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Патент USA US3044172

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July 17, 1962
H. E. BACHER ET AL
3,044,163
METHOD OF SECURING A FITTING TO A REINFORCED HOSE
Original Filed Oct. 11, 1955
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
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INVENTORS
July 17, 1962
H. E. BACHER ETAL
3,044,163
METHOD OF SECURING A FITTING TO A REINFORCED HOSE
Original Filed Oct. 11, 1955
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
ATTORNEY
United States Patent 0
1
\
3,®44,l63
Patented July 17,1962
2
1
available for use in flexible hose lines and herein de?ned
3,044,163
as a group of plastomers necessitate a modi?cation of
METHOD OF SECURING A FITTING TO A
the ?tting structure of said patent to achieve a ?tting
REINFORCED HOSE
having optimum performance capacity.
'
Hans E. Bacher, Stuttgart Degerloch, Germany, and
In carrying out the method of the present invention we
Roger R. La Marre, Jackson, Mich., assignors to Aero 5
quip Corporation, Jackson, Mich., a corporation of
have provided an improved ?tting over the type described
Michigan
in said patent whereby the present invention is capable
Original application Oct. 11, 1955, Ser. No. 539,831, now
of giving optimum performance capacity with elastomer
Patent No. 2,833,567, dated May 6, 1958. Divided
inner tube stock green or fully aged as well as with inner
and this application Apr. 28, 1958, Ser. No. 731,220 10 tube stock of relatively low elasticity, and/or of a rela
2 Claims. (Cl. 29—506)
tively stiff or hard structure as compared with normal
The present application is a division of application
elastomer material. This has been accomplished in the
Serial No. 539,831, ?led October 11, 1955, now Patent
present invention in detachable, reuseable ?ttings as well
Number 2,833,567, and relates to a method of manipula
as permanently applied ?ttings, by so designing the struc
tion and embracement of the inner tube of the hose con 15 ture embracing the annular lip seal portion as to position
struction disposed within an end ?tting as to enable the
and maintain the lip seal portion in such contiguous re
?tting to have optimum performance capacity when ap
lationship to the surface or surfaces against which it is
plied to hose construction having an inner tube of low
actuated by the ?uid pressure as to assure the develop
elastic material such as polymerized tetra?uoroethylene,
ment of an adequate initial seal whereby the ?uid pres
nylon and similar materials.
'20 sure carried by the inner tube is available for the actua
tion of the lip seal portion.
‘
'
In the designing of end ?ttings for ?exible hose lines,
the ?tting is considered to perform satisfactorily in serv
In one of the illustrated forms of the invention, the
ice or upon testing if it is capable of forming a leak
assembly and maintenance advantages of the detachable,
proof connection with the hose and have a performance
reuseable, manually assembled type of ?tting disclosed
capacity in excess of that of the hose itself inwardly from 25 in Patent No. 2,219,266 is accomplished through the pro~
the ?tting. Thus, a ?tting which has performance capac
vision of a sleeve which embraces the annular lip seal
ity in excess of that of the hose to which it is attached
portion of the inner tube disposed upon the nipple of the
with the result that failure of the hose preceeds failure
' ?tting. More speci?cally, a detachable, reuseable, ?tting
of the ?tting, the ?tting may be described as having “op
is shown in which a separate sleeve has a metal-to-metal
timum performance capacity” with respect to the hose 30 seal with the nipple and embraces the annular lip seal
portion of the inner tube; the interior surface of the sleeve
construction to which it is attached.
