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Патент USA US3043282

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July 10, 1962
o. A. WANDEL ETAL
3,043,272
FASTENER DRIVING APPARATUS
Filed Feb. 16, 1959
/8
§§
0;
'1'
26
44
3%
3
INVEN TORS
0501/? A. WANDEL AND
By R/c/JARD H. [Pm/LE
ATTOEA/EYS
3&43372
rates
Patented July 10, 1962
l
2
3,ll43,272
haust valve assembly. This member includes an axially
extending passageway which is aligned with the axis of
Oscar A. Wendel, Mnndelein, and Richard H. Doyle,
Mount Prospect, Ill., assignors to Fastener Corporation,
the piston and which provides an exhaust passageway
for the upper portion of the cylinder. A spring carried
FASTENER DRKWNG APPTUS
Chicago, 11L, a corporation of Illinois
'p
' Filed Feb. 16, 1959, Ser. No. 793,536
12 Claims. (til. 121-13)
on the member biases an exhaust valve element toward a
position closing this passageway to seal off communica
tion between the atmosphere and the uppermost chamber.
A valve operator secured to the valve element extends
into the upper chamber and is adapted to be engaged
driving fasteners and, more particularly, to such a device
including new and improved. means for pneumatically 10 by the upper end of the cylinder to move the valve ele
ment ‘so that the exhaust valve assembly is opened.
actuating a fastener driving piston.
In the normal condition of the pneumatically actuated
In most pneumatically operated tackers, staplers or‘
tool, a manually controlled valve and a safety valve as
'nailers, a fastener is driven into a workpiece by a single
power stroke of a blade actuating piston, which power 15 sembly are in a normal condition in which compressed
air derived from a reservoir formed in a hollow handle
stroke is initiated by the :abrupt admission of' a large
of
thehousing is supplied to the lower end of the upper
body of compressed air into a cylinder under the control
chamber. This compressed ‘air acts on thelower end
of manually or automatically actuated valve means. ,In
of the cylinder to pneumatically bias the upper end‘ of
some prior tools, the piston and the blade are returned
the cylinder into engagement with the valve seat, thereby
to a normal position ‘following the completion of the
‘to seal oiicommunication between the upper end of the
power stroke by a compression spring that is interposed
_ interior of the cylinder and the upper chamber. In this
between the lower end of the piston ‘and the nose of the
positiomthe upper end of the cylinder also engages the
tacker. This arrangement has the disadvantages that the
‘valve
operator to operate the exhaust valve assembly to
spring sometimes breaks and that the provision of the
space required for the compression spring unduly in 25 an open condition in which the upper portion-of the in
terior of the cylinder is in communication with the atmos
creases the size of the gun and requires the blade to be
phere.
The compressed air at the lower end of the
located near the axis of the piston. To overcome these
upper chamber also enters the lower portion ofthe
de?ciencies, pneumatic means have been ‘devised for re
Y This invention relates to a ?uidroperated device for
cylinder and acts, on the ?anged portion of the piston
‘to pneumatically maintain the piston inran uppermost
30 position adjacent the upper end of the cylinder.
When manually controlled valve and the safety valve
piston return mechanism are shown and described in the
assembly are both actuated, the compressed air supplied
copending application of Richard H. Doyle, Serial No.
storing the piston to its normal position. To pneumati
cally actuated fastener driving tools which include both
improved pneumatic driving means and a pneumatic
642,143, ?led February 25, 1957, now Patent No. 2,944,
522, and in the copending application of Oscar A. Wan
del and Richard H. Doyle, Serial No. 683,170, ?led Sep
tember 10, 1957, now Patent No. 2,979,725. However,
it would be desirable to improve the reliability of op
eration of these tackers over a wider range of air pres
sure as well as to provide a hacker construction that is
more economical to manufacture and easier to assemble.
Accordingly, one object of the present invention is to
provide a new and improved ?uid powered fastener driv
ing apparatus.
_
to the lower portion ‘of the upper chamber is cut off,
_ and/this portion of the upper chamber is connected to
the atmosphere. This exhausts the compressed air from
the lower portion of the cylinder and produces a pressure
diiferential across the cylinder so that the cylinder is
moved downwardly out of engagement with the. valve
‘seat. Asthe cylinder moves downwardly, the spring in
the exhaust valve assembly shi?ts the valve element into
engagement with a valve seat to close the exhaust valve.
' Further, ‘as the cylinder moves downwardly, the upper
portion of theinterior of the cylinder is abruptly. placed
Another object is to provide a fastener driving tool 45 in communication with the large body of compressed air
contained in the upper chamber so that ‘the piston is
including new and improved pneumatic means for actu
vdriven downwardly in a power stroke‘during which the
ating a fastener driving blade.
fastener driving blade engages and drives a fastener sup
Another object is to provide a fastener driving tool
plied by a suitable magazine.
including new and improved means for supplying com
When the safety valve assembly and the manual valve
pressed air to a cylinder to actuate a piston.
are released, compressed air is again supplied to the lower
A further object is to provide a pneumatically actu
portion of the chamber.. This compressed air produces
ated tool including novel means for exhausting com
an upwardly directed force acting on the cylinder to again
pressed air from a cylinder.
