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Патент USA US3044695

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July 17, 1962
N. P. LAPIKEN
3,044,685
AIR COMPRESSOR
Filed Feb. 13, 1959
5 Sheets-Sheet 1
FIG. I
INVENTOR.
BY @XW ¿wf/f
ATTORNEY
July 17, 1962
N. P. LAPIKEN
3,044,685
AIR COMPRESSOR
Filed Feb- 13, 1959
5 Sheets-Sheet 2
FIG. E
INVENTOR.
NICHOLAS ?? LAP/KEN
BY MKM
ATTORNEY
July 17, 1962
N. P. LAPIKEN
3,044,685
AIR COMPRESSOR
Filed Feb. 13, 1959
5 Sheets-Sheet 4
/04
'
FI
‘
INVENTOR.
6
/Vlcf/oL/as R LAP/KEN
BY
www M1#
A TTORNEY
United States Patent O
3,644,685>
lCC
Parent-ed July 17, 1962
2
l
3,044,685
AIR CGMPRESSOR
Nicholas l’. Lapiiren, 20'7 Benson Ave., Vallejo, Calif. ‘
Filed Feb. 13, 1959, Ser. No. 793,072
4 Claims. (Cl. Q30-131
.cover the invention in whatsoever form it maybe ern
bodied.
`
`
This invention is illustrated in the drawings in which:
FIG. l is a Vertical central cross-section of lthe device,
showing the electric motors driving the same inelevra-tion.
FlÍG. 2 is a side View of the device, some parts being
llhis invention relates to an lair compressor.
Attempts were made in the past to construct a centrif
ugal multi-stage -air pump with an impeller in which
' blades lare arranged in a plurality of concentric series, the l0
alternateseries rota-ting in opposite directions at the same
`angular speed. However, the blades of each series were
made of the same size. The air is sucked into this pump
through an inlet at its center and is initially compressed
in the iirst stage of compression by the rotation of the
blades of the first concentric series, said blades being ar~
broken away to disclose the arrangement of the impeller.
FIG. 3 is a plan view of the cover rotors of the _im
peller.
FIG. 4 is a cross-section taken along the line 4_4 of
FIG. 3.
FIG. 5 is Aa plan view of a rotor blade.
FIG. 6 is 'a modified form of the device which serves
as an automobile clutch.
FIG. 7 is a vertical cross-section through an lair pump
of a flying platform.
ranged on a circle closest to the center of the pump and
l FIG. 8 is a plan view, partly in section, of the airpump
taken along the line 8--8 of FIG. 7.
The compressor 1 comprising »the subject matter of this
to the second concentric series of blades of the same width 20 invention, includes ra housing 2. The latter consists of
but arranged _on a larger circle, and therefore occupying a
a casing 3 rand a cover 4, forming -a circular impeller
larger volume of space than the first stage, but rotating in
chamber 6 and a volute passage 7 encircling said cham
the opposite direction. Hence, the air upon entering the
ber for about three-fourths of the periphery thereof and
second series is not compressed but is permitted to ex
terminating with an outlet 8 tangential to lthe chamber 6.
pand to till `the volume thereof. Thereupon, the air passes
' The cover 4 is provided with fair intake openings 10
to the third stage-the third concentric series of blades
located at the center thereof. The casing -3 and the cover ,p
located on a circle of still larger diameter and occupying
4 are firmly held together by a plurality of bolts 11 pass
still larger volume and Athus allowing the air to expand still
ing through matching ears 12 formed on the periphe
of comparatively small diameter. Thereupon, the com
pressed air is passed to the second stage of compression- `
further to ñll the volume of the third concentric series of
thereof.
