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Патент USA US3043081

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July 10, 1962
J. P. WALKER ETAL
METHOD AND MEANS FOR TREATMENT
3,043,072
OIL WELL PRODUCTION
Filed April 13, 1959
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July 10, 1962
J. P. WALKER ETAL
3,043,072
METHOD AND MEANS FOR TREATMENT OF OIL WELL PRODUCTION
Filed April 15, 1959
4 Sheets-Sheet 2
_> GAS OUTLET
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INVENTORIS?
JAY, R WALK�BY CLAQENCE 0. eusaow
ATTORNEY
July 10, 1962
J. P. WALKER ETAL
3,043,072
METHOD AND MEANS FOR TREATMENT OF OIL WELL PRODUCTION
Filed April 13, 1959
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INlfENTORIS'
JAY p. WALKER
BY
CLARENCE 0. ezjow
ATTORNEY
July 10, 1962
J. P. WALKER ETAL
3,043,072
METHOD AND MEANS FOR TREATMENT OF OIL WELL PRODUCTION
Filed April 13, 1959
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Patented July 30, lQY?Z
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3.
Another object is to utilize the cooling capacity of oil
well production in condensing fractions from all gaseous
3,043,072
METHQD AND l?vdlANd FUR TREATMENT QB?
{3E WELL PRGDUCTEGN
hydrocarbons evolved from heat-treating the production
Jay P. Walker and Clarence 0. Glasgow, Tulsa, Gltla,
assignors to National Tani; Company, Tulsa, Okla, a
corporation of Nevada
Filed Apr. 13, 1959, Ser. No. 896,000
7 Claims. (Cl. 55?45)
clean oil produced while returning the condensed frac
tions to the production, before the production is heat
treated, for further stabilization.
Another object is to utilize the cooling capacity of the
and maintain the condensed fractions isolated from the
oil well production stream to condense fractions from all
gaseous hydrocarbons evolved from the heat-treating of
the production and to use the oil well production stream
to cool the clean oil produced by the treatment and to
combine condensed hydrocarbons with the production, as
This invention relates to new and useful improvements
in method and means for treating oil well emulsion
streams.
The invention is directed primarily to the heater type
of emulsion treater and is particularly concerned with
the production is passed to the heat-treatment, for further
the e?icient and effective condensation of valuable light 15 stabilization of the condensed hydrocarbons.
hydrocarbons from the gas evolved during the heating
Another object is to provide isolation for oil and emul
of the well stream of emulsion. Application of heat
sion in an area large enough for ef?cient Strati?cation of
breaks the well stream, or emulsion, into its components.
the liquid components of a well stream in a heat treat
Chemical mixed with the well stream, or emulsion,
ing process and heat transfer from a heat- source into
furthers this process. However, some hydrocarbons are 20 the emulsion, or oil, strata to thoroughly mix the emul
driven from a liquid state into a vapor state by this heat.
sion with any added chemical and degas the emulsions.
The lighter of these hydrocarbons, such as methane,
Another object is to provide for selective heating of
ethane and propane cannot be held in a liquid state at
the emulsion and oil components of a well stream while
ambient temperature and pressure. However, heavier
the gaseous component developed is removed, in isola
hydrocarbons, driven from their liquid state by the evolve 25 tion, to a condensing location. Emulsion and oil, which
ment of these lighter hydrocarbons into gas, are also in
has been heated, is continually removed from the upper
danger of being lost from the treating process as vapor.
portion of the strata of the emulsion and oil and coalesced
Therefore, recovery of these hydrocarbons which are
into clean oil ?and water.
liqueiiable at ambient conditions is desirable to increase
The present invention contemplates applying heat to
both the volume and gravity of the clean oil produced. 30 an oil well emulsion to resolve it into its components.
The pressures at which well streams are produced
vary widely. -i the reduction of production pressure
to treating pressure is made in one step, many lique?able
hydrocarbons may be carried away as gas and lost to the
recovered liquids. Therefore, any multiplicity of pres
sure reduction steps helps separate the lighter hydrocar
All the gaseous component is indirectly cooled by a cooler
stream of ?uid to condense that portion of the gas which
can be held in a liquid state under substantially ambient
conditions or? temperature and pressure. The condensed
" liquid is then cycled through the heating step to further
bons more slowly so fewer of the heavier hydrocarbons
will be driven into the gaseous state. An intermediate
stabilize the hydrocarbons of the liquid.
The invention further contemplates that at least one
separator vessel be provided ahead of the heat-treatment
result of using multiple stage separation is to provide
process for the oil well emulsion to stage the pressure
additional liquid hydrocarbons for the heating and sta 4.0 reduction on the emulsion in separating the gaseous com
bilizitaon portions of a treating process. The ultimate
ponents. The liquid portion of the well stream is then
result is to increase the quantity and gravity of lique?ed
heated and the lique?able components of gas evolved are
hydrocarbons recovered at ambient conditions.
cycled through the heating step to further stabilize the
in addition to the problem of conserving both the quan
hydrocarbons of the liquid and remove the water from
tity and gravity of the clean oil produced by heat treat 45 the process.
ing, there is another problem in conserving the heat re
The invention further contemplates that the water vapor
quired for the process. Of course, it is economically
portion of all gaseous components evolved in the heat
desirable to consume and waste as little heat as possible
ing step will be received by a passage which will keep
in the water of the well stream. Structure, and arrange
ment of structure, which will enable the heat of the source
the condensed water isolated from the clean oil and take
it to a location which is a substantial distance below the
to be placed directly into the portion of the well stream
requiring the heat for treating, and which will keep the
surface of the clean oil and/ or into combination with the
emulsion going to the heating step so it can join the
transfer rate near its maximum, will enable the heat source
other water separated from the well stream ?and removed
to be ?red at the lowest, more efficient, rate.
from the process.