During the period the elastomer material from which
having initial seal producing compressive engagement
with the outer surface of the lip seal portion.
the inner tube of the hose construction‘ retains its original
elasticity and degree of softness (hereinafter character
In another illustrated form, the principles of the inven
ized as green) compression type ?ttings may be readily 35 tion, although particularly designed for detachable, re
designed with optimum performance capacity. However,
useable ?ttings, is shown embodied into a permanently
applied type of ?tting of a swaged-on construction.
upon aging, especially under conditions of high or low
temperatures maintained for extended periods, the original
Thus an object of the invention resides in the method
forces of compression between the ?tting and the hose
of manipulation and embracement of the inner tube of the
end will gradually diminish to the point that leakage will 40 hose construction disposed within an end ?tting as to en
able the ?tting to have optimum performance capacity
ultimately take place in the ?tting well within performance
when applied to hose construction having an inner tube
capacity of the hose construction itself inwardly ‘of the
of low elastic material such as polymerized tetra?uoro
?tting. As disclosed in Patent 2,731,279 a ?tting struc
ethylene, nylon and similar materials.
ture has been proposed in which all forces of compression
Another object of the invention residesin a method of
have been eliminated from a portion of the inner tube 45
manipulationiand embracement of the inner tube of a
con?ned within the ?tting and providing an annular lip
?exible hose construction having a‘?tting ‘assembly 'at-'
seal portion. This annular lip seal portion is designed
tached to one end of the hose,.the inner tube being of a
deformable material of the class of elastomers and plasto
to be actuated by ?uid pressure into pressure sealing
relation with the annular wall of an intermediate mem
ber disposed between the nipple and the socket. In prac 50 mers which are incapable of sustaining forces of com
pression of fluid sealing magnitude under conditions'of
tice it has been found that the ?tting construction of
said patent will have optimum performance capacity
when used with a hose having an elastomer inner tube
under most all conditions of use and aging with leagage
- use and ageing.
Further objects and advantages of the invention will
hereinafter appear from the following speci?cation and
occurring only in the event the annular lip seal portion 55
claims.
?uid pressure is inadequate to actuate the lip seal portion
into ?uid sealing position with respect to the embracing
intermediate member.
'
a
h
-
In the drawings,
hardens and/or sti?ens to the extent that the available
FIG. 1 is antelevational view of a ?exible hose line
' assembly having a ?tting applied to one end thereof, I
FIG. 2 is an enlarged vfragmentary view of FIG. 1
a
For the same reason 7' the ?tting of said patent may 60 partly shown in cross section,
_
‘ FIG. 3 is an enlargement of a structural detail of FIG.
develop leakage upon appreciable hardening or stiffening
of the elastomer material forming the annular lip seal
FIGS. 4, ‘and 5 are views similar to FIG. 2 of modi?ed
portion, leakage may also be experienced under condi
forms of the invention.
. a
-.
tions .of low pressure when this type of ?tting is applied 65
. Referringto the illustrated forms of ?ttings in which
to a hose construction having an inner tube of plasto/mer
the method .of the present invention is embodied, the
material of su?iciently low elasticity and/or having a de
hose line assembly 10 comprises a ?exible hose 12 having
gree of stiffness which will prevent the development, of
an inner tube 14 and a reinforcing structure for the tube
?uid pressure sealing of the annular lip sealing portion.
in the form of braided wire 16. Thev end ?tting 18 is of
Inner tubes of polymerized tetra?uoroethylene, nylon, 70 a detachable, reuseable type and comprises ‘a socket 20
elastomers stiffened by compounding such as with syn
for threaded engagementat 22 with, the nipple 24. A
thetic resins and numerous thermoplastic tube stocksnow ‘ _~ sealing sleeve26 .is shown embracing .the terminal end
2,
and
.
.
_
V
.
3,044,163
E.
3
u
of the inner tube 14 herein called the lip seal portion 28.
in connection with the example being described, the out
side diameter of the inner tube 14 is approximately .281",
the inside diameter of the bore is approximately .187"
and the outside of the nipple 24 is approximately .207".
A nut 30 is attached to the nipple 24 by a suitable con
nector 32.