`
blades. This process is repeated until the compressed air 30 The housing 2 is supported by and between two electric
has passed through the last series of blades. Therefore,
motors 14 and 15 by means of `studs 16, provided on the
the pump constructed as above described, cannot produce
outer sides of said housing, iand lugs 17, provided on said
compression beyond a few pounds per square inch.
motors, said studs and said lugs being firmly connected
It is an object of this invention to provide a centrifugal
multi-stage air pump with an impeller having a plurality
of concentric series of blades in each stage in which the
blades of each series are identical and the alternate series
rotate in opposite directions at the same angular speed;
and in which pump the air is admitted at its center and is
by screws 18. The motors 14 and 15 are secured to and
rest on supports 19 and '20.
'
The compressor 1 also includes an impeller 24 located
in .the chamber 6. The impeller is designed to provide
multi-stage progressive compression, and consists of a
casing rotor 25 iand a cover rotor v26 rotated in opposite
progressively passed from one stage to another and pro 40 directions by said motors as shall hereinafter be described
gressively compressed in each of said stages.
in detail.
Another object of this invention is to provide a cen
The rotor 2S comprises a disk 30, `the outer side of
trifugal air pump of `the type described in which the area
which is parallel to and in close vicinity with the inner
of the blade in each series progressively diminishes from
side of vthe casing 3. The inner side of said disk 30 is
the center of the pump toward its periphery, so that the air
formed with three concentric ridges: the central ridge `31,
is progressively compressed by each of the series of the
the middle ridge 32 and the outer ridge 33, divided by
blades and thrown outwardly to the next »adjoining series.
grooves 35 and 36 therebetween and having 4an outer
Another object of this invention is to provide a multi
groove 37 -at the periphery of said disk. The width of the
stage air compression pump in which each stage> of corn~ 50 ridges »and the grooves progressively diminishes from
pression is formed by a series of concentrically arranged
the center toward the periphery inV such proportion that
blades, alternating series rotating in opposite directions,
`the area of each of said ridges land grooves gradually
each stage of compression occupying progressively
diminishes from the center toward the periphery, that is
smaller volume in direction to the periphery of the pump
to say, that the area of the ridge 31 is `larger than that
so that the air drawn into the pump at its center is progres 55 of the groove ‘35, and the latter is larger than :that of the
ridge 32 and so on.
’
sively compressed into smaller volume in each successive
stage.
Another object of this invention is to provide a special
blade for said impeller which effectively compresses air
The first stage of compression of said impeller is formed V
on the ridge 31 by a series 'of large .blades 4i) equally
spaced circumferentially. lf desired, auxiliary blades 41
and throws the same against a blade of the next series at 60 of much smaller width may be provided between said large
a substantially right angle to the latter blade.
blades 40. The latter blades with assistance of the aux
iliary blades AAll draw air into the impeller 24 as herein
Another object of this invention is to» seal each stage
after will be explained in detail.
‘
'
of compression at its top to prevent the centripetal seepage
of the compressed air to the intake opening.
The ridges 32 and 33 also are provided 4with blades 45
Other objects and advantages will appear as the speci 65 and 46 respectively, which form separate stages -of com
pression. The free ends of the blades 40` and 41, 45 and
iication proceeds and the novel features of the device -will
46 are connected by rings 47, 48 and 49 respectively, each>
be particularly pointed out in the claims hereto annexed.
In this specification land the annexed drawing, the inven
ring -being of substantially the same width as the respec
tion is illustrated in the -forrn considered to be the best
but it is understood that the invention is not limited to 70
such form; .and it is also to be understood that in and by
the claims following the description, it is desired to
tive ridge in the disk 30.