.
shift the upper end of the cylinder into seating engage
Another object is to provide a new and improved piston
'ment with the valve seat so that communication between
and blade assembly in which the position of the blade
the upper chamber and the interior of the cylinder is
relative to the piston can be easily adjusted.
closed off.‘ Further, in moving upwardly, the upper end
. Another object is to provide a pneumatically actuated
of the cylinder engages the valve operator element to open
hand tacker that is more easily manufactured and as
the exhaust valve assembly. The compressed air en
sembled.
trapped in the upper end'of the cylinder is‘ then exhausted
In accordance with these and'many other objects, an
so that the piston is elevated to its normal position by the
embodiment of the invention comprises a housing which
compressed air suppliedrto the lower end of the upper
has an open upperrend and which de?nes both a lower
chamber. Thus, in response to each momentary actuation
chamber of lesser diameter and an upper chamber of
of the safety valve ‘assembly and the manual valve, the
greater diameter to which compressed air is supplied.
A cylinder is slidably mounted in the uppermost chamber 65 piston is driven downwardly in a power stroke during
which a fastener is driven into a workpiece and the piston
and slidably receives the ?anged upper end of a piston,
is then pneumatically returned to its normal position.
the lower portion of which is slidably mounted in the
Many other objects and advantages of the present in
lower chamber. A fastener driving blade is secured to
vention will become apparent from the following detailed
the lower end of the piston displaced from the axis
thereof. The upper opening in the housing is sealed by 70 description when considered in conjunction with the- draw
a closure ‘cap to which an annular resilient valve seat is
secured-by a ?anged member vforming a part of an ex- 7
ings in which:
‘
'
FIG. 1 is a fragmentary sectional view of 'a pneu
'3,0as,272.
-.
v'e‘iitien 'and’iwhich' is"illustra't_ed/ in‘ its normal position;
and
4
'
7
piston 22. The resilient bumper 36 is provided with a
notched or grooved portion 38 for receiving the driver
blade 24, and the lower end of the housing 12 is also pro
vided with an opening 40 aligned with the notch 38 to
matically operated tacker which embodies the present in
‘‘
-~F-LVG. 2 is _a fragmentary sectional view similar to FIG.‘
-1
ftheitacker in 'its'p'osiu'on iat the completion of 5 permit air to be exhausted from the chamber 14 when the
apeer‘stroke;
’
'1
'
'1
,piston 22 moves downwardly. The upper end of the
chamber 14 is'connected to the lower endof the chamber
r
7' 1R ferring new more speci?cally to the drawings, there
_
16 by an annular wall surface 42 which serves as 'a'stop
_ ‘shown ialpn'euinatically operated fastener driving
to limit downward movement of the cylinder 20. j
To provide a means for slidably mounting the cylinder 7
10
20 withinvthe upper chamber 16, alsleeve 44 is secured
14‘1oflesser diameter‘ and an upper cylindrical
within‘ the chamber 16 to rest on ‘an annular shoulder'46.
‘chamber '16 of greater diameter.” Compressed air is sup;
One ‘resilient O-riug 48 carried on the sleeve 44 provides
jvlie to the n‘ppfer‘chamb'er' 16 from ‘a ‘reservoir formed
a seal between the inner Wall of the chamber 16 and the
by" ahollovv‘ handle ,(not, shown) ‘in-the housing 12
through’ariicnlarged passageway 18. 'Arcyhnder 20 that 15 outer wall of the sleeve 44, and another resilientO-ring
50 carried on the sleeve 44 provides a-seal between the
ts‘sraably' nioimitedjinithe upper chamber 16 slidably
inner wall of the sleeve 44 and the "outer wall of the cylin
'
'
' ’
portion of a piston 22, the lower portion
fool; .mdicated generally‘ as'10, which includes a housing
1"‘ "having'an'épen end ‘and de?ning‘ a lower cylindrical
jvhichdsTslidably mounted. in the chamber 14.
A ~ g
‘ l'ldriving bladef24 secured to the lower end of
der 20. The cylinder 20 isjslidably mounted withinthe
sleeve 44 and includes a lower'iannul'ar‘?anged‘ portion
vn‘i22‘is .adaptedltoiengage and drive fasteners, 20 .2941 which is looatedbetween the lower end of the sleeve
44 and the annular wall 42. 'A resilient O-ring ‘52 car
tapl'es of nails, supplied ‘by a suitable ‘magazine
ried on the ?anged portion 20a provides 1a seal between
the inner wall of the chamber‘ 16 andthe ?anged portion
or the cylinder 20. The annular space bounded by the
ynvelseat i2?iandanfexhaust"valveassembly 30 are
25 lower end of the sleeve ‘44 and the upper surface of the
?anged portion 20a is continuously connected to the at
. In'the norm condition of the ltool 10, a safety valve
'
p
_,
'iThefopenupper end of the chamber 16 is
" emovable closure cap‘26 on'which a resilient
mosphere' through an opening 54 in the housing 12. ‘
assembly 32 and amanu'ally controlled valve assembly'34
areitiothrir'iarjeleased condition sothat compressed air is
:supplied to the (lower end of the chamber 16 from the pas
~ ' The closure cap 26 "closesthe open upper end of the
chamber 16 and. provides the sole support for the exhaust
is compressed air forces the cylinder 20 30 valve assembly Mind the resilient'valve seat 28. The
'isa' ew'ay 18.
