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Патент USA US3045175

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July 17, 1962
A. K. LITTWIN
3,045,165
ELECTRICAL CONTROL MEANS
Filed Jan. 30. 1957
4 Sheets-Sheet 1
July 17, 1962
-
A. K. LiT'rwlN
3,045,165
ELECTRICAL CONTROL MEANS
Filed Jan. 30, 1957
4 Sheets-Sheet 2
.11.5K AC.
INPUT
INVENTOR.
July 17, 1962
A. K. LITTWIN
3,045,165
ELECTRICAL CONTROL MEANS
Filed Jan. 30, 1957
i234 5578
4 Sheets-Sheet 3
9
July 17, 1962
A. K. LlTTwlN
3,045,165
ELECTRICAL CONTROL MEANS
Filed Jan. Z50, 1957
4 Sheets-Sheet 4
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United States Patent O ” ICC
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Another object is to provide apparatus of the general
3,045,165
`
`3,045,165
Patented July'17, 1962
ELECTRICAL CÜNTROL MEANS
Arthur K. Littwin, Lincolnwood, Ill., assignor, by mesne
assignments, to Robert L. Littwin, Arthur K. Littwin,
and Horace A. Young, Chicago, Ill., as trustees
Filed Jan. 30, 1957, Ser. No. 637,140
20 Claims. (Cl. S18-286)
character noted above in which means is provided for
making adjustments therein, with respect to the range
of movement of a reciprocating part, with .greater effec
tiveness than has been possible heretofore.
Still another object is to provide control means in ap
paratus of the general character referred to above in
which the adjustments referred to may be made at a point
'I‘he present invention relates to control means and
remote from the apparatus.
more particularly electrical control means.
Another object is to provide a control circuit employing
10
The »control means of the invention has particular
trigger action control by electron tubes in response to
adaptation to operating devices in which it is desired to
limit the operation of the device in a given direction of
movement, or in a given sense.
variable inductances, which are varied by the position of
the controlled device, such as a reciprocating table.
The control means in
Another object is to provide an electron tube control
circuit for a reciprocating device of the nature indicated
wherein `drifting of the effective setting, as has hereto
of a range of operation.
'
'
fore been associated with electron tubes, is eliminated.
The control means therefore is especially adaptable to
A further object is to provide in a reciprocating device
reciprocating devices, and one such reciprocating device
of the foregoing character, switch means at spaced posiF
is a work table on which a work piece is mounted for
tions corresponding to the ends of a range of reciprocation
carrying it in the reciprocating movements of the table
of a part, for controlling the reversing movements of the
for performing operations thereon by a tool such as a
reciprocating part, in which the switch means are adjust
grinding machine, cutter, etc.
able for determining the limits andplocation of a range
An object of the invention is to provide novel control
of reciprocation within a greater range corresponding
means of the foregoing general nature.
25 with the capacity of the device.
An important feature of the invention has to do with
Another object is to- provide in a reciprocating device
making adjustments in the control means. In the case
of the kind indicated, reversing control means correspond~
of a reciprocating device such as a vwork table of the
ing to limits of reciprocation of a part, in which the re
character indicated above, it is desired that it reciprocate
versing control means are independently adjustable `for
between certain limits, and further that the user be able
determining the corresponding limit of reciprocation of
to adjust the limits of the range of movement, since vari
the part, and in which the reversing control means are
ous work pieces »being worked on require working opera
interconnected in a novel manner for providing a mini
tions of diíferent natures or extending through different
mum range of reciprocation of the part and this range can
ranges of reciprocation. A simple example of such dif
be shifted along a greater range by manipulating only
ferent operations may reside in the difference in sizes of f one of the reversing control means.
Work pieces, as for example any large piece would require
A still further object is to provide switch means and
a longer range of reciprocation than would a small piece.
circuit means for controlling a reciprocating device of
It is desirable that any given reciprocating table be readily
the general nature referred to above in which the switch
and easily adaptable to work pieces of diiferent sizes and
means are arranged at each of opposite ends of the range
character, and it is further desirable that the table not
of movement of the reciprocating device, and are only
reciprocate through a range of movement materially
momentarily conditioned by the work table for eifecting
greater than that necessary for the dimensions of the piece
reverse movement of the Work table, in’which holding
being worked on. Accordingly it is desired to provide
circuits are utilized for maintaining the means for driving
means for adjusting the range of movement of the re
the reciprocating table in the respective direction until it
ciprocating table in accordance with requirements for `any as or is reversed by the switch means at the opposite end of
cludes an arrangement for reversing the direction of move
ment, or sense of operation, alternately at opposite limits
given work piece.
the range of movement.
