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Патент USA US3043198

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July 10, 1962
B. 1.. WELLER
3,043,183
PARTICLE MEASURING INSTRUMENT AND METHOD
Filed Oct. 20, 1958
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INVENTOR
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Emznw l, WELLER
July 10, 1962
3,043,183
B. L. WELLER
PARTICLE MEASURING INSTRUMENT AND METHOD
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
Filed on. 20, 1958
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July 10, 1962
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3,043,183
PARTICLE MEASURING INSTRUMENT AND METHOD
Filed Oct. 20, 1958
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B?Is’TdNIEYh/EZER
ENTOR
BY
73M
‘
11%
TTO R N EYS
United States Patent 0
_
3,043,183
Patented July 10, 1962
2.
1
increasing depth, a blade or edge being moved longi
tudinally relative to the axis of the slot. The ori?ce is
varied as the distance from the edge of the blade relative
to the bottom of the slot changes when the blade is moved
relative thereto. The sample of material suspended in
the ?uid is placed in the slot, and as the blade is drawn
longitudinally therealong, a wedge or sample, which can
3,043,183
PARTKILE MEASURING INSTRUMENT AN!)
METHOD
Barton L. Weller, Easton, Conn, assignor, by mesne
assignments, to Vitramon, Incorporated, Monroe,
Comm, a corporation of Delaware
Filed Oct. 20, 1958, Ser. No. 768,345
be termed a “drawdown” sample, will be formed. In such
a sample, when the particle size of a particle is greater
19 Claims. (CI. 88-44)
This invention relates to a method and apparatus for 10 than the depth of the slot, it will be scraped therefrom
so as to leave the bottom of the slot exposed, all the par
ticles of sizes equal to the slot or of smaller sizes remain
one employing radiant energy such as light rays or the
obtaining particle size information and particularly to
ing in the slot. Thereby the separation is in proportion
like.
It is desirable for many industrial operations, research
work and the like, to obtain information regarding particle
sizes and distribution of the particle sizes in a material.
to the opening of the ori?ce or depth of the slot as the
This is of particular interest, for example, in powders,
blade is passed therealong producing a tapered or wedge
like sample.
Segregated particles are displayed along said slot. At
ceramics, enamels, paints, inks, pigments, pharmaceuti
a particular point, all those equal to or smaller than the
cals and other materials formed of an accumulation of
separate bodies in either dry or ?uid state. Various
depth of the slot will remain. The relative proportions of
different particle sizes might be made by visual observa
tion; however, this invention gives an improved method.
The concentrations of the thus segregated particles of
methods and 1apparatus have been used in the past for
measuring particle size and distribution thereof, such as
a plurality of sieves, microscopic examination, sedimenta
tion, elutriation and several-optical methods. None of
different sizes are measured and the relationship of the
various sizes is determined from the measurements as
these, however, has been completely satisfactory for vari
will be explained hereafter. In one form, visible light
ous reasons. For example, one of the problems has been
that boundary determinations have been di?icult to as
ples has been a problem. Also, many of the previous
can be used and arranged so that the impinging beam from
a source will be directed in a path substantially perpen
dicular to the surface of material in the slot. Photocells
or other radiant energy responsive elements are located
methods have not provided a permanent record or have
not been suitable for production use. Quality control re
to be sensitive only to diffuse light from the sample. The
re?ected light from the bottom of the slot will be directed
quires frequent determination of the characteristics of the
materials being used. It is particularly desirable in con
trolling such production to make particle size measure
by a detector placed in the hemisphere above the plane of
the slot. Thereby, the amount of light received by the
certain precisely. Further, preparation of uniform sam
essentially back on the source beam, so will not be seen
detector will be in proportion to the amount of material
in the slot. At any particular point in the slot, the amount
of material in the slot area will be dependent upon the
been slow with resultant production hold-ups and lost
proportion of the particles in the material smaller than
time.
'
the depth of the slot. Thus the detector will indicate the
One of the objects of the invention is to provide a
method and apparatus for rapidly and accurately obtain 40 proportion of particles in the material the size of which is
smaller than the depth of the slot at any particular point
ing and indicating particle size information.
on the block.
Another object of the invention is to provide a method
One example of an apparatus which will record this
and apparatus which will detect particles larger than a
particle size information is a conveyor means for con
predetermined size, and the proportion of particles of a
ments rapidly and accurately and to record the same.
Previous methods and apparatus have in many instances
given size.
trollably passing the block through the beam of light and
an instrument for showing the light observed by the de
'
A further object of the invention is to provide an ap
paratus which will display and record the particle size
information desired.
