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Патент USA US3043594

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July 10, 1962
H. KIELHORN
3,043,584
VARIABLE-SPEED OPENING AND CLOSING DEVICE
Filed Nov. 4, 1959
9
lm
Heinz Kielhorn
INVENTOR.
24
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27 FIG]
26a 26b
26c 23
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BY
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AGENT.
United States Patent 0
3,043,584
cr'
1C6
Patented July 10, 1962
2
1
door of conventional construction serving, for example,
3,043,584
to close an elevator shaft.
VARIABLE-SPEED OPENING AND CLOSING
DEVICE
Heinz Kielhorn, Strasse des Komsomol 373,
Leipzig W. 43, Germany
Filed Nov. 4, 1959, Ser. No. 850,812
3 Claims. (Cl. 268-53)
,
Advantageously, the generally conical driving element
is mounted on a shaft which, e.g. by being supported on
a swingable gear housing, is mounted for limited adjust
ment of its spacing [from the follower element to estab
lish a desired contact pressure and to maintain such pres
sure after the parts have become slightly worn.
The above and other objects, features and advantages
My present invention relates to a variable-speed open
ing and closing device and, more particularly, to a device 10 of my present invention will become more readily ap
parent from the following description, reference being
for opening and closing slidable shutter members such as
made to the accompanying drawing in which:
furnace and elevator doors, gates, theater curtains, screens
and the like.
'
FIG. 1 is a front-elevational view of an elevator-door
Such sliding closure members require controlled open
opening device according to the invention;
FIG. 2 is a similar view showing the elevator door in
ing and closing speeds, by reason of their large masses. 15
Should a constant-speed motor, for example, be used with
a partially opened position;
a conventional rack-and-pinion mechanism to drive mas
sive doors, the initial torque of the motor would have.
to be su?iciently large to overcome the rest inertia of
the door, while the same torque,'applied to the door in
motion, would tend to accelerate it to excessive speeds.
Similarly, toward the end of the opening or closing stroke,
the door must be slowed to a stop gradually, to prevent
damage to the mechanism. For this purpose it has pre
viously been the practice to employ direct-current motors
and, consequently, expensive recti?ers as well as auto
FIG. 3 is a side-elevational ‘view of the device shown
in FIGS. t1 and 2;
,
FIG. 4 is a top-plan view of the device;
FIG. 5 is a view, similar to FIG. 1, of a second em
bodiment of the invention;
_
FIG. 6 is a side-elevational view of the second embodi
ment; and
FIG. 7 is a top-plan view of the embodiment shown
in FIGS. 5 and 6.
In FIGS. 1 to 4 I show an elevator frame .1 having an
, matic regulating devices adapted to vary the electrical
entrance way 2 adapted to be closed by a sliding door 3
input to the motor to produce the appropriate door speeds.
whose rollers 5 are carried by a runner 4 extending
the width of the elevator to which it is secured. The
door 3 is provided with a bracket-shaped friction rail
Other, single-speed systems in use heretofore, such as
those operating on three-phase current, had to be equipped
with complex and potentially troublesome speed-control
elements such as brakes, worm-gear transmissions, slip
ping clutches, cam-wheel drives ‘and the like; all of these
6 having two spaced-apart, co-linear end sections 6a, 6a’,
whose upper surfaces are parallel to the top edge of door
3, interconnected by a longer central section 60 of a height
devices are expensive to manufacture and subject to con
less than that of sections 6a, 6a’ and by a pair of inter
siderable wear, the same drawback being encountered 35 mediate, inclined ramp sections ‘6b, 6b’. The two end
with leadserew-type driving mechanisms. Hydraulic and
sections 6a, 6a’ are substantially ?ush with the front sur
pneumatic units require elaborate pumping or compressor
apparatus, whereas ordinary friction-drum drives are ap
face of the door 3, while the central section 6c is sub
stantially aligned with the rear surface of the door. The
plicable only to oversized doors, gates or the like which
elevator also carries a squirrel-‘cage motor 11 which ro- ‘
must be massive enough to exert the necessary contact 40 tates a conical drive roller 7 bearing upon rail 6. Roller
7 is driven by the motor via a speed reducer, lodged in a
pressure by their own weight.