Additionally, it may be desired to vary or adjust the
Another object of the invention is to provide a recip
range of movement of the reciprocating table in accord
rocating device of the general character noted above, in
ance with different portions of any given work piece. For
which the range of movement of the reciprocating table
example, assume the »work table with a work piece thereon 50 can ybe adjusted in extremely fine increments, and even
isA reciprocated through a given range at the beginning
in infinitesimal increments.
of an operation and the tool Working on the work piece
Other objects and advantages of the invention Will ap
moves in a direction transverse to the direction of recip
pear from the following detail description taken in con
rocation of `the table. In a yfore portion of the operation
junction with the accompanying drawings in which:
it may be necessary for the table to reciprocate through a
-FIGURE l is a front view of the essential parts of a
large range ‘because of the dimensions of the work piece
machine to which the present invention is applied;
at that location while in an after portion of the opera
FIG. 2 is a rear view;
tion, it may tbe desirable to adjust .the apparatus so that
FIG. 3 is a diagram of a portion of the circuit utilized
the table will reciprocate through only a small or short
for controlling movements of the reciprocating table;
range of movement. It thus becomes desirable to make 60 FIG. 4 is a diagram of another portion of the circuit;
such adjustment with respect to the range of reciprocation
FIG. 5 is a view, somewhat diagrammatic in nature, of
of the table while an operation is being performed on
certain control means and related parts;
the work piece. Heretofore it has not been practical to
FIG. 6 is a view similar to FIG. 5, but with the parts
make such adjustments during the operation on the work
piece, and while the reciprocating table is in motion, 65 in a different relative position;
FIG. 7 is a plan view of certain of the elements of
«but instead ithas been necessary or practicable to stop
FIG. 5;
`
the table and make the desired adjustment and again
FIG. 8 is a circuit diagram having a modiñed form of
restart it.
'
reversing control means;
An object of the -invention is to provide novel control
apparatus of the general character indicated above, in 70 FIG. 9 is a view, somewhat diagrammatic in nature,
which adjustments in the range of a reciprocating part
of certain control elements associated with the modifica
tion of FIG. 8; `
such as a table may be made while the part is in motion.
3,045,165
¿l
FIG. l0 is a top view of certain of the elements of
FIG. 9; and
FIG. ll is a view of the essential elements of nove
reversing switch means utilized in one embodiment of the
sertion into and withdrawal from the coils 32 and 34 for
varying the inductance therein.
These cores or armatures 38 and 40 are so moved in
response to pivotal or rocking movement of the bar 36,
which in turn is moved by swinging movement of the
invention.
Referring in detail to the accompanying drawings, at
tention is directed to FIGS. l and 2 which illustrate the
main or essential parts of a machine embodying the fea
tures of the invention. As noted above, the invention
may be utilized with any of a number of different devices,
the specific device in the present instance being a machine
tool having a reciprocating work table. The machine
lever arm 26. The beam is pivoted at 27, having a com
mon pivot axis with the lever arm 26. The relation be
tween the cam means or taper 24 (FIG. 2) and the lever
arm .26 and related elements is such that when the work
table l2 is in a central position the cores or armatures
3S and 4t) assume a central or neutral position, which
may be in a straight horizontal position, with the cores
includes a suitable base or supporting means I0 on which
or armatures extending into the respective coils equal
is mounted a work table I2 mounted on 'ways for recipro
cation transversely as viewed in FIGS. l and 2. This
amounts. When the work table l?. moves in a first di
rection, eg., to the left as viewed in FIG. 2, the inclined
surface 23 rocks the lever arm 26 in counterclockwise
direction, rocking the beam or bar 36 in the same direction
and extending the core 38 into its coils further and
correspondingly withdrawing the core or armature 40
from its coils. In movement of the work table in op
form of machine tool is well known and the reciprocating
Work table 12 includes a means for holding a Work piece
such as a magnetic chuck 14. The magnetic chuck is
controlled by suitable controls such as switch means (not
shown) and the work piece, When positioned on the mag
netic chuck, is positioned for working on by a tool head
16 mounted in a structure which includes upright columns
1S. rl`he tool head 16 is mounted for reciprocation in
fore-and-aft directions or transverse to the direction of
posite direction, the camming effect from the inclined
surface 2S is removed and a suitable spring (not shown)
or other means moves the lever arm and related parts
in clockwise direction (FIG. 2). The latter movement
the reciprocation of the work table 12.