A still further object of the invention is to provide a
method and instrument for determining particle size in
formation in material such as cements, powders, pastes,
creams, suspensions, slurries, aggregates, or other material
tector. The indicating instrument may record on a chart
which is arranged to move at a speed in proportion to that
of the conveyor.
The curve so made can be correlated
with the length of the block, the depth of the slot and
the particle size information read therefrom. It is also
possible to move the light beam relative to the sample and
other types of indicating or information reading meansv
formed of an accumulation of separate bodies in close re
can be employed.
In a preferred form of this embodiment, the bottom of
lationship in either dry or ?uid state.
Another object of the invention is to provide a method
of preparing samples of a material for rapidly and ac
the slot is ?nished so as to provide a ?ne ?nish honed par~
curately making particle size determination.
allel to the length of the slot. Such oriented honing or.
?nish will provide minute grooves in the bottom which
In one aspect of the invention, the material involved is
suspended in a ?uid having Newtonian properties, and the 60 causes light re?ected from the surface to be re?ected in
a plane through the impinging light beam but perpendicu
lar to the length of the slot. In the plane through the
impinging beam but parallel to the slot, the light is re
?ected back on the beam only. Thereby, the difference
between light detected in the plane oriented perpendicu
lar to the slot and that parallel to the slot is caused by,
light re?ected from the bottom exclusively. In contrast,
the diffused light from the material will be detected equal
ly in these two locations. The indicating instrument is
70 arranged to record only the difference in light at the two
suspension is moved relative to a variable ori?ce or aper
ture so as to segregate particles of different sizes in pro
portion to the size or opening of the aperture as will be
described hereafter. In the event the ?uid does not have
Newtonian properties, it is treated so that it does have 65
such. “Newtonian liquid” is de?ned, for example, on
page 31 of “Industrial Rheology and Rheological Struc
tures” by Henry Green, published by John Wiley & Sons,
Inc., 1949, as follows: “. , .; in the Newtonian liquid,
stress is directly proportional to rate of shear; . . .”
In
one embodiment of the invention, the variable ori?ce can
be formed by a gauge block or means having a slot of
locations. The difference detected is the ‘amount of the
slot bottom that is exposed and measures the proportion
3,043,183
3
A
the aperture and displayed on a surface. If the viscosity
is high at the rates of shear encountered in the aperture,
the sample will be pulled apart in the aperture and stria
of particles greater than the depth of a particular point
in the slot. Therefore, in this preferred form, two de
tectors are placed to view the point where the beam im
pinges on the slot, one .in_,the plane perpendicular to the
tions produced mechanically in the sample display. If,
slot, the other in the plane parallel to the slot.
Where the light strikesonly the surface of the material,
it will be diffused and reach both detectors or energy re
sponsive means in substantially equal proportion. The
balance in energy reaching the detectors will be changed
conversely, the sample is not 'sui?ciently viscous or is par
ticularly low in viscosity at low rates of shear, it may
1 not remain dormant after passing through the aperture.
In the latter event, areas of the steel or surface which had
been exposed by particular particles might be re?lled by
in the case where the sample surface has exposed azone 10 the sample ?owing after the extrusion is complete.
or area of the bottom of the slot due to the particles
larger than the slot depth being carried along by the
,drawdown blade. This will provide a change in the com
posite signal and the resulting curve or graph from which
can be determined the desired particle size information. 15
In one form of apparatus, a direct reading of the com
posite energy received by the detectors may be compared
' with the position on the sample from which it is re
ceived; In another form, the signal can be fed through a
It
has been found that the sample must be essentially New
tonian in its viscosity characteristic.
When viscosity is
measured with such an instrument as a Brook?eld Vis
cometer, viscosities at 2, 10 and 20 revolutions per min
ute should preferably be within 15 percent of the vis
cosity at 4 revolutions per minute. 'The general range of
viscosity might be 2,000 to 10,000 centipoise, and approxi
mately 6,000 is preferred.
The desired viscosity characteristic is attained by ap
di?erentiation circuit so as to give an indication of the 20 propriate vehicles in which the particles are suspended.
rate of change in amount of material in the slot. The
rate is in proportion to the particle size of the material.
In the preferred aspect, a slot longitudinally extending
the length of the block having the sample therein is used,
but a circularor other shaped slot and sample also could
be employed, the apparatus being suitably arranged so
that the energy beam and sample properly will be corre
lated. Also other types of variable apertures can be em;
ployed such as means for extruding the sample through
an opening which has means for progressively, or other
wise, changing the size of the opening.