A principal object of the present invention is to con 55
The invention further contemplates that fractions of all
dense fractions from ?all gaseous hydrocarbons evolved
gaseous hydrocarbons evolved in the heating step will be
from heat~treating oil well emulsions and return the hy
brought into indirect heat-exchange with the oil well
drocarbon condensate to the heat-treating process for
production to condense the fractions which can be held
further stabilization.
as a liquid at ambient conditions. A conduit will then
Another object is to prepare oil well emulsions for 60 bring the collected condensate fractions to the stream
heat~treating by reducing the pressure on the emulsion
of production while keeping the condensate isolated from
so as to provide a maximum of hydrocarbon liquid for
the clean oil produced. The production and condensate
heat~treating. The ultimate condensation of all gaseous
mixture is then taken to the heat-treating process so the
hydrocarbons evolved from the'heat-treatment will re
condensed fractions may again be heated to further sta
turn additional quantities of liquid hydrocarbons to the 65 bilize them.
heat-treating process for further stabilization and removal
The invention further contemplates ?owing the oil well
of water from the process.
Another object is to condense water vapor from all
the mixture of hydrocarbon and water vapor evolved from
heat-treating oil well emulsion and maintain the con 70
densed water isolated from the clean oil produced by the
process while disposing of the water.
production through two indirect heat exchangers. The
production will function as a cooling medium in each
exchanger, condensing fractions from all gaseous hydro
carbons evolved from the heat treating of the produc
tion and cooling the clean oil produced by the treatment.
At the same time, a collection location is provided for
a
V
_
I
3,043,072
4
3
structures.
the fractions condensed and a conduit provided to carry
them into combination with the production as it goes
However, these ranges must be understood
to depend upon subjective characteristics of the well
to the heat-treating process. ~ This arrangement'provides
stream and the equipment available to process the well
a plurality. of cooling functions for the production and 'a
stream.
fractionating cycle for allwlique?able ?hydrocarbons
7
'
The pressure at which the treating in vessel-tank 1 is
5
carried out may be in theorder of 10 to 15 lbs. per sq.
in. If a high pressure separator, not shown in FIG. 1,
is available, it may be operated within a range of 600
evolved as gas from the heat-treating of the production.
The invention further contemplates ?owing the oil well
production into the heating chamber of a treater vessel
in which sufficient residence time is provided to thorough
1y mix any chemical added and to permit stratification of 10
to 800 lbs. per sq. in. A general objective of staging
the pressure reduction is to carry out each stage of re
duction just below the base of the retrograde pressure
range. There are points relative to'the retrograde pres
sure range at which an optimum release of the lighter
the oil and emulsion in a strata ?and free water in a sepa
rate ?strata. A heat? source is provided in the oil and emul
sion strata to con?ne the direct heat transfer from the
methane, ethane ?and propane gases can be brought about
source to the oil and emulsion strata.
with a minimum release of the heavier hydrcarbons in
The invention further contemplates that the selective
the form of gas. 'In general, adding stages of pressure
heating of the 'oil and emulsion strata will raise these
reduction at these points will produce larger quantities of
well stream components to their highest temperature. di
hydrocarbon liquid available for the treating process.
rectly. ?above the source of heat and evolved substantially
An additional advantage in staging the pressure reduc
vall the hydrocarbon gas and water vapor, which will
evolve as gas. The gas will be taken by'conduits into 20 tion ahead of the treating vessel 1 is found in lowered
costs for the fabrication of the treating vessel 1 itself.
heat exchange with the cooler well stream, before the well
With the higher pressures in the separators ahead of tank
stream is 'passedeinto the strati?cation chamber'to con
1, tank 1 need only be as thick in wall size as required
dense a portion of the gas and return that condensate
to the well stream which is going to the heated strata? . for retention of the well ?uids at a low treating pressure.
and to a location a substantial distance below the sur
face of the clean oil produced by the process. Ba?ies
are arranged to continually draw oil and emulsion from
the, top of the heated strata and direct these components
downwardly and then upwardly, through a coalescing sec
tion in the vessel.
.
Other objects, advantages and features of this inven
25
With separator! 10 mounted in the lower portion of
1 shell 1, an additional advantage is found in the heat ex
change between the warm ?uidspwithin the shell 1 and the
colder ?uids of the well stream. When the entire heat
balance requirements of thesystem have been properly
30 considered the ?uids of separator 10 may be protected
from freezing, due to low ambient temperatures, by being
tion will become 'more apparent to one skilled in the art
warmed with the ?uids ?of'tank 1.
upon consideration of written speci?cation, appended
claims, and the? attached drawings, wherein:
.