closure- capv 26 is threadedly secured to the housing 12
‘to its uppermost ‘position iniwhich its upper end engages
thejvalve seat 2810' close fo? communication between the
interior ‘of Ilthe‘cyli‘nder 20 andth'e chamber 16. In this
with an O-ring 56sealing the connection therebetween.
,
The valve element 28 is'secur'ed on the closure cap‘26 by
Ia ?anged element 58 which is received within a centrally
' positiomi‘theiupperend of the cylinder 20 also actuates
",thesexhau's't valve" assembly 30 to an open condition in 35 disposed opening in the cap 26. The element 58 is se
cured to the closure cap by a plug 60 having adepending
'ifwhich‘tlie’iatmosphere is in communication with the in
;te‘riof'of theicylinder. iThe .compressediair supplied 'to "externally threaded portion 6012' which engages an inter
nally threaded‘ recessed‘ portion 62 in the element 58.
."?he‘ilower‘end fof‘the' chamber '16 also acts on' the piston 22
'Thus, when the plug 60 is threadedly engaged with the
hold‘it fm'enelevateaer normal position; '
ure two valve‘iassemblies 32'and 34iare actuated,
ed
no‘longer supplied “to. the lower end of
Her
40 Jmem-ber' 58 and tightened, the resilient valve seat '28 is
‘ clamped within‘a recess 64 in the-lower wall of the closure
cap 26' by the ?anged portion of the element 58.
‘and this portion ' of the chamber is con
' .The element 58 and the plug 60 also form apart of
the'atmosphere. ‘This produces a downwardly
the exhaust valve assembly 30which selectively exhausts
.movesi downwardly away from' the closure cap 45 compressed air from the upper end‘ of the cylinder 20
when this. cylinder ‘is returned to the normal position
vidownwardly,»the upper end of the cylin
shown in FIG. 1 at the conclusion of a power stroke.
“thje exhails't valve ‘assembly? 30 to close
"nt the compressed air in the upper portion of the ‘ ‘ The exhaustivalve ‘assembly 30 includes a valve element
her ‘16
~escaping to the‘ atmosphere and also‘. 66 that is movably mounted within a; passageway 68
diiie'reiitial' across ‘the cylinder 20 so that the ‘
V.
r, ,7 _jou_ti',of"enga’g‘ement with the 'valve'seat'v 28 'so that 50. which is» formed in the element'58 and which is in com
munication with the recess 62. A’ compression spring
eompreisséd" air from the chamber 16 enters vjthe'cylinder
20,to,for_ce_t_he piston 22 downwardly. .‘ During this power
181
' "1th 1v'o‘we'rendoflthe'
Iblade’24‘engages and ' '
ston'" 22 remains in this displaced or lower posi
tilsuichnrne ra'si'both bfrhevaweassembnes 32 and
_\
released. '" Th’e‘release of these yalve assemblies sup
Plies ompr'esfs‘ed'jair to the lower‘ portion or theehamber
‘ ‘i p the p’aksagewayj 18 so‘ that'the jcylinder 20 is again
ed 11
70 located within a recess’ 72 in the depending. portion ~
60a of the plug ‘60 engagesv the upper end of the valve
"element 66 to bias the valve element 66'downwardly to
ward engagement'with a resilient O-ring 74 carried on
the inner wall of the passageway 68. The valve element
66*Yis inoved into and out of engagement with the O-ring
I74 .to open and close the‘e'xhaust passageway 68.
To v‘provide ‘a means for operating the exhaust valve
ardly'ftov engage the ‘valve‘seat 28 and to close 60 ’ assembly 30 in accordance with the movement of the cyl
xhaust valve 'assembly'élll S6,}l'h3t the interior of the
joy, gler'20 lis'iplaeed-in communicationTwith’the atmos
phere. " The venting of ‘the upper 'portion' of the’cylinder
‘Z0 lbgctherp with the’provisiQn ‘of compressed air to the
119W??? 'llplf’t'ion' hf the interior of this cylinder elevates the
' 'p' toni22 toiits'normal'positiom Thetooliloremains'in‘
ijthis‘ 'condineninnm Eothofthe have assemblies 32 and
arefnextiaefilated.
f
,
.
.
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.
.