>
The apparatus herein provides an accurate and simple
way to determine particle size and distribution. Also, be
cause the detectors ‘are balanced against each other, dif
Through trial with a particular sample, appropriate
amounts of suitable suspending materials such as ethyl
cellulose or methyl cellulose can induce greater ?ow
properties and lower viscosities at low rates .of shear.
Such solvent additions as turpentine,'pine oil, glycerine or
water reduce the viscosity at highrates of shear.
The amount of liquid ‘vehicle should be kept at a
minimum necessary to induce desired ?ow properties.
Excessive additions of liquid vphases will dilute. the sam
30 ple and not permit suf?cient density of particles to be
detected in the display. . Fifty percent by weight of liquid
phase is a maximum and 20 to 30 percent is preferred.
Stains or dyes might be added to increase light absorption
and diffusion of'the sample to increase the sensitivity of
ferences in supply voltage or light intensity will not aifect 35 the detection.
operation and thus the operation will be stable.
As an example of one form of variable ori?ce, a gauge
These and other objects, advantages and features of
of the “drawndown” type which can be used e?icaciously
the invention will become apparent from the following
with the invention is illustrated in FIG. 7 wherein block
description and drawings which are merely exemplary.
20 is made of metal or suitable material with a tapered
In the drawings:
1
'
FIG. 1 is a sectional elevation taken in the direction
of line 1—1 of FIG. 2 showing’ one form'of apparatus
which may be used;
FIG. ,2 is a fragmentary sectional view taken in the’
direction of line ~2—2 of FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is a fragmentary sectional elevation taken in
the direction of line 3—3 of FIG. 1;
,
'
FIG. 4 is an enlarged fragmentary view of the photo
cell arrangement of FIGS. 1 and 3;
FIG. 5 _is a schematic view of the light and photocell
arrangement showing the effect on the light distribution
of the grooves on the bare bottom surface of the slot;
.FIG. 6 is a schematic view similar toFIG. 5, but show
ing diffusion of light by the particles in the sample;
FIG. 7 is a perspective view of one of the forms of
gauge blocks or sample forming means which may be
40 cut or slot 21 made therein.
Said cut is made with its
bottom surface at a predetermined angle to the top .sur
face of the block and extends from the'open end 22 to
Zone 23 where it merges with the top surface of gauge
or block ‘20. As an example, a channel ?ve inches long
can be used-with its greatest depth as 0.004 inch or about
100 microns.‘ It is to be understood, of course, that
various shapes of channels or a continuous surface with
an elevating blade may be used in conjunction with the
apparatus and method involved herein. The channel bot
tom preferably is ?nished so as to provide longitudinally
extending minute grooves, the depth of which is small
in comparison to the smallest particle. The remaining
surfaces of the gauge ‘block can be randomly oriented or
grained.
,
v
'
The material to be tested is placed ‘at ‘the deeper end
of the channel and slightly'over?owing the same, or at
used;
a
the other end. A doctor knife or “drawdown” blade
. FIG. ,8 is one form of circuit which can be used for
26A is held so that the plane of the blade is substantially
operating the motor-drive of FIGS. 1 to 3; t
perpendicular vto the axis of the channel and blade edge
7 FIG. 9 is one form of a combining ampli?er circuit 60 resting on the top surface of block 20, and is drawn from
whichcanbe used in‘conjunction with the invention; ‘
the deeper end of the channel to the other-end, carrying
FIG. 10 is a graph showing one example of a direct
the sample therewith. Thus, the discrete particles in the
reading made by the instrument;
viscous material are moved in. a slot of decreasing depth
FIG. 11 is a graph showing a reading involving the
so that particles of greater size than depth of the slot at
differentiating circuit; and
'
(35 a ‘predetermined point will be removed‘from the slot,
FIG. .12 is a plan view of a block with the sample there
thus exposing the bottom of the slot at all points where
in correlated to the graphs of FIGS. 10 and 11;
the slot is shallower than the particles. At the point
' The material having particle characteristics to’be. de
where removal ?rst takes place, the bottom surface of
termined, such as an enamel or other material having dis
the slot will appear and the extent thereof will increase
crete particles, may be suspended in a suitable viscous
until the bottom of the slot is completely exposed Where
vehicle or ?uid, such preferably having a Newtonian vis
the depth ofthe slotis less than the smallest particle in
cosity. The vehicle selected is that which insures dis
the sample. The sample is thus segregated into a tapered
persion of all particles of the sample, ?uid flow of the
sample in which only particles smaller than a particular
sample through the aperture and static disposition of all
thickness of the taper are present at any particular point.v
phases of the sample after it has been passed through
In other words, the sample is segregated in a manner so
3,043,183
5
that only particles not greater than a particular size are
present at a particular depth or place along the slot. The
viscosity of the vehicle must be such that there is no
visible dragging of the material, the material coming
free of the knife leaving a smooth ?lm. '
It is necessary to determine accurately the zone or
area in which the material is scraped from the channel
by the knife to provide the particle size information re
quired. In order to accomplish this, a source of light
or energy can be provided so that a beam thereof is di
6
operation is ready to be started.