0
While it is to be understood that the present invention
has general application to ?exible hose construction ma—
Thus the tube 14 will have its normal inside diameter
terials heretofore in wide use, it is especially adapted to
the e?ective'sealing of hose construction having an inner
tube of relatively stilf and low elastic material, as for
example, such materials as polymerized tetra?uoroethyl
ene. Also it is to be understood thatthe sealing function 10
of approximately .187" expanded an amount approxi
mately .020" at the time the nipple 24 is manually in
serted into the inner tube 14. The sleeve 26, where it
embraces the terminal end 28 of the inner tube 14 has
a main inside diameter of approximately .280" with the
and characteristics of the sleeve 26 are not restricted to
inside diameter of the annular sharp cornered ribs 42
detachable, reuseable ?ttings for the reason that the sleeve
26 may be used, for example, with nipple and socket
structure of the swaged-on permanent type;
. than the expanded outer diameter of the inner tube 14.
approximating .268” which is in the'order of .012” less
With existing manufacturing tolerances, in practice the
' In view of the fact that the present invention resulted 15 amount of squeeze or compression exerted by the ribs 42
principally from an attempt to'solve the problem of de
veloping a satisfactory end ?tting for wire braided hose
having a satisfactory tetra?uoroethylene inner tube, the
speci?c disclosure of the invention hereinafter appearing
upon the tube 14 will be in the order of .008" to .013".
This amount of squeeze permits the sleeve 26 to be manu
ally applied to the end of the inner tube 14 and there
after the manual insertion of the nipple 24 into the bore
' will ‘be described with respect to the application of the 20 of the hose 12 may take place with the sleeve 26 em
bracing the inner tube 14 as shown in FIG. 2 and with
invention to such a hose construction.
the ribs 42 deforming the inner tube 20 as indicated.
_ Accordingly, the hose 12 comprises an inner tube 14
The relationship of the ribs 42 with reference to the
‘of polymerized tetra?uoroethylene material which is fur
material of the lip seal portion 28 is such as to, prevent
nished at the present time by the E. I.v du Pont de Ne
mours and Company under the trademark “Te?on.” Wire 25 any appreciable flow of ?uid between the ribs 42 and the
deformed body o'f'the inner tube and to an extent which ‘
braid 16 is then applied to the inner tube 14 by the hose
enables the ?uid pressure within the inner tube 14 and
manufacturer to complete the fabrication of the hose
structure’. Because of the difficulties ‘which have been .> between the inner tube 14 and the outer surface of the
experienced to date in providing a satisfactory bond be
nipple 24 to build up the necessary pressure along the
tween the “Teflon” inner tubing 14 andthe wire braid 30 inner surface of the tube 14 to force the annular sealing
lip portion 28 embraced by the sleeve 26 into sealing rela
16, the reduction to practice of the present invention was
tion with the inside wall of the sleeve 26. Under condi
carried out upon a hose 12 having the inner tube 14
unbonded to the wire braid 16. vWhile ‘this fact facilitates I. w tions 'of vacuum the lip seal portion 23 will seal along
the outer surface of the nipple 24. In practice the inside
the insertion of the sealing sleeve 26 between the wire
diameter of the socketZtt at 44 will approximate the out
braid 16 and the outer surface .of the inner tube 14, the
bonding of the wire braid 16 to the inner tube 14 is an- 7
side diameter of the wire braid 16 to produce at 44 a
compression area to provide low pressure and vacuum
ticipated and will only necessitate the destruction of the
sealing at this point.
bonding at the locality of insertion of the sleeve 26.