25 results in the core or armature 3S being lrelatively with
drawn from its coils and the core or armature 4t) being
The work table l2 is driven by suitable driving means
extended further into its coils. To the end of disposing
which, in the present instance, is a reversible electric
the beam 36 in a central or neutral position when the
motor 2t). It will be understood that any of various kinds
of driving means may be utilized, such as a hydraulic
work table l2 is centered, the various elements are so
ram, which may be reversed in direction of operation. 30 related that the longitudinal mid point of the cam means
or taper 24 engages the roller 30 and this may be effected
In any event, the driving means is controlled by an eiec
by disposing the lever arm 26 out of perpendicular rela
tric circuit shown in FIGS. 3 and 4, this same circuit being
utilized for driving means other than an electric motor.
A suitable driving connection is interposed between the
tion with the beam or bar 36.
Attention is directed next to FIG. 3 showing a diagram
motor Ztl and the reciprocating work table 12, such as a
of a portion of the circuit for controlling the drive
speed reducer of well-known type (not shown) and which
means or electric motor 2t). In this circuit diagram is
included a representation of the beam or bar 36 and
lever arm 26. The coils or transformers 32 and 34
are illustrated in association with the respective cores or
armatures 38 and liti, and the latter assume a position
may include a rack on the table and a pinion driven
by the motor through the speed reducer. Since such driv
ing means is of conventional and standard character, it is
not illustrated herein.
In the contemplation of the present invention, the driv
ing means, such as the electric motor Ztl, is reversed in
direction of operation at each end of the range of move
ment of the reciprocating work table 12 and the reversing
function is controlled by the work table itself.
The base llt) and work table 12 are provided with con
trol means indicated generally `at 22 for reversing the di
rection of travel of the work table and include cam means
or a taper 24 on the table and a pivoted lever arm 26 `and
associated parts on the base.
The cam means or taper 24 may be and preferably is dis
posed adjacent one end of the work table and has an in
clined surface 28 on its lower edge engaging a roller 3@
on the swinging end of the lever arm 26. This cam means
or taper 24 is mounted on the table by suitable means such
determined by the position of the table as viewed in FIG.
2, or to the left as viewed by an operatorifrom the front.
In such position the core or armature 4t) is lowered to
its maximum position into the transformer or coils 34
while the core 38 is withdrawn a maximum extent from
the associated transformer or coils 32.
Referring generally to the circuit portion shown in
FIG. 3, a power line 42 is provided having suitable volt
age, such, for example, as 115 volts A.C., in which is
connected a constant voltage transformer 44 of suitable
type. A transformer ¿i6 in the line has its secondary
winding 46s arranged for providing suitable voltage on
the primary windings 32p and 34p, respectively, of the
thereof is brought into play by the reciprocating motion
transformers 32 and 34. The secondary windings of
these transformers 32s and 34s, respectively, are ccn~
nected through potentiometer means 4S and Si), respec
tively, with tube means 52 and 54, in suitable circuit for
of the Work table, and serves to deflect the lever arm 26
imposing bias on the tube means in accordance with varia
and effect corresponding control thereby.
tion in the voltage in the transformers produced by the
as by riveting or bolting and the inclined surface 28
The control means 22 includes a pair of induction coil
cores 3S and 46. The tube means 52 and 54 are nor~
means 32 and 34 shown diagrammatically in FIG. 2 and 60 mally non-conducting and become conducting upon being
described in detail in connection with the circuit of FIGS.
tired in response to the imposition of the necessary volt
3 and 4. Associated with the lever arm 26 is a beam or
age thereon as controlled by the cores 38 and 4t).
bar 36 indicated diagrammatically in FIG. 3 mounted by
suitable means in a control box housing the control means
22 and ñxed to the lever arm 26 for pivotal or rocking
movement therewith.. Mounted on the ends of the beam
or bar 36 are cores or `armatures 3S and 4G, respectively,
arranged for cooperation with the respective coils 32 and
Second tube means 56 and S8 are associated with tube
means 52 and 54, respectively, and are normally non
conducting. A grid bias is normally imposed on the
latter tube means Sti and 53 as generated through a con
nection 6ft with the secondary /i6s of the transformer 46.
