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Патент USA US3043998

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July 10, 1962
3,043,987
H. A. MlCHLlN
ELECTRIC FREQUENCY CONTROLLED COLOR PHOSPHOR SCREEN
Filed Sept. 18. 1957
SIGNA L TO
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DEFLECTING MEANS
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RADIATION ’
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United States Patent Ori?ce
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3,943,987
'
ELECTRIC FREQUENCY CONTROLLED EOLGR
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3&4338?
Patented July 10, 19%2
PHOSPHGR
SCREEN
’
Hyman A. Michlin, 1575 Udell St., New York, N.Y.
Filed Sept. 18, 1957, S61‘. No. 684,768
10 Claims. (c1. 31s_2s)
which can be conventional, for example, Where the, color
signal varies in intensity or level of potential, then each
potential level could be electronically converted by known
means to radio frequencies depending on the instant in
tensity or potential level of the color signal. This radio
frequency would then be representative of the color to be
produced which impressed on an elemental area of the
-
invention relates to color phosphor screens, and
transparent anisotropic conductive layer 4 would impress
the instant radio frequencies on a corresponding elemen
particularly to electroluminescent‘ and electrophoto
luminescent different color emitting phosphor screens ‘in 10 tal area of the phosphor layer 2 so as to reproduce the
color; and the signal representative of the degree of light
which the color is selectively controlled by electric fre
required for the same picture element from source 9
quencies for use as information display screen.
.
modulates the electron beam simultaneously with the
_ One object of this invention is to provide method and
radio frequencies modulating the electron beam to thereby
means for controlled color emission of selected elemental
produce a scanning electron beam at that instant of such
areas by excitation and electric frequency control to pro
duce color images.
intensity and radio frequency impacting sequential ele
Another object of this invention is to provide method .
and means for controlled color emission to produce color
mental areas of the anisotropic layer 4, and so to the phos
phor layer 2 so as to reproduce the color and the intensity
images in sequence by selected electric frequency appli
cation.
-
V
of light emission in corresponding areas of the phosphor
layer.
7
-
Another, object of this invention is to provide method
In operation the ultra-violet rays from source 7 excites
and means for controlled color emission by a raster of
the phosphor layer 2 to photoluminescence, and positive
potential is ‘applied to the anisotropic conductive layer 4
and higher potential is applied to the transparent con
elemental areas .of electric ?eld modulated in intensity and
frequency.
,
_
7
Another object of this invention is to provide method 25 ductive layer 1 from the source 6; and the instant impact
ing electron beam 11, modulated by color and light in
and means for controlled color image changes e?ected in
tensity signal from source 9, is scanned to sequentially
one phosphor screen by changing electric frequencies.
impact elemental areas of the anisotropic conductive layer
Other features, objects and advantages of the invention
4 so as to impress radio frequency ?elds in such in
.will be apparent from the following speci?cation, taken
in connection with the accompanying drawings in which: 30 tensities on corresponding elemental areas of the phos
phor layer 2 'so as to cause colors to be emitted representa
tive of each color picture element and to reproduce the
intensities of light emissions of each color picture ele
ment; so that by synchronous modulation of the electron
35 beam by a linear signal representative of a color picture
the invention.
a
;
.
.
with the systematic scanning of the electron beam the
Referring to FIGURE 1, by way of example. ' Screen
. FIGURE 1 schematically illustrates one mode of the
invention; FIGURES '2 and 3 schematically illustrate 'an—
‘other mode of the invention in both front'and side views;
and FIGURE 4 schematically illustrates anothermode of
target comprises transparent conductive layer 1 electri
cally connected to positive potential from potential source
6,- phosphor layer 2 made up of phosphors capable of
' color picture is reproduced.
To describe one modi?cation reference is made to’ the
schematic illustration in FIGURE 1 where the direct elec
luminescing in a selective variety of colors independently 40 trical connection ‘between the source 6 and the transparent
conductive layer ,1 \is omitted, and the signal to radio
of the source of excitation and under the control of elec
tric frequencies applied in accordance with phosphors
described in Patent No. 2,780,731 and schematically rep-V
frequency converter 8, schematically illustrated by dash
lines, is inserted in the conducting path between the
potential source 6 and the transparent conductive layer
resented in FIGURE 2 thereof, the transparent insulation
layer 3, and the anisotropic conductive layer 4. The said 45 1 so that where the color signal from source 10 is repre
sentative of the ?eld-sequential-color-system, then the
anisotropic conductive layer '4 is electrically connected to
potential source 6 so as to maintain the potential charge
radio frequencies, in’ accordance with the color to'be
on the anisotropic conductive layer 4 constant
emitted from the phosphor screen, is eifected by the in
tensity levels of each ?eld-sequential-colorv signal from
The “anisotropic conductive layer” is de?ned in this
application as an arrangement of substances having the 50 source 10, ‘and the radio frequencies produced therefrom
property of having an image ‘in electron charges electrié
modulates the. positive potential transmitted to the trans
cally or electronically produced on one surface thereon
parent conductivelayer 1 from source 6 to thereby con
and transmitting and maintaining the said image there
through. The “anisotropic conductive layer’fcan be an
trol the color emission from the phosphor layer 2, while
theelectron beam 11 is modulated ‘by the light intensity‘
arrangement of substances such as globules of metal on 55 signal'from source 9 to thereby reproduce the color pic
an insulative surface as in the iconoscope mosaic; such
as elemental islands of conductors separated by’ insula
tion, for example, the two-sided mosaic described in’
“Television,” by ,Zworykin, page 302; and, such as the
ture.