To prevent deformation of the sleeve 26 during the
The hose 12 in the assembly illustrated is ?rst cut
?nal ‘assembly of the socket 20 on the nipple 24, the
to length and is then inserted into the socket 20, the latter
sleeve 26 has been provided with a long taper and the
being slid inwardly from the cut end of the hose. Next
the nippel 24 is inserted into the portion of the inner tube
male taper of the sleeve 26 at 46 can be made greater
than the female taper of the socket 20 at 48. This differ
ence in taper ‘also acts to force the shoulder 34 of the
hose
14 to12loosen
to facilitate
the Wire
thebraid16
insertion adjacent
of the sleeve
the end
26. of
After
the '
loosening the wire braid 16 the nipple 24 is withdrawn 45 sleeve 26 into metal-to-me'tal sealing relation with the
conical surface 36 of the nipple 24. Where the forces
from the bore of the inner tube 14 and the‘sleeve 26 is,
of assembly directed against the nipple 26 are su?‘icien-tly
manually inserted between the ‘wire braid 16 and the in
ner tube 14 to assume the position shown in FIG. 2. Y
great to cause deformation of the conical surface 36 when
Thereafter the nipple 24 with-the sleeve 26 embracing
the shoulder 34 of the sleeve 26 is rounded, it may be
the end 28 is reinserted into thebore of the tube 14 and 50 come desirable tohave the surface 34 more complemen
t-ary to the surface 36 so as to distribute the ‘loading of
the vsocket 20 is slid along the hose .12 until threaded en
gagement can take place at 22 between the socket 20 and:
the metal-.to-metal seal between the nipple 24 and the
nipple ‘24 upon relative rotation.
_
'
.
' ,i
Afterthe nipple 24‘is screwed into the socket 20, the
forces developed by this assembly bring the rounded ex
sleeve 26 over a greater area.
~
To appreciate the present invention it must be under
55
stood that the-contiguous relationship between the lip
seal portion 28 of the inner tube 14 and the inner sur
face of the sleeve 26 is that required only to provide an
At the same time, the wire braid 16 is wedged at 33' be- 1“ 1 initial seal enabling the ?uid pressure in the inner tube
3 2,0 and between the outer surface of the nipple 26 and
tween the sleeve 26 and the socket 20 and ?rmly clamped.
the inner surface of the portion 28 to urge the portion
Compression of the hose 12 at 40 between the nipple 24
and ‘the socket 20 will alsortake place upon assembly 69 28 radially outward to actuate the outer wall of the por
as just described for reasons hereinafter appearing. ’
tion 28. into fluid sealing relation with the inner Wall of
With the inner tube 14 of a material relatively stiff and ' ’ the sleeve 26 and to provide relatively‘ high unit com
pression at the areas of the ribs 42 without sacri?cing
non-elastic as compared to the usual elastomeiic inner
tube stock of (?exible hose lines, insu?icient pressure is 65 manual assembly. Two ribs 42 are shown because we ~
developed to provide an initial seal between the inner
feel that, it is a preferred arrangement. However, a single
rib 42 is capable of giving satisfactory performance de
tube end 28 and the sleeve 26>unless some provision is
pending upon the characteristics of the inner tube ma
i _made to' obtain the necessarycontiguous association be
tween the ?uid pressure actuated lip seal portion 28 and
the inner surface of the embracing sleeve 26. At "the 70
It should also [be v"understood in order to distinguish
ternal annular shoulder 34 of the sleeve 26 into ?uid seal
ing contact with the conicalsurface 36 of the nipple 24.
terial.
same time it is desirous that this contiguous relationship.’
'
" '
the present invention over that of Patent No. 2,463,293
between'th'e sealing surfaces be, obtained without sacri- . V that the amount of compression to which the {lip seal por
?cing the advantages connected with ‘a detachable, reuse- ' tion 28‘ is subjected as a result of the initial assembly of
able type of ?tting which may be manually assembled
the inner tube 14 with the'sleeve 26- and nipple 24 is
without the use of special ‘assembly tools. To this end 75 of a minor magnitude as compared to the compression
3,044,163
developed in the ?nal assembly of socket 20 upon the
said sleeve, inserting said nipple into said lip seal portion
nipple 24 and to which the wire braid 16 is subjected.