Returning to a consideration of the immediate func
' tion of separator 10 on thewell stream, the well stream
ztFIG. 1 is a diagrammatic, sectioned, elevation of an
is seen? to be spun and de?ected by diverter structure 12
'oil well emulsion treater embodying the present inven
into its gaseous and liquid phases. So separated, the
tion;
gaseous phase is discharged through conduit 13 to a sales
FIG. 2 is an elevation of another treater embodying
gas line?. The liquid phase is discharged through conduit
other features of the invention;
.
FIG. 3 is an elevation of another treater embodying
14, up through a, heat exchanger 20 ?and into the separator
section 6 in the top' of the treater. A back pressure valve
21 is placed in conduit 14'between separator 10 and the
additional features of the invention; and
FIG, 4 is a diagrammatic, sectioned, elevation of an
separation section _6. Speci?c values of pressure will con
tinue'to be referred to. However, it is again emphasized
oil well emulsion: treater somewhat different from the
treaters of FIGS. 1, 2 and 3 and embodying some of the
features of the invention.
'
.
.
'
Referring to FIG. 1, numeral 1 designates an elon
that the values utilized are only, examples, being used
45 to make the function of the separator 10 more clear.
Separator 163 may serve a gas sales lien which operates?
at 50 lbs. per sq. in. Back pressure valve 21 may be set
, to open at 60. lbs. per, sq.? in, being fully opened at 65
lbs. per sq. in. Under normal conditions of operation,
gated cylindrical tank extending vertically, its upper end
closed by a domed head 2 and its lower end closed?by
a dished bottom 3.
The tank is set upon a suitablesup
port 4 and has an internal, transverse, horizontal parti
tion' 5 near its upper end.
there ?will be ?both a liquid and gas ?ow through separa
tor 10, the gas pressure building up in separator 10 above
This transverse partition 5
forms, with head 2, a gas separation chamber 6.
5Q lbs. so that continuous delivery through conduit 13,
and its valve 15, will take place. ,The liquid level will
Separator 10
rise in separator 10 and actuate ?oat 16 to close valve
15 until thepressure in separator 10 reaches 60 lbs. per
sq. in. At 60 lbs. per sq. in. valve 21 will begin to open
Also internal of the vessel-tank -1, and near its bottom,
is, mounted a relatively small, separate, removable, shell
10. ?Actually, shell 10 characterizes a small, horizontal,
separatorinto which a well stream to. be processed is in
and the liquids will ?ow to the top of tank 1 if the 60 lbs. .
.per ?sq. in. is high enough to overcome the hydraulic
1 head and the treating pressure held on treater tank 1.
troduced through inlet 11. Within shell 10,7diverter box
7 Should the liquid level in separator 10 continue to in- ,
12' receives/the well stream of inlet conduit 11. , iThe
crease, valve 15. will be closed further, developing the
gaseous pliase'of the 'weu ?stream iisrremorved through
cbnduit-B. The liquid phase is, removed through con
? pressure in separator 10 above 60 lbs. per sq. in. neces-
sary to ?ow the liquid phase to the separator section 6. '
dnit '14. Conduit 13 is v'va'lv'ediby valve'15 which? is ?ac
Shouldthe liquid level in separator 10 continue to rise
The separatorl? is mounted so that itrmay be re-' 65 and lift ?oat 16 valve 15 will be closed and liquid will
he positively-prevented from going out gas conduit 13.
7 moved from the shell 1 as a'unit. This arrangement
Should the liquids in separator 10 'decerase to a very
facilitates cleaning and servicing the separator and re
smallamount, gas valve 15 will be opened wide so that
placing it with one having a different pressure'capacity._
gas will always be discharged through conduit 13 and
Liquid: conduit 14 is extended upward, from separator 10,
tuated by ?oat'16.
'
'
T '
V
' Although not shown in FIG. 1, separator ltlislnormally
normally fail to build the pressure up to the setting of ?
valve 21' and thereby escape into the separator section 6 .
expected to be part of. a complete system for staging the ?
in the top of the treater.
through heat exchanger 20.
'
.
' V
V
'
pressure reduction of the well stream from? the wellhead
Heat Exchanger 20
to the treating process oftankl. Several pressure ranges
may be recited to illustrate the relation? between the
75
Heat exchanger 20_ is comprised, essentially, ofthreeitj
3,043,072
5
tubes telescoped within each other concentrically. Liquid
to be cooled as they pass through conduit 34. Further
conduit 14 is arranged as the inner tube.
Arranged concentrically about conduit 14 is conduit 22
which removes liquid from separation chamber 6 down
condensation of these vapors occur and these liquids ?ow
wardly through heat exchanger 20. The liquids removed
from separator 6 by conduit 22., are taken to a heat treat
back down conduit 34 and conduit 32, remaining isolated
from the clean oil. As these liquids are deposited well
below the surface of the clean oil, the hydrocarbon distil
late will join the clean oil and rise to the point of exit
ing process in the lower part of vessel 1 and just above the
location of separator 16.
while the water will continue to descend for separate re
Conduit 14 is extended out of the top of the other con
duits 22 and 23 of heat exchanger 26 to connect with
heat exchanger 25 mounted within separation chamber 6.