.-
7
Referring "now more spec'?cally to. .the housing’ 12,
which may be cast of asuitahlefmaterial ‘such asalum‘i
lililfri’ or magnesium, the lower cylindrical chamber14 is
' i€5i§1¢¢ilvtifliedia§netet suitable to .slidably receives
' inder 20, a valve operator plate 75 is secured to the lower
end of the valve element 66 by a nut 77. The outer
edge of the plate‘ 75 is adapted to be received in a recess
'76 formed in the upper end'of the cylinder 20. . Thus,
65 when the cylinder 20 moves to its normalvposition (FIG.
1), the cylinder. 20 engages and "elevates the plate 75
against the action of the compression spring" 70 to lift
the valve element 66 out of engagementwith the O-ring
.74. _ This places the interior of the cy1inder‘20 in com
70 munication with ‘the ‘atmosphere through one or more
openings 175a in the plate 75, the passageway 68 the open
ing 62', the‘ recess .72, a bore 78 formed in the plug 60',
'"lower‘portion of the ‘piston 22. . The lowerend of the
"a plurality of radiallyextending passageways 80 which
chamber“ is_provided with a resilient bumper 36 for
are also formed in the plug 60 ‘andone or more passage
cushioning‘ the "terriii?eitidn’of thepower stroke of the 75 ‘ways 79 in the closure cap 26. , Alternatively, when the
3,043,272
5
cylinder 20 is shifted to its displaced position (FIG. 2),
ball valve 11b is lifted out of engagement with the O-ring
112 and into the position illustrated in FIG. 2 in which
the port 162 is closed, the lower end of the chamber 16
pression spring 70 shifts the valve element 66 into engage
is no longer supplied with compressed air from the pass
ment with the O-ring 74». This closes the passageway
ageway l8 and is connected to the atmosphere through
68 to prevent compressed air in the chamber 16 from
the port 96, the notched portion 93, the passageway 100,
escaping to the atmosphere. Thus, the exhaust valve
the upper portion of the bore 104, and the passageway
assembly 3% is selectively actuated to opened and closed
168. Exhausting the lower portion of the chamber 16
conditions in accordance with the positions of the shift
shifts the cylinder 2% downwardly so that the exhaust
ing cylinder 26.
10 valve assembly 30 is closed and compressed air is ad
Referring now more speci?cally to the piston 22, an
mitted to the upper end ‘of the cylinder 20 to drive the
upper ?anged portion 22a thereof is slidably mounted
piston 22 downwardly. When the tool 10‘ is lifted from
within the cylinder 28, ‘and a resilient 0-ring 82 carried on
the workpiece so that the valve stem 92 is restored to
the ?anged portion 22a seals the interface between the
the position shown in FIG. 1 by resilient biasing means
‘inner wall of the cylinder 2%} and the piston 22. The
(not shown) or when the de?ecting force is removed
lower end of the piston 22 is slidably received within
from the ball valve element 111} so that this element
the chamber 14 and carries a resilient O-ring 84 for seal
again engages the O-ring 112, compressed air is again
ing the interface between the piston 22 and the wall of
supplied to the lower end of the chamber 16. This re
the chamber 14. The driver blade 24 is secured to the
stores the cylinder 26; to the position illustrated in FIG. 1
lower end of the piston 22 at a position msplaced from
and opens exhaust valve 3%} so that the piston 22 can
the ‘axis thereof by an element 36 which is brazed or
be elevated to the position shown in FIG. 1 by the com
Welded to the driver blade 24'at its lower end and which
pressed air supplied to the lower end of the chamber 16.
the upper end of the cylinder Ztl moves out of engage
ment with the valve operator plate 75 so that the com~
is threaded at its upper end to be secured within an in
Thus, the automatically actuated safety valve assembly
ternally threaded aperture 83 formed in the lower end
32 and the manually actuated valve assembly 34 control I
of the piston 22. Thus, the e?ective length of the blade 25 the operation of the pneumatically actuated tool 10.
24 can be adjusted by merely rotating this blade prior
Referring now more speci?cally to the operation of
to- the insertion of the piston 22 into the tacker 1-13. Since
the pneumatically actuated fastener driving tool it}, 111
the generally flat blade 24 is held against rotation by en
the normal condition thereof compressed air is supplied
gaging the walls of the drive track shown in the above
from the reservoir de?ned by the hollow handle (not
' identi?ed copending application and since the blade 24 is 30 shown) through the enlarged passageway 13, the bore
. threadedly secured to the piston 22 at ‘a point radially
94, and the port $6 to the lower end of the chamber 16.
displaced from the axis thereof, relative rotary move
The compressed air admitted into the lower end of the
ment between the piston 22 and the blade 24 is prevented
chamber 16 is contained in the space bounded by the
so as to prevent any change in the adjusted length of
sealing O-rings 52, $2 and 34. This body of compressed
the. blade after the blade and the piston have been in 35 air serves to hold the cylinder 29 in its normal position
serted into the tacker lit. The upper end of the piston
(PEG. 1) in which the upper end thereof engages the
22 includes a recess 91) for receiving the lower end of
the valve element as and the nut 77 so that the upperend
of the piston 22 can engage the valve operator 75 to limit
upward movement of the piston.
