ing thereby to facilitate alignment of the lugs and the
segments for intercoupling the rod and the housing, an
faciliate alignment of the complementary formations for
intercoupling the rod and the housing, means between the
piston and the inner surface of the sample tube effective
with the piston in its partially retracted position to vent
the portion of said sample tube below said piston, and
annular vent passage between the piston and the inner
surface of the sample tube above said portion of reduced
iameter effective to vent said sample tube to the housing,
and means associated with the piston and adapted upon
movement of the piston upwardly ‘from its partially re
tracted position to seal olf said vent passage whereby
during the further retraction of the piston to its fully
means associated with the piston and adapted upon move
ment of the latter from its partially retracted position to
seal off the vent means whereby during the further re
traction of the piston to its fully retracted position a
retracted position \a vacuum is created above a soil sam
ple forced into the sample tube during the downward
movement of the housing after said initial partial retrac
tion of the piston.
vacuum is created above a soil sample forced into the
' sample tube upon downward movement thereof after said
4. Soil sampling equipment comprising in combination
a tubular housing made up of a plurality of inter?tting
sections, a sample tube detachably connected at its upper
end to said housing, said sample tube formed at its lower
end with a portion of reduced internal, diameter termi
nating in a cutting edge, a piston slidably mounted with
in the sample tube and adapted in its fully extended po
sition to form a snug ?t in the portion of reduced diam 75
initial partial retraction of the piston.
6. Soil sampling equipment comprising in combination
a tubular housing, a sample tube detachably connected
at one end to the housing and provided at its other end
with a cutting edge, a piston slidably mounted within
the sample tube and adapted to seal off the lower end of
the sample tube, a piston rod connected to the upper end
of the piston and extending upwardly through the sample
tube and the housing, said piston rod being formed at its
upper end with an enlarged head portion adapted with
3,042,124
7
8
the piston in its fully extended position to engage the
upper edge of the housing whereby downward pressure
ple to couple the rod and the housing in upwardly driv
applied to the upper end of the rod is transmitted to both
the housing and the piston, a plurality of arcuate lugs on
inner surface of the sample tube e?ective with the piston
in its partially retracted position to vent the section of
the housing spaced-apart longitudinally thereof, a plurality
the sample tube below the piston and adapted to be
able engagement, a passage between the piston and the
of \arcuate segments formed on the inner surface of the
sealed upon movement of the piston from its partially re~
housing spaced-apart longitudinally thereof, said lugs
tracted position whereby during the further retraction of
the piston to its fully retracted position a vacuum is
created above ‘a soil sample forced into the sample tube
connect the rod and the housing whereby subsequent 10 upon downward movement thereof after said initial partial
retraction of the piston.
downward pressure exerted on the upper end of the rod is
transmitted through the lugs ‘and the segments to the
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
housing to urge the ‘latter downwardly thereby to force
UNITED STATES PATENTS
a soil sample into the sample tube, said lugs and said
segments effective upon further retraction of the piston 15 1,027,246
Granville ____________ __ May 21, 1912
Sanborn _____________ __ May 19, 1942
to its fully retracted position after collection of the sam
2,283,650
and said segments adapted upon partial retraction of the
piston towards the upper end of the sample tube to inter
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