.
_
Another example of the invention is schematically illus
trated in (FIGURE 4 where excitation is by ultra-violet
rays from source 7, and electrical connection to the aniso
two-sided target made up of thin sheet of glass as de 60 tropic or- aeolotropic conductive layerd is omitted; and
scribed on pages 425-426 of the Proceedings Institute of
the scanning electron beam 111, modulated by light in
tensity signal and color signal both representative of the
Radio Eng. (1946). The characteristics noted above are
known as aeolotropic or anisotropic conductivity.
'
color picture elements of a color picture, impacts sequen
tial elemental areas of the anisotropic conductive layer 4
The picture tube 5 is‘conventional having electron beam
generating, modulating and scanning means. High pres; 65 to betransrnitted through elemental areas thereof to be
impressed’v on corresponding elemental areas of the phos
sure mercury lamp 7 irradiates the phosphor layer 2 with
ultra-violet rays to excite same to photoluminescence.
phor layer 2 so as to quench or control the light emitted;
and,_by virtue of the known property of phosphors under
excitation/becoming more conductive, the electric charges
‘ layer 1. ,The color picture signal representative of the 70 on each elemental area of the anisotropic or aeolotropic
resultant color of each color picture element is trans
conductive layer 4 isneutralirzed by transmission through
the phosphor layer 2.
'
>
mitted from source 110 to radio frequency converter 8,
The source 7 can also be suitably positioned so as to scan
the phosphor layer through the transparent conductive
3,043,9s7
A.
a selected different frequency of electric ?elds to each
sequential elemental area of the phosphor layer in turn
Referring to FIGURES :2 and 3, for purpose of example.
The electroluminescent phosphor screen 13 comprises, for
example, electroluminescent phosphor ZnS:Cu,Mn which
so as to effect an intensity and selection of color from
is caused to progressively change its color emission from
yellow to blue on being subjected to increased electric
frequencies from 50 c.p.s. to 500 c.p.s., and electrolumines
cent phosphor ZnS:Cu,Pb which is caused to progressively
change its color emission on being subjected from low to
2000 c.p.s. of electric frequencies from green towards the
blue part of the spectrum. The letter T is composed of 10
each sequential elemental area thereby producing the In5
minescent color image.
4. An apparatus for producing an electroluminescent
color image comprising an envelope, means to generate,
modulate and scan an electron beam therein; and a target
comprising an anisotropic conductive layer, a phosphor
layer and a conductor layer in the order named with the
free side of the anisotropic conductive layer arranged to
such phosphor mixtures as to emit in greenish yellow at
be impacted by said scanning electron beam; the phosphor
50 c.p.s. and bluish green at 500 c.p.s. The background
layer having the characteristic of varying its color emis
12 is of such phosphor mixture as to emit green at 50
sion in accordance with the frequency of electric ?elds
c.p.s. and bluish green at 500 c.p.s., and sufficiently close
in color to the bluish green color emitted from the letter 15 applied thereto; means for selectively varying the electron
energy of the scanning electron beam impacting each ele
T as to cause the letter T not to be very clearly dis
mental area of the anisotropic conductive layer for a
cernible. The electric frequency source 14 can be con
successive interval of time thereby impressing an image
ventional means for producing electric frequencies in
in electric frequencies in potentials on the anisotropic con;
changing cycles per second from 50 c.p.s. to 500 c.p.s. to
thereby e?ect changing color emission and thereby cause 20 ductive layer; and means for applying a potential to the
conductor layer thereby on the application of su?icient
information of the letter to be rendered clearly visible
potential differences between the potentials applied to the
at one time, and to a point of emission where it is hardly
anisotropic conductive layer and the potential applied
discernible at another time. The layer 15 is a metal
n
to the conductive layer a color image is produced.
electrode layer, the layer 1 is a transparent conductive
5. The apparatus of claim 4 for producing an electro
layer, and the layer 3 is an insulation layer.
25
To describe an example of an operation, reference is
made to FIGURES 2 and 3. The electric frequency
source 13 generates electric ?elds varying in frequencies
from 50 c.p.s. to 500 c.p.s. so as to produce a changing
display of information.
The above is only by way of example and is not in
tended to be restrictive as many modi?cations can be made;
for example, the phosphors in FIGURE 2 can be used in
the example schematically illustrated in FIGURE 1; and
photoluminescent color image in which the phosphor layer
has the characteristics of being excited to luminescence
and changing its color emission in accordance with a
selected frequency of electric ?elds applied thereto; and
30 comprising in addition an excitation source for exciting
the phosphor layer to luminescence thereby producing an
electrophotoluminescent color image.