The tube means 56 and 58 are controlled by the respective
34 and varying the induction therein. The cores or arma~
tube means 52 and S4, as to condition of conducting.
tures 3S and di) are mounted in any suitable manner on 70
Assuming a specific example, the tube means 56 is con
the beam or bar so as to be aligned longitudinally with
the respective coils 32 and 34. The details of the mechani
cal arrangement of this feature are not essential to the
invention and may be as desired. At this point, suñice it
to say that the cores or armatures are arranged for in
trolled by the tube means 52 upon the latter becoming
conducting. The tube means 5a is controlled in turn by
the core or armature 33. When the latter is lowered into
the transformer or coils 32 a sufficient extent, an induced
3,045,165
voltage is imposed on the tube 52., effecting a positive
opposing bias thereon that will lire the tube means and
enable it to conduct, the tube theretofore not conducting,
6
potentiometer means (48 or 50) associated therewith may
be set to any desired point for tiring the tube means at
any extent of movement of the core into the transformer,
as indicated above. When the tube means 52 becomes
and with the further result that either potentiometer means
conducting, the output thereof generates an opposing bias Ul (48 or 50) may be set relative to its associated end of
on the tube means 56 and Íìres the latter, enabling the _ the movement of the reciprocating table independently
tube means to become conducting. When the tube means
of the other so that the table may be reciprocated through
56 thus becomes conducting, it actuates a relay 62. A
a range located at any desired position with respect to
similar relay 64 is associated with the tube means 58 and
the base lil on which the table is mounted, so that if a
is actuated by the tube means 58 when the latter becomes
Work piece, for example, should be located olf-center
conducting, as controlled by the tube means 54, in a
on the table or should be of such shape that a portion
manner similar to that described in connection with tube
of it being worked on is displaced from the center of the
means 56 and 52.
,
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table, the desired range of movement of the table may be
For purposes of reference it will be noted that the relay
provided at any location or position displaced relative
62 includes switch blades 66a and 66h, and contacts 68a,
to the central or median position, or symmetrical position
68h, and 68e. Similarly the relay 64 includes switch
relative to the base.
blades 70a and 70b and contacts 72a, 72b, and 72e. The
Attention is directed next to the portion of the circuit
relays 62 and 64 are illustrated in their de-energized condi
shown in FIG. 4 which is controlled by the relays 62 and
tions or positions in FIG. 3, and the positions they assume
64. In this circuit portion are contacts 74, 76, 78, 80,
in normal operation of the device except momentarily at 20 82, and 84. Associated with these contacts are sets of
each end of the movement of the reciprocating table when
contacts 86, 88, and 90, the set 86 being arranged with
they are energized; in the latter condition they assume the
contacts 74 and 80; the set 88 associated with contacts
dotted line positions. In similar manner the switch blades
76 and 82; and the set 9.0 associated with contacts 78 and
70a and '7Gb of the relay. 64, when the relay is energized,
84. The sets of contacts, namely 86, 88, and 90 are
move to their dotted line position and when the relay is
arranged for actuation respectively by electromagnets 92,
de-energized they assume their full line position shown in
FIG. 3.
With reference to the operation of the device, attention
94, and 96, forming relays with the associated sets. The
contacts 74, 76, 78, 80, and 84 are normally open while
the contacts 82 are normally closed when the current is
is directed to FIGS. 3 and 4. The motor 20 referred to
turned olf and the apparatus is at rest. When the control
in connection with FIGS. l and 2 is shown in the circuit 30 current is turned on the electromagnet 94 is energized
diagram of FIG. 4. Assume a starting position illustrated
. in FIG. 3 with the core 38 withdrawn from the associated
transformer or coils 32 and the core 40 projected fully
into the associated transformer or coils 34. ~In such a
position or condition the motor 20 for driving the recip
rocating table operates in a ñrst direction. The table 12
in such direction of operation of the motor moves in a
corresponding direction, which, in the arrangement of
elements as described, is from right to left (FIG. 2). In
such movement of the table, the beam or bar 36 is rocked
counterclockwise as explained above and an increased
voltage is induced in the secondary 32s and an opposing
bias is thereby imposed on the tube means 52 enabling the
latter to ñre and conduct. The output of this tube means
-fires the associated tube means 56, which in turn becomes
conducting and energizes the relay 62. Upon such ener
gization of the relay 62 the driving electric motor 28 is
reversed in direction and the reciprocating table 1t) is then
driven in the opposite direction, namely, from left to right
.through the contacts 82, lead X5, contact 68e to power
lead F1. The three sets of contacts 86, 88, and 90 are
ganged to move in unison, and when electromagnet 94 is
energized the contacts 80 and 84 are closed and the con
tacts 82 remain closed.