At the end of the oper
' ation, the block may be removed through door 48.
A limit switch 49 is adjustably mounted on bracket
5%}, said switch having an operator or follower 49A
(FIGS. 1, 8) which extends into the path of movement
of block 2%).
A button 52 (FIG. 8) may be actuated so as to ener
gize motor 45 which will cause block 20 to move to
the right (FIG. 1) until the forward edge thereof strikes
10 follower 49A and actuates switch ‘493 to stop the motor
rected onto the slot and material therein. Preferably it
45.
is directed substantially perpendicularly downward. An
the second switch 52A is ‘actuated, 49C being closed,
The arrangement is then positioned so that when
motor 45 will again start and remain energized until
follower 49A reaches the rear or trailing edge of the
grooves in the slot being indicated at 24. The source of 15 gauge block which then will stop the motor by opening
49C. The recorder motor 70 also will be energized when
light 25 can be arranged to direct beam 26 onto mirror
toggle switch 52B is closed and will be de-energized when
27, said mirror being positioned to direct light beam or
switch 4§C is opened. The block will pass through the
ray 28 in a direction generally perpendicular to the
beam 28 from light source 25 and will cause a signal
planevof gauge block 20. Photocell 29 is arranged to
to be generated in the circuit fed by photocells 29 and
receive light in ‘a plane parallel to the longitudinal axis
3d, and cause pen 68 to indicate the signal in recorder 69,
of the slot, and photocell 30 is arranged at the side of the
one form of such a circuit being illustrated in FIG. 9.
gauge to receive light diffused in that direction. In the
The photocells 29 and 39 together with light source 25
form shown in FIG. 5, photocell 30 is substantially at
example of such can be seen in FIG. 5 wherein gauge
block 20 is schematically shown with channel 21 with
right angles thereto, but it should be apparent that the
can be mounted in removable and adjustable housing or
photocells can be placed in various locations relative to
casing 53 (FIG. 1). Mirror or re?ector 27 is attached
by adjustable screws 54 to casing 53. Suitable shields
55, 56'can be attached to plate 57. Plate 57 has an
aperture 58 through which beam 28 passes and other
each other, or that more than two cells could be used.
Referring to FIG. 6, particles are schematically shown
at 31 receiving light and diffusing the same in all direc
tions so that photocells 29 and 30 will receive essentially
apertures (not shown) adjacent the photocells through
the same amount of light and have the energy received 30 which the diffused or specular light beam passes from
thereby substantially balanced. This is the condition in
the channel before particles have been drawn out by
action of the knife because of the particles being larger
than the depth of the channel at that point. The grooves
are shown in FIGS. 5 and 6 enlarged and out of propor
tion to the remainder of the device.
In the zone of the channel or slot where particles have
been scraped therefrom, bare metal or the grooves in
the surface of the channel will be exposed and will cause
more light to be directed in a plane perpendicular to the
length of the slot, so that photocell 30 will receive more
light than 29 such as shown schematically in FIG. 5.
The extent of the surface exposed at a point is in propor
the surface of the sample to said photocells.
The ampli?er, shown generally by reference numeral
59 (FIG. 9), can be included in housing 35 if desired.
Referring to FIG. 9, the circuit illustrated is one which
35 can be used to combine the signals received by the photo
cells and to produce a desired combined or composite
signal.
Said ampli?er may have the usual power supply
and recti?er units 60 with a gaseous type voltage regu
lator tube 61 feeding energy to the circuit and to the
photocells 29, 30. High impedance ampli?er 62 may be
employed having a cathode follower arrangement provid
ing a combined signal at A.
When switch 63 is closed, a direct reading will be
applied to the vacuum tube voltmeter combination .64,
tion to the percent of particles ‘larger than the depth of
the slot at the point. The difference signal from photo 45 said signal being fed to grid 65 of tube 66. When switch
63 is open, the differentiation network 67 becomes effec
cells 29 and 30 that results will be in the same propor
tion.