’
n
The rotor 26 comprises a disk 50, the outer side of
which is parallel and in the near proximity ~to thefinner'
side of the cover. The disk 5i) is provided with central
3,044,8@5
3
intake openings 54 located opposite the intake openings
10 in the cover 4. The disks 30 and 50 are coaxial and
parallel. The latter disk also has three concentric ridges
51, 52 and 53, located opposite the respective concentric
grooves 35, 36 and 37 in the disk 30 and being of sub
stantially the same width. The disk 50 is also provided
with three concentric ring shaped grooves 55, 56 and 57
A
pressed air is violently hit by said blades and further com
pressed into still smaller volume, as the blades of the
second stage of compression are of smaller area and the
volume of space occupied `by said second stage is smaller
than that occupied by the first stage. The compressed
air cannot escape centripetally, as the space between the
second stage of compression and the disk 50 is closed by
the labyrinth seal 77. Hence the second stage of com
respectively located opposite the ridges 31, 32 and 33 of
pression increases the compression of the air compressed
the disk 30 respectively and being of substantially the
same Width. The ridge 51 is provided with a series of l0 by the first stage,
Therefrom the compressed air is thrown against the
large blades 60, which are narrower than the blades 40,
‘blades 45 of the rotor 25 in the third stage of compres
and which are equally spaced circumferentially but di
sion. The blades 45 being of smaller area than the blades
rected in opposite way than the blades 40. Small auxiliary
60 of the second stage, and consequently the third stage
blades 61 may be provided between the blades 60 to in
of compression occupying smaller volume, the compressed
crease the etiiciency of this stage of compression. The
air passing into third stage of compression is further corn
ridges 52 and 53 are also provided with the series of blades
pressed therein.
63 and 64 respectively, which blades are equally spaced
This operation is repeated with each stage of compres
circumferentially.
sion, the air being compressed into smaller and still
The blades 60 and 61, 63 and 64 are covered with rings
67, 68 and 69 respectively of the same width as the width 20 smaller volume until it is finally thrown into the volute
passage 7 and is discharged therefrom through the dis
of the ridges 51, 52 and 53 respectively.
The above mentioned blades, though different in size,
charge outlet 8.
The ratio of progressive decrease of volume from one
are of the same form, except the auxiliary blades 41 and
stage of compression to the other varies depending on
61. Each blade, such as blade 40 shown in FIG. 5, has
a tangentially directed leading edge located at the inner 25 the desired rpm.: greater ratio of progressive decrease
edge of the respective ridge, followed by an inwardly di~
rected slightly curved portion 71, which receives the
compressed air discharged from the adjoining inner series
requires greater r.p.m.
The impeller could be operated by a single source of
power suitably `geared to rotate the rotors 25 and 26 in
opposite directions.
of blades, and a forwardly sharply curved outward por
The above described impeller may be used to compress
tion 72 terminating with a discharge end at the outer edge 30
or transfer air, gases, refrigerants, ñuids, water, oils and
of the ridge, thus extending the whole width of the same.
lubricants. It may also be used as a fluid drive, clutch or
The portion 72 occupies about one third of the width
torque converter, and in a progressively smaller volume.
of the ridge. 'I‘he discharge end is located at a point on
FIG. 6 shows a fluid clutch 100 which includes a hous
the outer periphery of the ridge slightly before where
the same is intersected by a radius 73 passing through the 35 ing 101 consisting of two parts held together by bolts 102
and nuts 103 passing through ears 104. The housing 101
center of the curvature of said portion 72. The portion
encases an impeller 108 consisting of a power rotor 109
71 extends forwardly in direction of rotation of said
and a driven rotor 110 secured to a power shaft 111 and
blade, crosses said radius 73 and terminates at the inner
a driven shaft 112 respectively. The latter shafts pass
circumference of said ridge about a length of the radius
of the curvature of the portion 72 in front of the point 40 through ‘bearings 113 and have seals arranged in the bear~
ing boxes 115 to prevent the escape of fluid from the
of intersection of the inner circumference of said ridge
housing.
with said radius. The auxiliary blades 41 and 61 are of
The rotors 109 and 110 are of exactly the same type
the same configuration as the blades 40 and 60 except
and are arranged the same way as the above described
that one third of the inner portion 71 is cut off.
rotors 25 and 26, except that the labyrinth seals may be
A labyrinth seal 77 is provided between the rings 47,
omitted between said rotors. The housing `101 is consider~
48 and 49 and the disk 50 and between the rings 67, 68
ably wider than the impeller 108, thus providing a con
and 69 and the disk 30 so that no air seeps therebetween
siderable storage space 117 for fluid.
toward the center of the pump.