In this operation when the con
tacts 80 and 84 close, current is supplied to the motor i
armature in a first direction, i.e., the direction assumed
above in the description of the device in connection with
the beam or bar 36 in which the core 38 is being lowered
into the associated transformer or coils 32. The motor
20 thus operates in the assumed direction and the work
table moves in the corresponding direction, namely from
right to left as viewed in FIG. 2, whereupon the beam 36
is rocked countercloclrwise and effects the lowering of the
core 38 into the transformer 32. It will be recalled from
the description above that although the core 38 is being
lowered into the transformer the respective tube means 52
and 56 remain off or non-conducting.
This non-con
ducting condition is provided by the fixed bias produced
as viewed in FIG. 2. This movement of the table in the
direction noted rocks the beam or bar 36 in clockwise
by the potentiometer 48. Similarly the tube means S6 is
in a non-conducting condition.
direction, as explained above, and lowers the core 4t) into
When the core 38, however, is lowered sufficiently into
the transformer 3,2, it produces an induced voltage in the
the associated transformer or coils 34 while at the same
time raising the core 38 and -withdrawing it from its
transformer or coils 32. Upon the core 40 entering into
the transformer 34 a suñîcient extent, an increased voltage
is induced therein which provides an opposing bias on
the tube means 54, which when it tires and conducts im«
manner described above, and an opposing bias on the tube
means and, through the tube means 52 and 56, energizes
poses its output as an opposing bias on the tube means 58
in series with the armature of the motor 20 which gradu
ally slows down or cushions the motor. In response to
closure of the contacts 68b the electromagnets 92 and
which in turn ñres and conducts.
When the latter con
ducts, the relay 64 is energized, and the driving motor 20
is again reversed and the cycle repeats.
The action in reversing the direction of drive of the
table 12 is only momentary so that the respective core,
38 or 40, remains or dwells in a position for tiring the
respective tube means only momentarily. As a result the
core is withdrawn from such tiring position and the asso
the relay 62. When this relay is thus energized, the con
tacts 68a and 68C are opened and the contacts 68b are
closed. `Closure of the contacts 68a puts a resistance 98
96 are energized through lead X6, contacts 68b, to power
lead F1. Energization of the electromagnets 92 and 96,
in turn, closes con-tacts 74, 76, and 78, and opens contacts
82, whereby current is supplied to the motor 20 in the op
posite direction through contacts 74 and 78, and the elec
tromagnet 94 is retained in de-energized position by rea
ciated tube means ceases to ñre. The potentiometer
son of the contacts 82 remaining open. After the relay
means 48 and 50 associated with the respective tube means
62 is de-energized, which opens the contacts 68h, the elec
and transformers may be set to the desired voltage value 70 tromagnets 92 and 96 are retained in energized position
for firing the respective tube means at a corresponding
through the contacts 76, lead X4, contacts 6 to the power
position of the core relative to the transformer. Upon
lead F1.
the core beginning its withdrawing movement from the
Thus the driving motor 20 is reversed and a holding
transformer, it immediately withdraws from the position
circuit is established'for continuing the operation of the
in which the associated tube means fires. Hence, the 75 motor in such reverse direction while the relay 62 is en
annales
8
abled to be drawn to its normal or de-energized position
shown in FIG. 3 after having been energized by the tube
may be adjusted to Ithe extreme right while the potentiom
eter means `4S is adjusted at a similar position adjacent its
means in response to the work table reaching the end of
its range of movement in the corresponding direction.
extreme right. Each thus determines the point at which
the respective tube means is fired and is not dependent
sponding direction, namely, in counterclockwise direc
reciprocation of the work table, the control means such as
the potentiometers 48 and 50 do not overlap in effect, that
is, neither becomes effective until the work table is past
or beyond the control of the other. It is desirable that
the operable range of reciprocation be at a certain prede
The table, therefore, continues in such reverse direction Cil upon nor does it interfere with the function of the other.