This signal, passed through a suitable ampli?er,
tive so as to provide a differentiated combined signal.
As an example, reference may be made to FIG. 10
illustrating a chart made on a recording voltmeter having
chart is driven‘ at a speed proportional to the speed at 50 a drive ratio relation to the block of ?ve to four, any
is caused to drive a recorder pen to record the proportion
of particles larger than the- slot depth.
The recorder
which the block is moved past the light beam 28. There'
by a graph is obtained in which the percent of particles
suitable ratio being usable.
larger ‘than the slot depth is plotted against slot depth.
of ?ux suspended in a viscous organic medium of approxi
Because at each point in the channel the slot depth is the
same as the largest particle at that point, this graph is a
’ plot of percent of particles larger than each indicated
mately 5,000 centipoises. A mixture of 12 parts pine
The graphs of FIGS. 10- and 11 were made of a sample
oil and 1 part ethyl cellulose was added to the sample
suspension in the ratio of 1 part of said mixture to 7
parts by weight of the sample. A Newtonian liquid
size.
suspension thus was provided.
Various forms of apparatus can be employed for carry
Referring now to FIGS. 10 and 11, the circuit is
ing out this invention, one embodiment being shown in
FIGS. 1 to 4, inclusive. Frame or housing 35 may con 60 adjusted so that where the slot is .002 inch deep in the
particular arrangement and example, when the block
tain a pair of endless chains 36, 37, said chains or con
and recorder chart are at the point B. The line C is
veyor means being driven by sprockets 33, 39, said
formed by the pen or indicator as the sample passes
sprockets being mounted on arms 40 which in turn are
through the beam indicating zero percent of the par
mounted on brackets 41, 41. In order to adjust tension
in the chain and the position thereof, arms 49 may be 65 ticles are larger than the slot depth. In the zone where
the bottom of the slot starts to appear, the balance or
adjustably mounted on said brackets‘ in any suitable
condition in the circuit is upset so that at D the indi
manner. The righthand sprockets 39 may be driven
through shaft 42, chain ‘43 and gear box 4-4 by motor
cator pen will start to move across the chart in propor
tion to the sample scraped off, indicating that the largest
4-5, said motor being of a constant speed or suitable type. 70 particle in the sample at this zone is equal to the depth
The frame or housing 35 may be provided with open
at’ D. 'At F the material has been completely scraped
able access doors 47, 45. The door 47 is opened and
from the bottom of the slot, showing that the smallest
the gauge block is placed on the chain as indicated at 29
particle is equal to the depth at F or that 100 percent
(FIG. 1), said block having projections or lugs 4-6, 46
for engaging the chain.
of the particles are larger than this depth. G is the
The door 47 is closed and the 75 point where the bottom of the slot merges with the top
3,043,188
hi
8,
surface of'the block. The end of the blocl; is at I in
FIG. It). The portion of the curve at J represents light
summation of the particlev sizeszin said sample, displaying
and, scanning the display of:the segregated particles, and
re?ection at the trailing edge portions of theblocis'. The
measuring the concentration of the various sizes of the
segregated particles in the display of'the segregated par
point B; will be the ‘mean particle size of the largest
proportion of particles of the sample being tested.’ if
ticles, and determiningrthe ‘relationship of various sizes
the distribution of the particle size is normal, E is also
of particles of said material from the said measurements.
the mean particle size.
5. The method of determining particle size informa
tion of material comprising the steps of moving a New
tonian ?uidsuspension of the material through an aper
ture and, varying the aperture relative to the material so
In the curve shown, the par
ticle size is shown along‘the chart, the pen de?ection
being in arbitrary units.
7
If switch 63 is left open, the diiierentiating circuit e7
will become effective. ‘Correlating FIG. 10 with FlG. ll,
as to segregate particles of different sizes in proportion to
D Will be the point at which the scratches start to appear
the opening of said aperture in‘ a manner so that only
and E the mean particle size point which is where the
particles not greater than a particular size are present
curve DEF of P16. 10 goes through its maximum slope.
F is the point at which the total bare surface of the
bottom of tie slot appears. Thus, by use or" the dif
at a particular openingof said aperture and‘to provide
a summation of the particlesizes insaid sample, display
ing and scanning the display of the'segregatcd particles,
ferentiating circuit, a curve can be obtained which shows
the proportion of particles of each particle size.
By employing an ori?ce or aperture of varying size, ’
particles are excluded at any point or setting which are 20
measuring‘ the concentration- of the various sizes of the
segregated particles in the display of said segregated par
ticles, and providing a differentiated record of the meas
urements.