6. An apparatus for producing changing electrolumi
the phosphors used in FIGURE 1 can be used in the
nescent colors in at least one pattern comprising a phos
phor layer, one conductive layer on one side and one con
example schematically illustrated in FIGURE 2.
While the present invention has been described with
reference to particular embodiments thereof, it will be
ductive layer on the other side of the phosphor layer;
the phosphors in said phosphor layer of such character
istics that a selected frequency of electric ?elds applied
understood that numerous modi?cations may be made by
thereto will result in a selected color emission, and on
those skilled in the art without actually departing from 40 varying the frequency of electric ?elds applied thereto will
effect a varying color emission; the phosphors arranged
the invention. Therefore, I aim in the appended claims
to cover all such equivalent variations as come within the
in such intermixture as to emit in a selected color pattern;
and means for applying changing frequencies of potential
true spirit and scope of the foregoing disclosure.
differences to the conductive layers thereby producing
I claim:
1. The method for producing a color image in a phos— 45 changing electroluminescence colors in at least one pattern.
phor target, elemental areas of which emitting in a de
7. The apparatus of claim 6 in which the phosphors
sired color depending on its excitation to luminescence
and on a selected frequency of electric ?elds impressed
thereon, which comprises the step of uniformly exciting
can be excited to luminescence and have the same color
emission control characteristics by application of different
frequencies of electric ?elds thereto, and comprising in
the phosphor target, an the step of systematically and se-'
addition a radiant energy source for exciting the phos
lectively applying a frequency varying of potential dif
phor layer.
ferences to each elemental area of the phosphor target to
vary the. color of emission from each elemental area of
the phosphor target.
.
2. The method for producing colors in a pattern from
an intermixture of different color emitting phosphors, each
different color emitting phosphor controllable in intensity
of color emission in accordance With excitation thereof
to lurniniscence and with a selected frequency of electric
?elds in the radio wave spectrum applied thereto com
prising selectively arranging the different color emitting
phosphors in a layer to emit in at least one desired color
on application of excitation energy thereto; uniformly
exciting the phosphor layer; and applying an image in
different frequencies of electric potential di?'erences in the
radio wave spectrum to the phosphor layer thereby pro
ducing colors in a pattern.
3. The method for producing a luminescent color image
from a phosphor layer the phosphors of which on excita
8. An apparatus for producing an electrophotolumines
' cent color image comprising a phosphor layer sandwiched
between an anisotropic conductive layer and a conductive
layer, said phosphor layer after excitation to luminescence
emitting in a selected color in accordance with the fre
quency of electric ?elds applied thereto; an excitation
I ~ radiant energy emission source adapted to irradiate the
phosphor layer to excite same to luminescence; means for
60 applying a potential to the conductive layer; and means
for applying, on the free surface of the anisotropic con
ductive layer, a pattern in different electric ?eld frequen
1 cies in potentials different from the potential applied to
the conductive layer whereby producing an electro
luminescent color image.
9. The apparatus of claim 8 in which the means for
applying to the anisotropic conductive layer a pattern in
electric ?elds in different frequencies is a means to effect
such application by electron impact; and comprising in
tion thereof are capable of changing color emission under 70 addition an envelope with said means suitably arranged
control of selected frequencies of electric ?elds applied
therein for electron impacting the said free surface of
thereto, and the intensity of color emission depending on
the anisotropic conductive layer.
the potential differences applied thereto comprising uni
10. An apparatus for producing an electroluminescent
color image comprising an envelope having therein a
formly exciting the phosphor layer; and systematically
and simultaneously applying such potential differences and 75 means for producing and projecting an electron image; a
i.
(
3,043,987
\
.
5
'
a
target comprising a phosphor layer sandwiched between an
2,440,301
anisotropic conductive layer and a conductive layer, said
phosphor layer emitting in a selected color in accordance
with the frequency of electric ?elds applied thereto; said
anisotropic conductive layer adapted to be impacted by 5
2,446,248
2,452,522
2,684,885
2,773,216
said electron image; means for applying a potential to the
2,780,731
. conductive layer; and means for causing the electron
2,795,730
6
Sharpe _______________ __ Apr. 27, 1948
Shrader _______________ __ Aug. 3, 1948
Leverenz _____________ __ Oct. 26, 1948
Nakken ______________ __ July 27, 1954
Edmonds ______________ __ Dec. 4, 1956
Miller ________________ __ Feb. 5, 1957
From et a1 __________ __ June 11, 1957
Michlin _______________ _.. Apr. 7, 1959
image to be an image in di?erent frequencies of varying
2,881,353
electron energies whereby on impacting said electron ener
‘“\_ gies on the anisotropi cconductive layer an image in elec- 10
OTHER REFERENCES
tn'c potentials di?erent from the potential applied to the
Destriau: Electroluminescence and Related Topics, Pro
conductive layer is 'e?ected whereby producing an electro
ceedings of the I.R.E., December 1955, vol. 43, No. 12,
luminescent color image.
pages 1911 to 1940.
»
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
McKenzie: Electrons at Work, Electronics, November
15 ‘1956, vol. 29‘, No. 11, pages 190 and 192.
UNITED STATES PATENTSv
2,239,887
Ferrant ______________ __ Apr. 29, 1941
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