Heating Zone 41
moval and not contaminate the clean oil product.
Arranged concentrically about both conduit 14 and
Conduit 34, functionally, is a continuation of the heat
conduit 22 is conduit 23. Downcomer conduit 23 re 10 exchange surfaces of exchanger 25 which continues the
moves the clean oil produced by heat treating process
function of condensation by heat exchange with the liq
within tank-vessel 1 and heat exchanges it with the well
uids collected on the bottom of chamber 6. Finally, the
stream of conduit 22 to conserve heat introduced in the
gaseous products which have been stripped of all com
heat treating process.
ponents which are storageable at ambient conditions, as
liquid, are removed from gas outlet 30.
Heat Exchanger 25
Attention is now redirected to the well stream liquids
collected on the bottom of chamber 6 and ?owing down
Comparable to heat exchanger 2%, heat exchanger 25 is 20 conduit 22. Conduit 22 liquids are introduced, by con
made up of three concentric tubes. Tube 26 constitutes
the outer shell of heat exchanger 25 and receives conduit
14 at its lower end. Conduit 27 is connected to the
upper end of tube 26 and to a diverter plate 28, mounted
on the inner wall of chamber 6. This particular arrange
ment of tube 26, in heat exchanger 25, permits the indi
rect contact of the incoming well stream with all of the
gaseous products developed by the subsequent heat treat
ing of this same well stream within vessel 1. The liquids
of conduit 14 are thus passed up through heat exchanger
25 and into diverter 28 to be spread out on the wall of
the upper part of the shell of the treater vessel 1 in cham
her 6. Gas is separated from the well ?stream by this
duit 43', into a heating zone 41 in the lower portion of
vessel ll, directly above separator 16. A ?retube 42 is
shown, representing a source of heat for zone 41. Fire
tube 42 may take any of several well known conven
tional forms. ?Conventionally, these ?retubes are sup
plied the products of combustion of gas taken from gas
outlet conduit 3i}. When gas outlet 30 does not have suf
ficient Gas for this heating, another source of gas must be
supplied.
Heating zone 41 is formed about ?retube 42 by a hood
43 and ba?ie 44. Hood 43 has a depending skirt, or
lip, closely positioned to vertical ba?le 44. Battle 44 is
extended well below ?retube 42 in order to form the heat
ing zone 41 about ?retube 42 which Will contain only
09 UK emulsi?ed oil and water to be directly heated by ?re
As stated before tube 26 constitutes the outside shell
tube 42.
of heat exchanger 25 in separation chamber 6. From
Maintaining ?retube 4-2 immersed in oil, Within heat
within tube 26 another tube is concentrically telescoped
ing zone 41, gives an opportunity for the thermal cur
Within a third tube in order to bring all gas evolved in the
rents developed by the ?retube to completely mix and
action and carried out of the vessel 1 through a mist ex
tractor structure 29 and outlet conduit 36.
heat treatment of the liquid well stream into indirect con
tact with the liquids before these liquids are heat-treated.
Speci?cally, tube 31 extends downwardly from heat ex
roll the emulsion.
This function would not be accom
plished if the emulsion was simply passed up over the
tube immersed in water. Thus the heat is applied to
changer 25, through transverse partition 5 to a point well
that portion of the Well stream where it is most needed
below the surface of the clean oil produced by the process.
to break the emulsion between oil and water. The free
Telescoped up inside of tube 31 is tube? 32 which brings 45 water is not heated and heat is not thereby wasted in heat
the gases evolved directly from heat treating process up
ing the water.
into exchanger 25. Holes 33 are provided in the Wall of
A large portion of the hydrocarbon fractions and water
tube 31, just below partition 5, to bring gaseous vapors
which can be evolved in the heating process is driven
developed above the surface of the clean oil up into sep
from the well stream 'at the location above ?retube 42
aration chamber 6.
.
Just below heat exchanger 25, connected to conduit 31,
50 in zone 41 and passes up conduit 32 to heat exchanger
2-5. Only the upper, hottest, portions of the heated emul
is a conduit '34. Conduit 34 takes all or" the uncondensed
sion in zone 41 is removed to pass upwardly through the
vapor from both conduits 31 and 32 through indirect
agglomerating section of the treater. The depending
heat exchange with the well stream liquids from diverter
skirt or ba?le of hood 43, and transverse ba?le 44, are
28 which have collected in the bottom of chamber 6. 55 arranged to skim the uppermost layer of the emulsion in
After this heat exchange, the gases which are still not
zone 41 and pass this heated emulsion downwardly and
condensed are ejected into the gaseous space of chamber
release it upwardly so that it will ?ow upwardly toward
6, passing out mist extractor 23 through conduit 36.
the agglomerating, or ?lter, section, while any solid for
Heat exchanger 25 functions to bring all of the gase
eign matter and water will flow downwardly to the bot
ous hydrocarbons and water vapor developed in the heat 60 tom of the treater.
treating process of the well stream into indirect heat ex
The emulsion heated in zone 41 is released from hood
change contact with the relatively cool liquids of the
43 only after it has attained the highest temperature pos
well stream before the Well stream is taken to the heat
sible by the ?ring of tube 42. This heated emulsion is
completely prepared for treating by agglomerating sec
treating process. As gaseous hydrocarbons and Water
tion 45. The treating is then completed by the oil being
vapor rise within central heat exchange conduit 32, a
coalesced and the water being coalesced within section 45.
portion of the products which can be lique?ed condense
The clean oil produced is passed to a point above ?lter
out and fall back in conduit 32 or conduit 31. In either
section 45 to collect in a body, and the water coalesced
event, the water condensed is maintained consistently
isolated from the clean oil produced by the heat treating
process.