.
.
‘
bigger than the aperture or depth of slot at said point so
that there is in the slot summation or integral of particles
6..The method of determining particle size informa
tion comprising the steps of suspending the particles in
smaller than said particular setting. Then by using the
ditferentiating circuit to differentiate the summation, a'
Newtonian'?uid suspended particles'in which the particles
proportion is obtained.
are segregated with their particle size in substantial ac
.
!It should be apparent that details of construction and
operation may be varied without departing from the
spirit of the invention except as de?ned inlthe appended
claims.
1
viscous material, forming a drawdown sample of the
,
cordance with the varying ‘dimensions of thedrawdowu
sample in a manner so that only particles not greater,
than a particular size are present at a particular dimension
of the drawdown sample, passing said sample through a
'
What is claimed is:
30 beam of radiant energy, andv measuring the diffused energy
from said sample in relation to the various zones on said
1. The method of determining particle size informa
sample, said diiiused ‘energy being a function of the
tion of material comprising the steps of moving a New
concentration of a given particletsize, so as to provide
tonian ?uid suspension of the material relative to a variable‘
the desired particle size information.
7
aperture and varying the aperture relative to the mate
7. Themethod of determining particle size information
rial so as to segregate particles of diiferent sizes in pro
portion to the opening of said aperture in a manner so
that only particles not greater than a particular size are
present at a particular opening of said aperture, display
ing and scanning the display of the segregated particles,
comprising the steps of suspending the particles in viscous
material, forming a drawdown sample of the Newtonian
suspended particles in which the particles are segregated
with. their particle size in substantial accordance with
. measuring the concentration of the ‘segregated particles 4.0 the varying dimensions of the drawdown sample in a man
not so that only particles notpgreater than a particular
of .di?erent sizes, and determining the relationship of
size are present at a particular dimension of the draw
various sizes of particles of said mtaerial from the meas
urements.
'
'
i
2, The method of determining particle size informa
' tion of material comprising the steps of moving a New
tonian ?uid suspension of the material through an aper
ture and changing the size of said aperture relative to
down sample, passing-said sample through ,a. beam of
radiant energy, and measuring the diffused energy from
said sample in relation to the length of the‘ sample in
relation to the various zones on said sample, said diiiused
energy being a function of the concentration of a given
particle size, so as to_ provide the desired particle size
the material so as to segregate particles of different sizes
in proportion to the opening of said aperture in a manner
8. The method of determining particle size information
so that only particles not greater than a particular size 50
comprising suspending the particles in viscous material,
are present at a particular opening of said aperture, dis
forming a Wedge-like sample of the Newtonian?uid sus
playing vand scanning the display of the segregated par
information.
ticles, and measuring the relationship of various sizesof
particles of said material from the display of the segre
gated particles.
‘
_
V
3. The method ofdetermining particle size information
of" material comprising the steps of mixing the material
with a ?uid to provide a Newtonian suspension, moving
said fluid suspension of the material relativeto a variable
aperture and varying the’ aperture relative to the material
so as to segregate particles of different sizes in propor
tionto the'opening of said aperture in a manner so that
only particles not greater than a particular size are pres~
cut ‘at a particular opening of said aperture, displaying
and scanning the display of the segregated particles, and
measuring and indicating the relationship of various sizes
of particles of said material in said display.
4. The method of determining particle size information
.
i
‘
pended particles in which the particles are segregated
With their particle size in substantial accordance with
UP Ul the varying dimensions of the wedge-like sample in a man
ner so that onlyiparticles not greater than a particular
.size are present at a particular dimension of the wedge
like sample said Wedge-like sample having varying dimen
sions wit-h predetermined limits, passing said wedge-like
sample through a light beam, collecting diifused light
from said sample in at least twoangularly disposed direc
tions, ‘said rdi?iused light being a ‘function of the concen
tration of a given particle size, and measuring the col
lected light in relation to the thickness of the sample so
as to provide an indication'of the particle size.
9. An apparatus for determining particle size informa
tion comprising a variable aperture means forproviding
a sample of material having segregated particles, said
aperture means varying in size between predetermined
of material comprising the steps of moving ‘a Newtonian
?uid suspension of the material through an aperture and 70 limit dimensions in a predetermined manner, the loca
tion of a given particle size in said sample'being ‘related
varying the a'perturerelative to the material so as to
segregate particles of different sizes in proportion to the > to the variation in size of said ‘aperture means ‘in a manner
- opening of said aperture in a manner so that only par
so thatonly particles not greater than a particular size
ticles not greater than a particular size are present at
are present at a particular opening of said aperture means,
a_ particular opening of said aperture and to provide a 75 radiant energy source means vfor directing energy onto
3,043,183
If)
the sample, means for scanning the energy diffused
from said sample, the level of said di?used energy
being a function of the concentration of said segregated
particles, and indicating means connected to said means
for scanning to depict desired particle size information.