As indicated above, the safety valve assembly 32 and
the manually actuated valve assembly 34 control the
selective shifting of the position of the cylinder 20 so as
to control the operation of the pneumatically actuated
valve seat 28 to seal off communication between the
chamber 16 and the upper end of the interior of the
cylinder
Further, in this normal position, thevalve
operator plate 75 is engaged by the upper end of the
cylinder 2b to open the exhaust valve assembly 3% so
that the upper portion of the interior of thecylinder 24}
is connected to the atmosphere. The upwardly directed
component of force for maintaining the cylinder 20 in
tool 10. These two valve assemblies are illustrated in 45 this normal position is due to the differential effective
part in the drawings and preferably are of the construc
upper and lower areas on the cylinder 24}. More spe
tions disclosed in detail in the above identi?ed copending
ci?cally, since the annular area of the upper surface of
Wandel and Doyle application. The safety valve assem
the ?ange 20a on the cylinder 2% is connected to the
bly 32 includes a valve stem 92 that is slidably mounted
atmosphere through the opening 54, the annular lower
within a bore 94 formed in the housing 12. An O-ring
surfaces of the cylinder 2% and of the ?anged portion Zita
99 carried on the stem 92 seals the interface between the
which are exposed to the compressed air is greater than
the effective annular upper area of the upper end of the
cylinder 29. Since both of these areas are exposed to
compressed air of the same pressure, the greater e?ective
lower area produces an upwardly directed component of
force for seating the upper end of the cylinder 29 onlthe
valve seat 28 and for also overcoming the force applied
to the cylinder by the compression spring 74}.
v
The compressed air admitted to the lower end of the
stem and the Wall of the bore §4. With the valve stem
92 in the position shown in FIG. 1, compressed air from
the passageway 18 passes through the upper portion of the
bore 94 and into the lower end of the chamber 16 through
a port 96.
When the valve stem 92 is elevated to the
position illustrated in FIG. 2 by placing the nose of the
tool 20 adjacent a workpiece, a recessed portion 98 on the
stem §2 is moved into alignment with the port 96 and
a passageway 16% so that compressed air now flows into
the lower portion of the chamber 16 through a port 162,
a portion of a bore 164;, the passageway 1%, the notched
‘portion 98, and the port 95.
The port 102 and the bore 104 form a part of the manu
ally controlled valve assembly 34. Thus, the actuation
of the safety valve assembly 32 to the position shown in
FIG. 2 places the operation of the tacker 10 under the
control of this valve assembly. The manually controlled
chamber 16 also serves to maintain‘the piston 22 'in’its
normal ‘position adjacent the upper end of the cylinder
20. More speci?cally, the upper portion of the interior
of the cylinder 2% is connected to the atmosphere through
the exhaust valve assembly 3% which has been actuated
65 to an open condition by the movement of the cylinder
29 to its normal position. The compressed air con-v
tained in the lower portion of the cylinder 2%) acts on
the effective lower surface of the ?anged portion 22a to
valve assembly 34 includes a sleeve 106 which is mounted
provide an upwardly directed component of force which
within the lower end of the bore 104 and which is pro 70 holds the upper end of the piston in engagement with the
vided with an ‘axially extending passageway 1%.. The
lower surface of the valve operator plate 75.
passageway 198 is normally closed by a ball valve ele
When the tool 1% is to be operated, the nose thereof is
ment 116} which is maintained in seating engagement with
placed in engagement with a workpiece so that the safety'
a resilient O-ring 112 by the pressure of the compressed
valve assembly 32 is actuated to move the valve stem 92
air supplied through the port 192. However, when the 75 through the bore 94 to a position in'which the notched
aosaara
,.
7
,
,
8
7
is moved out of engagement with the O-ring 7d and into
portion 98 is interposed between the passageway 10d ‘and
the‘port 96., In this position, the upper end of the valve
stemf92 vcloses off communication between the bore 94 v
and the port 96 so, that compressed air no longer can
be supplied to the lower end of the chamber 16 through
the [bore 94." However, in this position, the supply of
compressed air‘ to the lower end of the chamber 16 is
'maintained through the port 96, the notched portion 98
on the valve stem 92, the, passageway 168, the upper end
of the bore 104, and the port 162. A suitable manual
control means, such as a trigger assembly, is then oper
ated to move the'ball'yalve element 110 upwardly from
the position'shown in FIG. 1 to the position shown in
FIG. 2. ‘In this position, the ball valve 116 closes the
port 102 so that compressedrair is no longer supplied to
the lower end of "the chamber 16. In moving to this
the position shown in FIG. ‘ 1. This places the upper
portion of the interior ofthe cylinder 20 in communica
tion with the‘ atmosphere through the openings75q, the
passageway 68, the opening 62, the recess 72, the bore 78,
the radial passageways 80 and the passageway '79. This
exhausts thecompressed'air entrapped between the upper
end of the‘ piston 22 and the .valve'seat 28 so that the
compressed air acting on the lower ‘surface of the ?anged
10 portion'22a of the piston 22 is e?ective to raise the piston
to the position illustrated in FIG. 1 in which the upper
end thereof engages the valve operator plate '75. as a
stop. As the piston 22 moves upwardly, the blade 24
is retracted in the drive track to permit the magazine
1.5
' position, the ‘ball valve element 11% moves out of en
assembly to advance the next fastener’to be driven into
the drive track. Tlhus,'in response to each actuation of
the valve assemblies 32 and 34, the piston 22 is driven
through a single power ‘stroke during which a fastener
supplied to a‘drive track isgdriven into a workpiece. .