This Water is removed to a point well below
gravitates downwardly to be removed through water out
0 let conduit 46.
FIG. 2 is used to illustrate a treater quite similar to
that shown in FIG. 1. A tank 50 has a head 51 and bot
of vessel 1 for removal through a conduit.
,
tom 52 with a support 53. A transverse partition 54 de
The hydrocarbons and water vapor which are not con
?nes a separating chamber 55 in the upper end of the
densed as they rise within conduits 31 and 32 continue 75 tank 50.
the surface of the clean oil and descends to the bottom
3,043,072
8
place. The gas. evolved above the clean oil is carried out
holes 67 as previously described.
Referring to H6. 3,- there has been shown a treater
tank 72 quite similar to the tanlevessels of the proceeding
There is no relatively high pressuretseparator shown in
the bottom of tank 50. If required, a separator similar
to that'in FIG. 1 may be employed to receive the well
stream and pass its liquids to inlet conduit 60.. Thus it
7 is that a separator similar to 10 of FIG. 1 need not be
5
incorporated in the treater. However, if such a separator
is not employed the advantages of its use are not realized.
Heat Exchanger 61
, Inlet conduit 60 passes the liquids-of the well stream
?gures. A head 73 and a bottom 74 are provided as in
the other structures; The entire tank rests on a support
75 and a transverse partition 76 provides the upper sep
aration chamber 77.
V
V
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._
Again, an integral ?high pressure separator is not dis
closed as mounted in the bottom of tank 70. The well
stream is brought to the treater through conduit 80? and
into separator chamber 55, after they pass through heat
exchanger 61. Heat exchanger 61 provides conduits 62
passes through heat exchanger 81 which is quite similar
to the heat? exchangers'of FIGS. 1 and 2?.
In distinguishment from the preceding structures, con
the process by transferring a considerable portion of the
heat from the clean oil produced to emulsion taken to the 15 duit 80 does not pass through heat exchanger 81 and pass
the well stream directly into separation chamber 77.
heat treating section of tank 50.
?
and 63 about conduit 60 in order to conserve the heat of ?
Rather, a tube sheet 32 and a tube sheet 813 are provided
across conduit 84 which conduit is concentric about cone
Heat iExclzanger 65
Heat exchanger 65 in separating chamber 55, is quite
duit 8t}.
similar to heat exchanger 25 in providing a means where-V
by the relatively cool incoming well stream can be used
to cool all of the lique?able components of the gases
'
'
' A plurality of tubes 85 extend upward from the ?tube
sheet 83 to terminate ?at tube sheet 86. The result is to?
form a heat exchanger between tube sheets 83 and 86
into which the well stream is passed on the tube side.
? evolved from the heating process. Further, the structure
of heat exchanger 65 correspondingly provides for keep- 7
The heat exchanger, external of tank 72,.between dam
ing liquids condensed by the cooling isolated from the 25 sheets 83 and 86 brings the. well stream? and substantially
clean oil productwhile talc'ng these liquids to a point
all the evolved gases of the heating process together for
where'they' can be released to separate into oil and water.
condensation of the lique?a'ble components therefrom.
The oil joins the clean oil product of the process while
water is directed into combination with water developed
during the heat treating.
Both water vapor and; hydrocarbon fractions may be con
densed, and fall back to a ?point well below the surface of
.30 the clean oil. 7 However, some "condensation will also
It is desired that all gases evolved from the heating
process be brought into heat exchanger 65. The emul
sion ?brought from heat exchanger 61 is cool, relative to
'the evolved gas from directly above the heat source in the
lower part of shell 51 as well as the gas from the surface
of the clean oil produced. This cool? emulsion picks up
more heat from exchanger ?65, but it is still cool, relative
to the gas below transverse partition 54 when discharged
on partition 54 in separator chamber '55. When gas is
. evolved from the coalescing section of the treater, above
the hot clean oil product, it is desirable that the water
vapor portion of this gas not be condensed and dropped
into the clean 'oil as it leaves the treater. ' Ba?le 66 is
provided below partition 54 as an illustration of an in
, sulating head which avoids condensation of this evolved
gas at this point. The uncondensed gas ?ows into'holes?
67 in conduit 68 where the condensate formed will be
kept isolated from the clean oil and be carried to a point
where the water can join the other water developed in?
treating and be disposed of without contaminating the
clean oil.
'
.
Heating Zone 70
Conduit 62 is shown removing the liquids of separating
chamber 55 to heating zone?70. In heating zone 70 the'
occur within the heat exchanger between dam sheets 83'
and S6. The condensed liquids could, be removed to
a point in the coalescing section, at least well below the
clean oil surface. Conduit 87 is here provided to con
tinually draw off these condensates and pass them into.
conduit 84, below dam sheet 82, so that they will mix with
the liquids of the well stream going to the heat treatment
process in the lower part of vessel 72. This arrangement
provides a recycling of the condensible hydrocarbons and
water through the heat treating process, for disposal of
the water and further stabilization of the hydrocarbons.