10. An apparatus for determining particle size informa
combining signals to depict desired particle size'informa
tion.
'
>
14. An apparatus for determining particle size informa
tion comprising block means for receiving a tapered sam
ple of material, the particles of said sample being arranged
with their particle size in substantial accordance with the
varying dimension of the taper in a manner so that only
particles not greater than a particular size are present
a sample of material having segregated particles, said
at a particular dimension of said taper, radiant energy
aperture means varying in size between predetermined
limit dimensions in a predetermined manner, the location 10 source means for directing energy onto said sample,
means for moving said block means relative to said source
of a given particle size in said sample being related to
tion comprising a variable aperture means for providing
, the variation in size of said aperture means in a manner
means so that said source passes therealong, means for
so that only particles not greater than a particular size
are present at a particular opening of said aperture means,
collecting energy diffused from said sample, the level of
from the sample, the level of said signals being a func
ergy collected and the zone where collected so as to
said diffused energy being a function of the distribution
a radiant energy source means for directing energy onto 15 of said segregated particles over the surface of said
block means, and means responsive to said collected en
the sample, means vfor collecting energy diffused from
ergy to indicate changes in the relation between the en
said sample, means for combining the signals diffused
provide the desired particle sizeinformation.
(
15. An apparatus for determining particle size informa
indicating means connected to said means for combining 20
tion comprising block means adapted to receive a tapered
signals to depict desired particle size information.
sample of material, the particles of said sample being
11. An apparatus for determining particle size informa
arranged with their particle size in substantial accord
tion comprisig block means {for receiving a tapered sam
ance with the varying dimension of the taper in a manner
ple of material, the particles of said sample being ar
ranged with their particle size in substantial accordance 25 so that only particles not greater than a particular size
tion of the concentration of said segregated particles, and
with the varying dimension of the taper in a manner so
.that only particles not greater than a particular size are
present at a particular dimension of said taper, radiant
energy source means for directing energy onto said sam
are present at a particular dimension of said taper, said
block means having an oriented ?nish surface, radiant
energy source means for directing energy onto said sam
ple and exposed portions of said oriented surface, means
ple, means for moving said block means relative to said 30 for moving said block means relative to said source,
means for collecting energy diifused from said sample
source so that said source passes therealong for scan
and oriented surface in at least two directions, the level
ning said sample, means for collecting energy diffused
of said diffused energy being a function of the distribution
from said sample in at least two directions, the level of
of said segregated particles on said surface, and means
said diffused energy being a function of the distribution of
said segregated particles over the surface of said block 35 responsive to said collected energy to, indicate the rela
tion between the energy collected and thezone where col
means, and indicating means responsive to said collected
lected so as to provide the desired particle size informa
energy to depict the relation between the energy collected
tion.
and the zone where collected so as to provide the desired
16. An apparatus for determining particle size informa
particle size information.
12. An apparatus for determining particle size informa 40 tion comprising block means adapted to receive a tapered
sample of material the particles of said sample being
tion comprising block means for receiving a tapered sam
arranged with their particle size in substantial accordance
ple of -material, the particles of said sample being ar
with the varying dimension of the taper in a manner so
ranged with their particle size in substantial accordance
that only particles not greater than a particular size are
that only particles not greater than a particular size are 45 present at a particular dimension of said taper, the re
ceiving surface of said block means having longitudinally
present at a particular dimension of said taper, radiant
extending grooves, radiant energy source means for direct
energy source means for directing energy onto said sam
ing energy onto said sample and exposed longitudinally
ple, means for moving said block means relative to said
extending grooves of said surface, means for moving said
source so that said source passes therealong, a pair of
block means relative to said source, means for collecting
energy receiving means for collecting energy di?used
energy di?used from said sample and surface in at least
from said sample in angularly displaced directions, the
two directions, said diffused energy being a function of
level of said diffused energy being a function of the dis
the concentration of segregated particles on said receiv
tribution of said segregated particles over the surface of
ing surface, and means responsive to said collected en
said block means, and means for combining signals from
ergy to indicate the relation between the energy collected
said energy receiving means to indicate the relation be
with the varying dimension of the taper in a manner so
tween the energy collected and the zone where collected 55 and the zone where collected so as to provide the desired
particle size information.
so as to provide the desired particle size information.