gagement with the ,O-ring 112’ so that the lower end of
-,the' chamber 156 and the lower end of the interior of the
.Al’though the present invention has been described in
cylinder 2!} areconnected to the atmosphere through the 2,0 conjunction
with a single embodiment thereof, it should
port 96, the notched portion 98, the passageway 10%, a
be understood that numerous other modi?cations and
pjortionoi the bore 104, and the passageway 163.
embodiments may be provided by those skilled in the art
‘fWhen the lower end Oithe chamber 16 is returned to
'
which
will fall within the spirit and scope of the principles
atmospheric‘ pressure, the compressed'air in theupper
this invention.
,
.
portion cf the chamber 16 actingon the effective upper 25 of What
is claimedas new anddesired to be‘ secured by
surface ‘of the. cylinder 20 provides a downwardly di
Letters Patent of the United States is:
rected, component of force that moves the ‘cylinder 20
‘
1. In‘ a fastener vdriving apparatus, a housing de?ning
downwardly until the lower end thereof engages the an
a chamber continuously supplied with compressed air, a
nular- wall 42._ This downward movement of the cylin
der 20 operates the exhaust valve assembly 30 to a closed 30 ‘cylinder movably mounted in said chamber and includ
ing a ?anged portion in sliding engagement with the wall
condition so as to prevent'the compressedair in the
of said chamber, a piston slidably mounted in said cylin
upper portion of the chamber 16 from being exhausted
der, a valve seat normally engaged-"by said cylinder to
to the atmosphere. More speci?cally, as the upper‘end
communication between said chamber and the in- '
ofv the cylinder 20 'moves downwardly to the position prevent
terior of said cylinder, ?rst means for continuously con
shown in FlGQ 2/ and out of engagement with the valve
necting one side of said ?anged portion to the atmosphere,
operator plate 75, the compression spring 76 moves the
,and second means including valve means ior selectively
supplying compressed air to and exhausting compressed air
trom the other side of saidr?anged portion to shift said
valve element 66 downwardly until it engages the O-ring
74. This closes the passageway 68 to prevent communi
cation between the'chamber 16 and the atmosphere.
cylinder into and out of engagement with said valve seat,
_ ‘ When the upper- end ot'rthe cylinder 29 moves out of 40 thereby to provide means for selectively admitting com
engagement with the resilient valve seat 28, a large vol
ume ‘of air is abruptly admitted to the upper end. of the
‘interior of‘ the cylinder 26 to drive the piston 22 down
wardly in 'a power stroke that'is terminated by the en
gagement of the lower end of the piston 22 with the
resilient bumper 36; During this downward movement,
the air entrapped in the lower end of the chamber 14 is
pressed air from said chamber into said cylinder to drive
7
said piston.
_
2; In a fastener driving’ tool, a housing de?ning a
chamber including an enlarged portion adapted to receive
compressed air, a cylinder slidably mounted in said en
larged portion, a piston including a larger diameter upper
portion slidably mounted in’ said cylinder, and a lesser di
. exhausted throughe'the openingw and'the air'entrapped . ameter lower portion slida'blyvmounted in said chamber, a
' in front of the ?anged portion 22a of the piston 22 is ‘
fastener driving element secured to said lower portion of
exhausted through the above described passageways con 50 said piston 'and extending outwardly from said cham
trolled by the valve assemblies 32 and 34. Although the
ber, a 'valve seat normally engaged by the upper end of
air entrapped below the ?anged portion 22:: of the piston
said cylinder to close o? communication between the up
22 can be easily exhausted through the interface be
per, portion of the interior of said cylinder and the cham
7 tween the annular wall 42 and the lower end of the
ber, means'for. shifting said cylinder relative to said valve
cylinder v20, the lower end of the cylinder 20 can be 55 seat to selectively admit ‘compressed air from said cham
provided with apertures or spaced notches to improve the
rv?uid communication between the lower end of the
chamber 16 and the interior of the cylinder 20 when the
cylinder 20 is moved to the position illustrated in
FIG. 2.
”
'
'
>
The tool 10 remains in the position shown in FIG. 2
until such time as only the safety valve assembly 32 or
berrinto the upper end of said cylinder to actuate said
piston and said driving element, and means for selectively
ladmitting'compressed air to the lower end of said cylin
der between the upper and lower portions of said piston
to provide means for retaining said piston to a position
in proximity to said valve seat.