That portion of the gas which does not liquefy in the
heat exchanger between dam sheets 83 and 86 is removed
from the shell side of the heat exchanger by means of
conduit?ih Conduit 90 merely represents one means
whereby these uncondensed gaseous products of the heat
treating process are joined with those ?gaseous. products
separated in chamber 77 to pass out of the tre'ater through,
gas outlet conduit 91.
I
=
_
Gaseous products developed by the heat treating process
within the treater are collected by conduit 92 and con
duit 93. The gas directly developed by the heating process
'is passed upward'through conduit 92?. .
Tray 94;
Gas 'evolvedfrom the coalescing section of the treater ~
and collecting above the clean oil surface may contain?
water vapor which it would not be desirable 'to condense
large body where it isfraised to its highest temperature in
back into the clean oil product. Condensation can be.
the process while being given a much longer retention
time in the ?body than heretofore available in prior art 60 avoided by insulating the gas from the cooled underside
of partition 76. Tray 94- offers an alternate to insulation.
structures. The advantage of 'this function of the large,
Tray 94 is provided beneath partition 76. with risers 9.5,
isolated, heating zone has already been developed in
whichpass the gas rising from the toprof the clean oil up
describing the similar heating zone 41 of FIG. 1.
r
into? contact with the cooled head 76.? Condensate formed
The heated emulsion is continuously drawn from the top
emulsion of the well stream is held in a comparatively
on partition 76 will fall'and collect on tray 94 and flow
of the zone 70 and directed downwardly and then up
into conduit 93 through holes 916. Gas which does not
wardly'toward the coalescing section. If any sand, or
condense'is drawn up conduit 93 through holes 97.
other foreign matter, has? been carried to this point of.
The gas from conduit �and the gas from conduit 93
heated emulsion removal from the zone? 70 the ?nal're
versal of direction of its flow will tend to throw solid
is combined in conduit 98. if Conduit 98 passes these gases
foreign matter downwardly from the heated emulsion. 70 into, the shell side of the heat exchanger between dam
The heated emulsion will then rise upwardly through the
sheets 83 and 86. Should condensation occur in either .
coalescing section of the treater to collect in a clean body
conduit 92 or 93, the liquids will fall backrinto the heat:
of oil.- vThe clean body of oil is removed from above
coalescing section 71 through conduit ?63 where the heat .
treating processwell below the clean oil- surface-?while
remaining completely isolated therefrom. JHNo possibility-1
exchange'conservation function of exchanger 61 takes. 75. of contamination by condensed water .gispossible.v "The
l
3,043,072
1%
condensates are either placed in the coalescing section of
mounted on the top of head 121. Baf?es 132 break up
any foam that may have been developed. Conduit 133
draws off the developed gas and ?ns 134 are mounted on
conduit 133 to dissipate the heat from this gas ?and con
dense hydrocarbon fractions and Water Vapor ?from the
gaseous mixture,
the .treater or are placed in the emulsion going into the
heat treating process in the lower portion of the treater.
In either event, cutting of the quality of the clean oil
produced is avoided and placing the hydrocarbon frac
tions in the emulsion additionally provides for their con
tinual restabilization.
The well stream passing out of the plurality of tubes
The condensed liquids in conduit 133 drop straight
down to a point within the coalescing section of the treat
85 into the upper portion of conduit 84 above darn sheet
er, remaining isolated from the clean oil. The gas which
86 is spread on the internal walls of separation chamber 10 is not lique?ed passes out conduit 135 and gas outlet 136.
77 by diverter 100. The diverter 1% is placed near
Any gas evolved above the clean oil collected above
conduit 93 so that the liquids of the well stream dis
the ?coalescing section joins the ?ume 12% gas and the
charged from diverter 100 will cool conduit 93 and con
mixture ?ows out gas outlet 136. The condensate is?kept
dense the gases collected therein. The liquids fall into
isolated from the clean oil by conduit 133 and drops to
a collection above transverse partition 76 and ?are drawn 15 the coalescing section.
into conduit 84 and downwardly-into the lower part of
From the foregoing it will be seen that thisinvention
tank 72.
is one well adapted to attain all of the ends and objects
Transverse partition 101 is part of a particular form of
hereinabove set forth, together with other advantages
water knockout and emulsion spreader. A central hole
which are obvious and which ?are inherent to the method
102 is provided in partition 101, about which two circular 20 and apparatus.
battles are concentrically arranged. The outer circular
It will be understood that certain features and subcom
battle 103 is provided with a hole 194 near its juncture with
binations are of utility and may be employed without
partition 101 and on the side opposite the discharge point
reference to other features and subcomrbinations. This
of emulsion from conduit 84. The inner, concentric,
is contemplated by and is within the scope of the claims.
partition 1135 has serrations on its lower edge. The emul 25 As many possible embodiments may be made of the
sion distributed under partition 101 is retarded and distrib
invention without department from the scope thereof, it
uted in a strata by circular partition 103 ?and discharged
is to be understood that all matter herein set forth or
from this strata through hole 104. Emulsion through
shown in the accompanying drawings is to be interpreted ,
the hole 104 is directed downwardly and then upwardly
as illustrative and not in a limiting sense.
over the serrations of circular partition 1495. Free water
which has been developed by the preheating in heat ex
changer 81 and in the strata under partition 101, is started
downwardly while the emulsion is ?owed upwardly over
?retube 106.