13. An apparatus for determining particle size informa
tion comprising a variable aperture means for providing
a sample of material having segregated particles, said
aperture means varying in size between predetermined
limit dimensions in a predetermined manner, the location
of a given particle size in said sample being related to
the variation in size of said aperture means in a manner
17. An apparatus for determining particle size informa
tion comprising a variable aperture for providing a sam
ple of material having particles segregated per size in a
manner so that only particles not greater than a partic
ular size are present at a particular opening of said aper
ture, a surface for receiving said sample of material at
zones determined by particle size, said surface being
treated so as to re?ect light more in at least one direc
so that only particles not greater than a particular size
65 tion, a radiant energy source ‘for directing energy onto
are present at a particular opening of said aperture means,
the sample and exposed portions of said surface, means
radiant energy source means for directing energy onto
for scanning said sample and surface, means responsive
the sample, means for scanning ‘radiant energy directed
to differences in energy reflected from said sample and
onto said sample, the level of said scanned radiant energy
surface, said re?ected energy being a function of the con
being a function of the concentration of said segregated 70 centration of the segregated particles with respect to said
particles, means for collecting energy diffused ‘from said
surface, and indicating means connected to said means
sample and for producing signals in response thereto,
responsive to di?erence in energy to depict desired particle
means for combining the signals from said means for
size information.
18. The method of determining the amount of New
scanning including means to differentiate the combined
signal, and indicating means connected to said means for 75 tonian suspended material on a surface having an oriented
3,043,183,
11
a
?nish, ‘said ‘surface-having grooves extending in a pre
132
,
and surface, whereby the :relationibetWeen saididiffused'?c
' determined direction, comprising the steps-of subjecting
and re?ected energy is 'aim'easure, of the amount of said
said material on said surface to radiant energy, said en
material on said surface.
1
s
.1
..
.
'
.
I
e
>
ergy-‘normallybeing re?ected ‘from said surface 'in a pre
determined path angularlyvdisplaced ‘relative to said
' ReferencesiGiteii-in the?le'of this patent
grooves/and being, diffused by'said material, and deter
UNITED STATES ‘PATENTS
miningithe amount of material on said surface by meas
nn'ng the relation between the diffused and the reflected
energy from said material and surface.
- 19. An apparatus forrdeterniining the amount of ma
terial including a surface having an oriented ?nish with
grooves extending in a predetermined direction thereon
107
upon which the material is_placed,rradiant energy source
I means arranged to direct energy onto a sample of mate
'rial on said surface means for producing signals, said 15
oriented ?nish normally re?ectingenergy in a predeter
mined direction, and means for measuring the relation
‘ between diffused and reflected energy from said material
1,648,369w
Svedberg et a1. ______ __'_'Nov.- 8, 1927
1,878,847’
"1,917,379
Haussertet al. ____ __,.._'__;Sept..20, 1932
Lowry ____-__‘_______ __'_~July .151, 1933
2,076,553
Drinker et al. ________ __ Apr. 13, 1937
2,379,158
Kalischer _____ __/_7_»__>_._ June :26, (1945 ,
2,638,688 ~ Hazelton _______ __~_.~‘_.__ May 19,1953
2,721,495
Schaefer _'___;. _______ __ Oct.92~5, 1955
‘2,756,626
Lansinget al."_;_____'__ July 31, 1956'
2,806,401
2,873,644
Demuth __; _________ __ 'Sept. 17, ‘1957
Kremen'et al; ________ __ ‘Feb. 17, 1959
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION
Patent No. 3,043, 183
July 10, 1962
Barton L. Weller
It is hereby certified that error appears in the above numbered pat
ent requiring correction and that the said Letters Patent should read as
corrected below.
Column 8, line 6, strike out "said", second occurrence;
line 37, after "Newtonian" insert —— fluid ——; column 9,
line
23, for "comprisig" read —— comprising ——; column 10, line 41,
after "material" insert a comma; column 11, lines 15 to 17, for
"rial on said surface means for producing signals, said oriented
finish normally reflecting energy in a predetermined direction,
read —— rial on said surface,
said oriented finish normally
reflecting energy in a predetermined direction, means for
producing signals ,
——.
Signed and sealed this 16th day of April 1963,.
:SEAL)
Attest:
ERNEST W. SWIDER
'
Attesting
Officer
DAVID L. LADD
Commissioner of Patents
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