housing 10, which comprises a pinion 8 connected to a
It is, therefore, an object of the present invention to
provide a reliable and inexpensive variable-speed device
motor shaft 8’ and a driven gear 9 on whose shaft 9' the
for opening and closing sliding doors and the like.
roller 7 is carried. Housing '10‘, swingable about shaft
Another object of the invention is the provision, in such 45 8’, has a. ?ange 10’ traversed by a screw 11’ for ?xing it
in different angular positions to the housing of motor 11,
device, of a single driving element of simple construction,
thereby varying the contact pressure between roller 7 and
adapted to be readily replaced in case of wear, in com
rail 6. Motor ‘11 is controlled by a conventional elevator
changed to vary the speed cycle of the controlled mem 50 circuit schematically shown as a network 15 provided with
a pushbutton 14 ‘and with a time-delay relay 12 which is
ber.
A further object of this invention is to provide means
controlled by a limit switch 13 to reverse the motor, in
to enable changes in contact pressure between driving
a manner known per se, if the switch 13 is not operated
and driven element as well as compensation of normal
a predetermined interval after actuation of button 14 to
wear.
55 close the door, thus indicating the presence of an ob
In accordance with a feature of my invention I provide
stacle in the path of the door. Other safety circuits
known in the art may, of course, also be used to arrest
a motor-driven, rotary drive element of varying diameter,
bination with a follower element which can be easily ex
such as a cone or a stepped cylinder, adapted to bear
or to reverse the motor whenever the door 3 is blocked
upon and frictionally to engage an elongated follower ele
in some intermediate position against the driving friction
ment or rail carried by a displaceable member (eg a 60 between roller 7 and rail 6.
To open the door 3, an actuating device such as the
sliding elevator door) in order to impart varying rates of
pushbutton 14 is operated to energize the motor 11. By
acceleration and displacement to that member according
the consequent rotation of drive roller 7 in a clockwise
to the di?erent distances of the contact surface from the
axis of the drive element. Thus, given a generally coni
direction, as viewed in FIG. 1, the rail 6 and the door 3
cal (continuous or stepped) driving element rotating at 65 secured thereto are displaced in the direction of the ‘arrow
a constant speed, a point on the periphery of the cone
A to the open position thereof (shown in dot-dash lines).
Upon the starting of the motor 11, rail portion 6a contacts
near the apex will travel at a measurably slower speed
the conical surface of the roller 7 at a point near the apex
than a peripheral point near the base of the cone. A
of that roller. Owing to the small diameter of the roller
rail contacting the cone ?rst at one and then at the other
point will therefore be propelled successively at a lower 70 at this point, a relatively large force, determined by the
torque of the roller 7 at the point- of contact, is trans
and ‘at a higher speed. Naturally, a door so constructed
mitted to the door 3, thereby overcoming the inertia of
can co-operate with, or be supplemented by, a further
3,043,584
,
.
Y
3
the heavy stationary door ‘body without undue strain on
the'motor. As the door is displaced in the direction of
It will be understood that, if stoppage at intermediate
positions is not required, the driving elements 7, 27 and
the arrow A, the rail 6 contacts the roller 7 at peripheral
points approaching the base of the cone and, therefore,
is displaced at increased speed but with reduced torque.