of said inner tube to thereby form a joint that is incapable
The sleeve 26 is constructed to protect the lip seal portion
of sustaining forces of compression of ?uid sealing mag
28 from the high compression forces of ?nal assembly
nitude under pressures for which the assembly is designed
in distinction to the disclosure of said patent. It is be 5 under conditions of use and ageing experienced in serv
cause of this fact that the nipple 24, upon loosening of
ice, whereby said lip seal portion is relatively free from
the socket 20, may be readily rotated Within the bore of
compressive forces along the outer surface of said nipple
the inner tube 14. After the initial assembly, the forces
to permit ?uid pressure to actuate said lip seal portion
of assembly required to bring at least an annular portion
radially outward toward the inner surface of said sleeve
of the lip seal portion 28 into contiguous relationship with
and into ?uid pressure sealing relation therewith, and
at least an annular portion of the sleeve 26, need not be
securing said socket and outer reinforcing layer of said
sustaining compressive forces. It is for this reason that
hose to said body portion without applying any com
the present invention makes it possible for the ?rst time
pressive forces to said lip seal portion.
to provide an end ?tting having optimum performance
2. The method of assembling a ?exible hose having an
capacity with hose having an inner tube of deformable
inner tube of tetra?uoroethylene resin covered by metallic
material of the class of elastomers and plastomers which
braided wire to a detachable, reuseable end ?tting having
are incapable of sustaining forces of compression of ?uid
a body portion, a sleeve and a socket, said method com
sealing magnitude under pressures for which the assembly
prising the steps of inserting said sleeve between said
is designed under conditions of use and ageing experi1
braided Wire and an annular lip seal portion of said inner
enced in actual service.
20 tube, providing a nipple on said body portion having a
A modi?cation of the disclosure of FIGS. 1 to 3 is
larger outer diameter than the inner diameter of said lip
shown in FIG. 4 wherein the ribs 42 of the sleeve 26
seal portion by an amount so as to control the degree of
have been omitted. As shown, the sleeve 26’ has a
expansion of said lip seal into contiguous relationship
smooth inner Wall. The necessary compression of the
with said sleeve, inserting said nipple into said lip seal
lip seal portion 28 vhas been accomplished by the expan
. portion of said inner tube to thereby form a joint that
sion of the bore of the inner tube 14 at the time of inser
tion of the nipple 24 and before the socket 20 has com
is incapable of sustaining forces of compression of ?uid
sealing magnitude under pressures for which the as
sembly is designed under conditions of use and ageing
plete assembly with the nipple 24 to develop the com
pressive forces of ?nal assembly in the ?tting.
experienced in service, whereby said lip seal portion is
The form of the invention of FIG. 5 is as described
with reference to FIGS. 1 to 3 except the nipple 24 has
relatively free from compressive forces along the outer
been slightly modi?ed. As illustrated the nipple 24' has
said lip seal portion radially outward toward the inner
a rib 24" corresponding to the ribs 42. This is to assure
sealing under vacuum and may be found necessary with
some inner tube stocks.
What we claim is:
1. The method of assembling a ?exible hose having an
inner tube and an outer reinforcing layer to a detach
surface of said nipple to permit ?uid pressure to actuate
surface of said sleeve and into ?uid pressure sealing re
lation therewith, and securing said socket and braided
35 wire to said body portion Without applying any compres
sive forces to said lip seal portion.
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
a'ble, reuseable end ?tting having a body portion, a sleeve
and a socket, said inner tube vbeing of a predetermined 40
plastic material, said method comprising the steps of
inserting said sleeve between said outer reinforcing layer
and an annular lip seal portion of said inner tube, pro
viding a nipple on said body portion having a larger
outer diameter than the inner diameter of said lip seal 45
portion by an amount so as to control the degree of ex
pansion of said lip seal into contiguous relationship with
UNITED STATES PATENTS
2,258,919
2,333,349
Wallace ______________ __ Oct. 14, 1941
Weatherhead et a1 _______ __ Nov. 2, 1943
2,731,279
Main _______________ __'_ Jan. 17, 1956
2,427,685
2,809,056
2,833,567
Midtlyng et a1 _________ __ Sept. 23, 1957
Kaiser _______________ __ Oct. 18, 1957
Bacher et al ____________ __ May 6, 1958
2,853,319
Press ________________ __ Sept. 23, 1958
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