The fluid clutch operates as follows: the motor rotates
Labyrinth seals 78 are also provided between the disks
30 and 50 and the casing 3 and the cover 4 respectively 50 the shaft 111 and the rotor 109. The blades of the latter
suck fluid from the space 117 through the intake open
to prevent the seepage of' the compressed air toward the
ings 118 in both rotors and throw it against the blades of
intake openings 10.
the driven rotor 110. As fluids are practically incom
The motor 14 is operatively connected to the rotor 25
pressible, the passage of Huid from one stage to another
by a shaft 80 which extends from said motor through the
stage of progressively smaller volume will meet progres
casing 3 to the disk 30 which is rigidly secured thereto
by some means, such as threads 81.
The motor 15 is
sively greater resistance. The resistance will be particu
larly great in the last series of blades, thus virtually lock
operatively connected to the rotor 26 `by a shaft 83 extend
ing the blades and forcing the same to rotate in the
ing from said motor through the cover 4 and through the
same direction. When the rotor 109 will rotate sufñ
disk 50. The latter is secured to said shaft 83 by some
means, such as threads, for rotation therewith. The free 60 ciently fast, the rotor 110 will rotate with substantially
the same speed. The ñuid after having been forced
end 84 of the latter shaft is journalled in a bearing 85
through the impeller 108 is discharged from the same
located in the free end of the shaft 80. By this arrange
against the circular wall 120 of the housing. The closer
ment both disks are kept in perfect alignment and are
the wall 120 is to the periphery of said impeller the soon
maintained at a desired distance therebetween. The cas
ing rotor 25 is rotated in contra-clockwise direction look 65 er the slippage between the rotors 109 and 110 ceases
thus forcing said rotors to rotate in the same direction
ing at FIG. 2 and the rotor 26 is rotated in opposite
with substantially the same speed.
direction, viewing the same ñgure, but at substantially the
FIGS. 7 and 8 show an arrangement of an impeller 130
same speed.
in a ñying platform 131. The impeller 130 is of the
The device operates as follows. The blades 40 and
the auxiliary blades 41 of the rotor 25, constituting the 70 same type and construction as the one shown in FIGS.
1-5. The impeller 130 is encased in a housing 132 con
ñrst stage of compression, draw air through the intake
sisting of two halves 134 and 135 held together by bolts
openings 10, compress the same and throw it centrifugally
and nuts. The upper half 134 is provided with an intake
and forwardly against the blades 60 and the auxiliary
135 communicating with the series of ducts 136 formed
blades 61 of the rotor 26 in the second stage of com
pression, rotating in the opposite direction. The com i by radial partitions 137 arranged on the top of said half
aser-gees
6
5
134 and closed by a cover 138. The latter has a plurality
of intake slots 1411 arranged at the periphery of said cover
3. An impeller for an air pump consisting of two rotors t
arranged for rotation in opposite directions; each of said
so that the air is sucked through said slots 149 through
rotors comprising a disk, which is coaxial with and paral
lel to the other disk and a plurality of blades carried . l
said ducts 136 to said intake 135and into said impeller
130. Considerable stability of the flying platform is
by each of said disks on the side thereof facing the other y
achieved by the above described arrangement of the air
disk, said blades being arranged in series inform of con
ducts. The impeller 130 compresses the air and throws it
centric rings, said series being arranged in spaced relation
outwardly toward the circular vertical wall 141 of said
to each other; the series of the blades of one disk occupy
housing 132 and is discharged through the peripheral out
ing the spaces between the series of the blades of the _`
lets >142 in the lower half 135 of said housing.
10 other disk, each series of blades of said impeller occupy
The suction of the air through the slots 14n and the dis
ing a ring-shaped volume, said volumes progressively di
minishing with each series in direction to the periphery
charge of the compressed air through the outlets 142 is
sufficient to raise the flying platform from the ground.
of the impeller, an inlet openingv near the center of one
of thedisks for drawing air into said impeller, said
Motors 15u and 15.1~ rotate the rotors of the impeller
130 in opposite directions at the same speed. The above 15 blades being arranged to draw air through said central
opening and compress it progressively by the series of
motors are operatively connected to said rotors by shafts
blades rotating in alternate directions successively.