’
- a 3. ‘In? a fastener driving tool, a housing de?ning a
chamber including a lower portion of lesser diameter and
both the assembly 32 and the manually controlled valve
an upper portion of‘greater diameter to which compressed
assembly 34 are restoredto the condition shown in FIG.
1. At this time, compressed airis supplied’ to the lower 65 air can be supplied, a cylinder movably mounted in said
greater diameter portion, a piston including av upper por
end of the chamber 16 to again provide'an upwardly di
tion slidably mounted in said cylinder and a lower por
rected component of force which shifts the cylinder 26
tion slidably mounted in said lesser diameter portion of
upwardly until the upper end of this cylinder engages the
housing, a valve seat disposed adjacent the upper
resilient valve seat 28 to close off communication between 70 said
end
of
said'cylinder, ?rst means for supplying compressed
the interior of the cylinder 20 and the upper portion of
air to the lower end of the greater diameter portion of
the chamber‘ 16. During this upward movement, the
said chamber‘ to force the upper end of said cylinder into
. valve operatoriplate 75 is engaged 'by the upper end of
the cylinder20 and is moved upwardly against theforce
of-the compression spring 7 I) so that the valve element 66
engagement with ‘said valve seat and to elevate said piston,
and’ second'means ‘for connecting the lower end of said
greater diameter portion to’ the atmosphere to move
3,043,272
‘1G
said cylinder out of engagement with said valve seat so
that compressed air in the upper end of said greater di
ameter portion of said chamber enters the upper end of
exhaust valve assembly for securing said valve seat on
said cap, ‘and means for selectively moving said cylinder
into and out of engagement with said valve seat.
said chamber and forces said piston downwardly.
9. In a fastener driving tool, a housing de?ning a cham
4. In a ‘fastener driving tool, a housing de?ning a
ber adapted to receive compressed air, a cylinder mov
chamber to which compressed air can be supplied, a cylin
ably mounted in said chamber, a piston movably mounted
der mounted in said chamber for movement between ?rst
in said cylinder, a valve seat normally engaged by the
and second axially displaced positions, a valve seat carried
upper end of saidcylinder to close o?’ communication be
on saidhousing adjacent the upper end of said cylinder
tween the interior of the cylinder and said chamber, means
and adapted to close the open upper end of said cylinder, 10 for shifting said cylinder into and out of engagement with
a driver actuating piston movably mounted in said cylin
said valve seat to selectively admit air into said cylinder
der, valve means operable to a ?rst setting forsupplying
to operate said piston, saidhousing also providing an ex
compressed air to the lower end of said chamber to force
haust passageway opening into said chamber in a position
said cylinder to said ?rst position in which the upper
‘aligned with said cylinder, valve means, resilient means
end of said cylinder engages said valve seat to close off 15 biasing said valve means toward a position closing said
communication between the interior of- said cylinder and
passageway, and a valve operator connected to said valve
said chamber, said valve means in said ?rst setting also
means ‘and positioned between said valve seat and said
supplying compressed air into the lower end of said cylin
cylinder in the path of movement of said cylinder to op
der to elevate said piston within said cylinder, said valve
crate said valve means to a position opening said passage
means also being operable to a second setting in which
way in repsonse to movement of said cylinder toward said
the lower end of said cylinder is connected to the atmos
valve seat.
'
phere to permit said piston to be moved downwardly
10. In a fastener driving tool, a housing de?ning a
and in which the lower end of said chamber is connected
chamber having an upper opening and adapted to receive
to the atmosphere to permit the compressed air in said
compressed air, a cylinder movably mounted in said
chamber to move said cylinder into said second position 25 chamber, a piston movably mounted in said cylinder, a
in which the upper end of said cylinder is out of engage
cap ‘mounted on said housing to close said opening and
ment with said valve seat, thereby admitting compressed
including an exhaust passageway, valve means carried on
air from said chamber into the upper end of said cylinder
said cap, resilient means biasing said valve means to a
to drive said piston downwardly.
position closing said passageway, a valve seat ?xedly se
5. A fastener driving tool comprising a housing de?ning 30 cured to said cap and normally engaged by said cylinder
a pair of axially aligned cylindrical chambers of different
to close, oif communication between the interior of the
diameters, the upper of said chambers having a greater
cylinder and said chamber, means for shifting said cyl
diameter and being ‘adapted to receive a body of com
inder toward and away from said valve seat to move said
pressed air, the lower of said chambers being of lesser
cylinder into and out of engagement with said valve seat
diameter and being connected to said upper chamber by 35 to selectively admit air into said cylinder to operate said
an annular wall formed in said housing; a cylinder slid
piston, and means connected to said valve means and ac
ably mounted in said upper chamber; a ?rst sealing means
tuated by engagement with ‘said cylinder during move
carried on said cylinder in sliding engagement with said
ment of said cylinder toward engagement with said valve
upper chamber; a piston slidably mounted in said two
seat for moving said valve means against said resilient
chambers and being of a length greater than the axial 40 means to ‘a position opening said passageway.