Firetube 196 is located beneath a hood 107 in an ar
The invention having been described, What is claimed
1s:
1. A system of treating oil Well production, including.
35
rangement similar to the preceding drawings. Hood 107,
with its depending skirt, and transverse bathe 108, pro
vide all the advantages of the large capacity heating zone
?as described in connection with the prior structures.
The heated emulsion is drawn from beneath hood 1G7 110
and into coalescing section 109. The gas developed by
this heating is drawn upwardly through conduit 92 for
condensation as previously described.
Clean oil ?above
coalescing section 109 is drawn downwardly through heat
exchanger 81 and out conduit 110.
45
Referring now to FIG. 4; there is shown a tank 120
with a domed head 121 and a dished bottom 122, all rest
ing on a support 123.
No high pressure separator or external liquid-liquid heat
exchanger is disclosed. These features can be combined 50
with the structure, however, it is anticipated that a wide
range of types of oil well production can ?be handled suc
cessfully without employing these features in this form
of treater.
The oil Well production is brought into tank 120 through 55
conduit 125. Conduit 125 places the well stream in heat
ing zone 126, very similar to the heating zones of the pre
ceding disclosures,
Hood 127, with depending skirt, is used to de?ne heat
ing zone 126, in ?co-operation with transverse ba?ie 128.
Flume 129 extends upwardly from hood 127 to carry o?
the majority of gaseous components developed by the
direct heating of the well ?uids in heating zone 126 by
?retube 130.
The well stream ?owing in at the bottom of the treater 65
through conduit 125 drops its free water to the bottom of
the treater. The oil and emulsion of the well stream is
then heated in zone 126 with ?retube 130 immersed in the
emulsion and oil. The thermal currents created by this
heating causes an agitation of the oil to remove entrained 70
gas, and at the same time creates good chemical mixing
and more even distribution of chemical in the oil to pro
mote ef?cient treating. The gas developed is conducted
up the center ?ume 129.
The gas going up ?ume 129 is taken into a dome 131 75
a heat source controlled to heat the production and
break it into oil and Water and gas,
a collector for evolved gas directly above the heat
source,
.
a ?rst conduit from the collector for the evolved gas,
a coalescing section receiving the oil and emulsion
prepared by the heater for coalescence,
a chamber for collecting the clean oil produced from
the coalescence section,
a second conduit extending into the gas space above
the clean oil in the clean oil chamber which re
moves the evolved gas from above the clean oil and
maintains any Water condensed in the second conduit
isolated from the clean oil in the clean oil chamber
as the clean oil is produced from the chamber,
a third conduit connected to the ?rst and second con
duits for combining the gas of the ?rst and second
conduits,
a heat exchanger connected to the third conduit and
bringing the production into heat exchange with the
combined gas to condenser that portion of the com
bined gas which can be held in a liquid state under
substantially ambient conditions,
and a fourth conduit for the condensate of the heat
exchanger with which the condensate is removed
from the heat exchanger and mixed with the pro
duction going to the heat source to further stabilize
the hydrocarbons of the condensate.
2. A system of treating oil Well production, including
a heat source which is controlled so it will heat the
production and separate it into oil and water and
gas,
a collector directly above the heat source for gas
evolved by heating the production to the highest
temperature it attains in the system,
a ?rst conduit connected to the collector for removing
the evolved gas from the collector,
a coalescing section receiving the production remain
ing in a liquid state as the production is withdrawn
from the collector,
a chamber in which clean oil produced
by the coalescing
section is collected,
a ?rst heat exchanger connected to the clean oil
3,643,072
11
12
break it? into oil and water and gas,
, heat exchange with each other prior to the produc
tion beingiheat'ed by the controlled heat source, '
a second? conduit connected to the gas space above the
clean'oil in the clean oil chamber Which receives gas
evolved from the cleangoil,
,
v
source,
ond conduits to bring all the gaseous? components
being heated by the controlled heat source, '
extending downward a substantial distance below the
clean oil surface?to maintain any water condensed in
the second conduit isolated from the clean oil in the
keep the water isolated from the clean oil produced
by the coalescing section while returning the water 15
to the coalescing section from where the water gravi
clean oil chamber as the clean oil is produced from
the chamber and take the water condensed in the con
,
duit to a location a substantial distance below the
and a fourth conduit receiving the condensate of the
a clean oil surface.
second heat exchanger and placing the condensate
source, whereby the hydrocarbons of the condensate
a heat exchanger connected to the third conduit and
' bringing the production into heat exchange with the
combined gas to condense that portion of the com
bined gas which can be held in a liquid state under
3. The method of treating oil well production, com
prrsrng,
collecting the production into a volume su?iciently
large to permit strati?cation of the oil and emulsion
substantially ambient conditions, ' a
into, a strata and free water into a separate strata,
and a fourth conduit for the condensate of the heat ex
directing heat into the oil and emulsion strata which
will evolve, gas,
continuously withdrawing oil and emulsion from the 30
changer with which the condensate is removed from
the heat exchanger and mixed with the production
going to the heat source to further stabilize the hydro~
carbons of the condensate.