152 and 153 respectively. The motors 1511 and .1.51 are
4. An air compressor comprising a housing and an im
secured to the housing 132 by studs 155. 1f desired,
vanes may lbe provided in the path of the air ejected
peller therein; said housing having an impeller chamber
through the outlets 142 for steering purposes.
20 and a volute passage at the periphery thereof terminating
with an outlet opening; said limpeller consisting of two
I claim:
rotors arranged in said housing for rotation in opposite
1. An air compressor comprising a housing and an im
peller therein; said housing having an impeller chamber
directions; each rotor comprising a disk, both disks being
coaxial and parallel; each of said disks being formed
and a volute passage at the periphery thereof terminating
with an outlet opening; said impeller consisting of two 25 with a plurality of concentric ridges separated by con
centric grooves, the grooves ofÁ one disk being opposite
rotors arranged in said housing for rotation in opposite
the corresponding ridges of the other disk, said grooves '
directions; each rotor comprising a disk, both of said
and ridges of each disk being of progressively diminish~
disks being coaxial and parallel; each of said disks car
ing areas in direction from the center to the peripheryof
rying a plurality of series of blades arranged in spaced
concentric rings on the side of the disk facing the other 30 the disks; a series of the blades carried by each of said
ridges and extending therefrom toward the corresponding
disk; the series of one disk being located in the spaces .
grooves in the other disk; blade rings carried by the ends
between the series of the other disk; each succeeding
of said blades connecting thesame and extending into
series of blades in said impeller being of progressively
said corresponding grooves of the other disk; means for
smaller radial width in direction to the periphery of the
impeller than the radial Width of the preceding series of 35 preventing the seepage `of air between said rings and said
disk; and said housing having an inlet for admitting air
blades; said air compressor having an'intake at its lateral
into thel impeller; and means for rotating Said rotators
center for admitting air into the impeller wherein the air
in opposite directions.
is progressively compressed by successive series of blades
rotating alternately in opposite direction and ejected cen
trifugally into the volute passage; and means for rotating 40
said rotors in opposite directions.
2. An air compressor comprising a housing and an im
peller therein; said housing having an impeller chamber
and a volute passage at the periphery thereof terminating
with an outlet opening; said impeller consisting of two 45
rotors arranged in said housing for rotation in opposite
directions; each rotor comprising a disk, both of said
disks being coaxial and parallel; each of said disks being
formed with a plurality of concentric ridges separated by
grooves, said ridges and grooves being of progressively 50
diminishing areas toward the periphery of said disks; a
series of blades carried by said ridges and extending there
4%. .
References Cited in the file of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
1,091,581
1,123,589
Ljungstrom ___________ __ Mar. 3, ‘1914
Portel' ________________ __ Jan. 5, 1915
1,291,871
Hein ________________ __ Ian. 2l, 1919
1,462,592
Bentley __________ ____.._ July 24, 1923
1,468,555
1,714,561
2,318,990
Bonom ______________ __ Sept. 18, 1923
Johnston ____________ __ May 28, 1929
Doran ____ ___________ __ May 11, 1943
2,335,445
Richard _____________ __ Nov. 30, 1943
2,374,671
2,654,223
Dupont ______________ __ May l, 1945
Wang _________________ __ Oct. 6, 1953
3,253
Great Britain ______________ __ of 1878
from into the grooves of the other disk; said air com- -
pressor having an inlet at its lateral center for admitting
air into the impeller wherein the air is progressivelycom~ 55
pressed being passed successively through the series of
blades rotating alternately in opposite directions and
ejected centrifugally into the volute passage; and means
for rotating said rotors in opposite directions.
FOREIGN PATENTS
21,905
Great Britain ___ __________ ___ of 1906
83,294
Austria ______________ __ Mar. 25,1921
,
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