length of said upper chamber, said piston including an
11. In a fastener driving tool, a housing de?ning a
upper ?anged portion slidably mounted in said cylinder
and a lower portion slidably mounted in said lower cham
ber; second sealing means carried on said ?anged portion
chamber adapted to receive compressed air, a valve seat
carried on said housing, a cylinder mounted in said cham
ber and movable into ‘and out of engagement with said
in sliding engagement with said cylinder; third sealing
valve seat to control communication between said cham
means disposed between said lower portion of said piston 45 ber ‘and the interior of said cylinder, a piston slidably
and said lower chamber; a valve seat carried on said hous
mounted in said cylinder, means for shifting said cylinder
ing adjacent the upper end of said ‘cylinder; and valve
to move the upper end of said cylinder out of engagement
controlled means for selectively supplying compressed air
with said valve seat to permit the compressed air in said
to and exhausting compressed air from the two chambers
chamber to drive said piston and for shifting the upper
in the space bounded by said ?rst, second, and third seal 50 end of said cylinder into engagement with said valve
ing means to shift said cylinder relative to said valve seat
seat, an exhaust valve carried on said housing and in
and to reciprocate said piston relative to said cylinder.
cluding an inlet aligned with the interior of said cylinder,
6. The fastener driving tool set forth in claim 5 in which
resilient means continuously urging said exhaust valve to
said valve controlled means includes a passageway open
a closed condition, and a valve operator secured to said
ing into said upper chamber adjacent said annular wall and 55 exhaust valve and disposed in the path of movement of
in which said cylinder moves between two spaced positions,
said cylinder to be engaged by the upper end of said cyl
in one of which positions the upper end of said cylinder
inder when the upper end of the cylinder engages said
engages said valve seat and in the other of which positions
valve seat, engagement of said valve operator by said cyl
the lower end of said cylinder engages said annular wall.
inder maintaining said exhaust valve in an open condition
60
7. The fastener driving tool set forth in claim 5 includ
in which the interior of said cylinder is connected to the
ing an exhaust valve assembly carried on said housing in
atmosphere.
communication with the interior of said cylinder, and
12. In a fastener driving tool, a housing de?ning a
means controlled by the shifting movement of said cylin
chamber having an opening and adapted to be supplied
der for operating said exhaust valve assembly.
with compressed air, a cylinder movably mounted in said
8. In a fastener driving tool, a housing de?ning a cham 65 chamber, a piston ‘including at least a portion slidably
ber adapted to receive compressed air and having a ?rst
mounted in said cylinder, a cap mounted on said housing
opening, a cylinder movably mounted within said cham
in axial ‘alignment with said cylinder and closing said
ber, a piston slidably mounted in said cylinder, a cap hav
opening, a resilient valve seat carried on said cap and
ing a second opening and detachably mounted on said
adapted to be engaged by the upper end of said cylinder
70
housing to close said ?rst opening, a resilient valve seat
to prevent communication between the exterior of said
adapted to be engaged by the upper end of said cylinder,
cylinder and the chamber, means for shifting said cyl
an exhaust valve assembly mounted in said second open
inder out of engagement with said valve seat to admit
ing for controlling communication between the interior of
compressed air from said chamber to drive said piston
said cylinder and the atmosphere, means including said 75 and for then shifting said cylinder into engagement with
3,043,272
11
i2 '
end of. saidv cylinder engaging saidlvalve opera-terminus
said valve seat to entrap compressed air withinsaid cyl
inder between said cap and said piston, said cap including
when said cylinder moves toward said valve seat. 7'
means de?ning a passageway extending betweenthe- in
V
terior of said cylinder and the atmosphere, valve means
I References Cited in the‘ died this patent ‘if’,
for controlling .the'?ow of air through .said passageway;
UNITED STATES PATENTS-V /
resilient means‘ normally urging said valve means toward
a closed position to prevent communication between the
‘2,801,415
atmosphere and the chamBer, and valve operator means
2,821,170
connected to said valve means and adapted to be, engaged
2,826,176
by the upper end of said cylinder, said resilient means 10 2,850,738
closing said valve means in response to said cylinder mov
ing away from said valve seat and said valve operator
means opening said valve means to exhaust the compressed
entrapped in said cylinder in response to‘the upper
Hopkinson ___‘.____>.._'_V__ "May'll, 1954
. 2,677,933
2,854,953 "
2,872,901’
2,918,675
2,938,212
Jenny ______________ _;_l Aug. 6, 1957
Iacobus _____v_______ __'__. Jan. 28,1958
'
Challis etial. ________ __ Mar. 11, 1958
,Campbell _______ ._.____._' Sept 9, 1958
Osborne _____ __,_‘_' _____ __ Oct; 7, 1958
Golderingpet ‘al. ___._.
'>_'Feb.'10,' 1959
‘ Smith ___, _____ ..-___,_'_.___._ Dec; 29, 1959
Lerner ., ___________ "mgr/133x731,‘ 1960
15
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