Subsequently, the door reaches its maximum desired
the driven elements 6, 26 may be suitably toothed or cor
rugated to replace their frictional engagement by a posi
tive coupling. Other modi?cations, e.g. in the shape of
the driven element (byvmaking it, for example, more
curved than angular), will be readily apparent to persons
velocity with which it continues to travel as long as the
roller‘ 7' is in contact with the rail 6 along its low-eleva
tionsection 60. When the door 3 is opened su?iciently
for the roller 7 to contact the ramp section 6b’, its motion
skilled in the "art and may be made without departing
from the spirit and scope of the invention except as
10 limited in the appended claims.
is slowed until, as the end section 6a’ is engaged at a
I claim:
point on the conical roller surface once again near the
1. In a structure having a 'frame and a door slidable
apex of the cone, its speed
su?iciently low to permit
’
with respect to said frame, in combination, rail means
extending horizontally atop said door, a shaft on said
frame extending transversely above said rail means, a
driving element carried by and having a surface of rota
tion centered on said shaft, said surface including a plu
the motor to be cut o? and brought to a stop, by the
operation of a suitable switch not shown without undue
strain upon ‘any part of the system. The closure move
ment is, of course, substantially identical with the open
ing movement, owing to the symmetry of the rail 6.
Upon contact of end portion ‘6a’ with the switch 12, the
rality of ‘axially spaced portions of different diameters,
said rail means being longitudinally divided into a plu
motor 11 is cut off and the elevator is ready for the next 20 rali-ty of sections of different height positioned for tan
cycle.
As best seen in FIG. 3, the rail 6 in projection upon
a transverse plane has a pro?le which is complementary
to that of cone 7. This ?gure also shows the adjustable
gential contact with respective ones of said portions in
successive relative positions between said door and said
7, frame, motor means for rotating said driving element ,on
said shaft, and adjustable mounting means for said shaft
mounting of motor base 16 on a threaded stem 17 ‘about 25 on said frame, said mounting meanscomprising a pivot
which it may thus be swung ‘for proper alignment of roller
7 with rail 6.
for said shaft having an axis offset from and parallel to
said shaft, and locking means ‘for securing said shaft in
one of a plurality of angular positions about said axis;
'
‘In FIGS. 5, 6 and 7 I show a second embodiment ofv
the invention wherein a stepped cylinder’27 also of broad;
thereby enabling adjustment of the distance between said
ly conical outline, comprising a small-diameter disk 27a, 30 shaft Kand said rail means for varying the contact pressure
an intermediate disk 27b anda large-diameter disk 27c,
between said driving element and said rail means.
has replaced the conical roller 7 of FIGS. 1-4; a stepped
2. The combination according to claim 1 wherein said
rail 26, ‘comprising a pair of’ high-elevation end sections ' driving element is in the form of a stepped cylinder- with
26a, 2621", a pair of intermediate sections 26b, 26b’ and
at least three steps and said sections are parallel to each
a low-elevation central section 260, has replaced the 35 other and are aligned with respective steps of said cylin
rail 6.
'
der.
In operation, ‘the door 23 covering the entrance way
3. The combination according to claim 1 wherein said
22' ofthe elevator 21 is displaced to its open position by
driving element is of conical con?guration and said sec
the engagement of rail 26 with stepped cylinder 27, driven ‘
'
'
by a motor >31 through a speed-reducing gear train 28, 29 40 tions are contiiguously connected.’
lodged in;swingable housing 30. The ?rst disk 27a,
through which .a large torque is applied because of its
small diameter, engages the outermost rail section 26a
and produces sufficient force to overcome the inertia of
the door 23. As the door begins to move, the interme
diate disk 27b contacts rail section 26b to reduce the
force ‘applied and to increase the velocity of the door.
Upon the engagement of rail section 260 by disk 270, the
door moves at a constant rate until the cylinder disks
cont-act rail’, sections 26b’ and'26a’ to'reduce the speed
of the door preparatorily to stopping it. The door 23.
is, of course, closed in an identicalm-anner.
References ‘Cited in the ?le ‘of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
45
50
676,833
Bitner ____'__________ __ June 178, 1901'
772,917
Biltuer _,»_ ____________ __ Oct.’ 24, 1904
2,298,675
2,572,196
2,608,872
2,632,258
2,826,925
Cal-lender ___________ __._, Oct. .13,
Raque ______________ __ Oct. 23,
Larson __________ _______ Sept. 2,
Erickson _' ___________ __ Mar. 24,
1942
1951
1952
1953
Singer _____________ __.__. Mar. 1, 1958
' ‘
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