6. ,An oil well production treater including,
a source of oil Well production delivering production
into? the treater for heat treatement,v
heated strata as it is raised to a maximum tempera
CO U!
r a source of heat mounted within the treater for heating
condensing water and hydrocarbons from all vapors
evolved above the surface of the coalesced oil,
condensing water and hydrocarbons from all vapors
evolved from directly heating the oil and, emulsion
strata,
the oil well production,
a separator chamber above the heat source receiving
the production therein and passing 'the production to
the source of heat,
from all these vapors isolated from the clean oil,
?owing a ?rst portion of the isolated water and hydro
carbons beneath the surface of the clean oil,
and ?owing the remainder of the isolated water and
hydrocarbons to the large volume of collected pro
duction.
body of clean oil and the separator to keep the cooler
?uid stream of production in the ?separator chamber
?from condensing the warmer gas evolved from the
coalescing section,
the coalescing section for cooling by the production
before the production is passed to the source of heat,
and a conduit system for keeping all the condensed
-water and hydrocarbons isolated from the clean oil
While carrying a ?rst portion of the isolated water
and hydrocarbons below the surface of the clean oil
and the remaining condensates to the large volume
the production and suf?ciently large to permit strati
of production.
oil and emulsion from the large volume,
into the treater for heat treatment,
a source of heat mounted within the treater for heating
portion of the strata of oil and emulsion to produce -60
? the oil well production,
? a separator chamber above the heat ?source receiving
means for condensing water and hydrocarbon from all?
the production therein and passing the production to
vapors evolved above the surface of the coalesced
and a conduit system for keeping all the condensed
water and hydrocarbons isolated from the clean oil 70
while carrying a ?rst portion of the isolated water
and hydrocarbons below the surface of the clean
of
production.
.
'
'
Y
5. A system for treating oil Well production, including,
the source of heat,
65
V
? oil and the remaining condensates to the large volume
'
7. An oil well production treater including,
a source of oil well production delivering production
a coalescing section in the treater receiving the hottest
, the clean oil as- the treater output,
-
a heat exchanger for receiving all the gas evolved from
?cation of the oil and emulsion into a strata and free
water into'a separate strata,
a source of heat mounted in the oil and emulsion strata 55
to direct heat into the strata which will evolve gas,
means for ?owing the hottest portion, of the strata of
emulsion strata,
v
oil is produced'as a product of the treater,
a source of oil well production delivering production
50
into the treater for heat treatment,
ba?les within the treater providing a volume receiving
'
?
an insulation means between the gas space above the
4. An oil well production treater, including,
means for condensing water and hydrocarbons from
?all vapors evolved? from the directly heated oil and
'
_ a coalescing section above the heat source and below
the separator chamber above which a body of clean .
maintaining all the condensed Water and hydrocarbons
7
V
duits,
are further stabilized.
'
7
a third conduit connected to the ?rst and second con
duits for combining gas of the ?rst and second con
into the production as it goes to the controlled heat
~
,
move the gas evolved from above the clean oil and
a third conduit connected to the second conduit to
receive water condensed in the second conduit and
oil,
f,
a? second conduit extending upwards into the gas space
above the clean oil in the clean oil chamber to re
change with the production prior to the production 10
'
\_
the coalescence section,?
evolved by the controlled heat source into heat ex
perature to produce clean oil,
_
a ?rst conduit from the collector for, the evolved gas,
a coalescing section receiving the oil and emulsion pre
pared by the heater for coalescence,
a chamber for collecting the clean oil produced from "
a
ture,
coalescing the oil and water of the oil and emulsion
strata after it has been raised to the maximum tem
,
a collector for evolved gas directly above the heat
a second heat exchanger connected to the ?rst and ?sec
tates downwardly for disposal,
'
' ' a heat source? ?controlled to heat the production and
chamber to bring the clean oil and production'i?
?
a coalescing section above the heat source and below
'
the separator chamber above which a body of clean
oil is produced as a product of the treater,
a tray structure between the body'of clean oil and the?
' separator passing all the warmer gas evolved from,
the'coalescing section into heat exchange with the
separator chamber and collectingrthe condensate,
? a ?rst conduit? system for receiving gases evolved im
mediately following heating of the production by the
source of heat and those gases not condensed on the
3,043,072
13
separator chamber and removing all these gases to
indirect heat exchange with the production prior to
the production being delivered to the heat source,
a second conduit system for conducting the condensate
collected by the tray to a point well below the surface
of the clean oil,
14
ment for restabilization of the hydrocarbons of the
condensate.
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
and a third conduit system for conducting the conden
sate from the heat exchange with the production into
2,528,032
2,765,917
Francis ______________ __ Oct. 9, 1956
direct mixture with the emulsion going to heat treat
2,948,352
Walker et a1. _________ .._ Aug. 9, 1960
Candler et a1 __________ __ Oct. 31, 1950
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