One form of the invention «includes an arrangement
which, in this instance, is from the right to the left in HG.
wherein, in making adjustments in the operable range of
2, and the beam 36 is accordingly rocked in the corre
tion.
In connection with the beam 36 it may be assumed that
a yieldable means normally retains the beam in a normal
or horizontal position and biases it to that position after
having been rocked out of position in either direction by
the work table.
Such biasing means may be of conven
tional type. Upon the table thus reversing in the direc
tion noted, and consequent rocking of the beam 36 in
termined minimum, preferably quite small. For example,
if a small work piece is being worked on by the tool head
‘16, it is desired that the table not move in either direc
tion more than that necessary for the tool head to accom
plish its purpose in that direction, whereupon the work
clockwise direction, the core 38 is withdrawn from the
table should reverse to the same effect in the opposite dí
corresponding transformer 32 while the core 40 is being
rection. A further desirable feature is that this minimum
lowered into the corresponding transformer 34. This
movement eventually results in the tube means 54 and 58 20 working range of reciprocation be positionable at any lo
cation along the maximum range of reciprocation of the
assuming a conducting condition as described above, and
table, with as great facility as possible.
consequent actuation of the relay 64. The relay 64 is
A means Afor interconnecting the potentiometers 48 and
actuated upon the core 40 being lowered into the trans
50
and for accomplishing the desirable results just men
former '34 an appropriate distance, and after the core 33
tioned, is shown in FIGS. 5 to 7, inclusive. In these figures
at the opposite end is Withdrawn, or at least partially
certain of the elements are shown fully and others semi
withdrawn, from the transformer 32.
diagrammatically or indicatively. The potentiometers are
When the relay 64 is actuated as mentioned, the con
mounted by any suitable means on the panel 100 (FIG. l),
tacts 7‘2c and 72b are opened, and the contacts 72a are
as will be understood, in accordance with usual practice.
closed. When the contacts 7‘2c are opened, the resist
The potentiometers 48 and 50 are provided with shafts
ance 98 is again put in the armature circuit of the motor
102 and 104, respectively, having control knobs 106 and
20 to slow down or cushion the motor. Opening of the
contacts 72b results in de-energization of the electromag
nets 92 and 96 which in turn results in dropping of the
sets of contacts 86, 88, and 90 to thereby open the con
tacts 74, 76, and 78, and close contacts S2. Opening of
108. `On the shaft 102 is a gear 1110 fixed thereon for ro
tation therewith, meshing with an intermediate or idler
gear 112 suitably mounted as on a shaft 114 mounted on
the panel 100. Another gear 116 similar to the gear 110
is mounted on the shaft 104, but rotatable relative thereto,
and meshing with the intermediate gear 112. A pin 118
is fixed on the gear 116 and is positioned thereon for en
gagement by a finger or cam element 120 fixed on the
the contacts 74 and 78 cuts off the current to the driving
motor 20. When the contacts 76 are opened, the holding
circuit for the transformers 92 and 96 is opened. Closure
of the contacts 82 energizes the electromagnet 94, as does
the closure of the contacts 72a. When the electromagnet 40 shaft 104. Associated with the respective potentiometers
are pointers 122 and 124 suitably mounted on the panel
94 is energized, `the contacts 80, 82, and 84 are closed so
exposed through a Window 126. These pointers are fixed
as to reverse the current 4fiow through the driving motor
on or otherwise operatively associated with gears 128
20. When the relay 64 is de-energized due to the begin
coaxially arranged and suitably mounted and in mesh with
ning movement of the withdrawal of the core 40 from the
corresponding gears 130 and 132 (FIG. 5) in turn in mesh
transformer 34, the contacts 72a are opened. However,
with gears »136 and 133 on the shafts 102 and 104 (FIG.
the contacts 82 hold the electromagnet 94 in energized
position, through the lead X5, and contacts 63e to power
lead fFl. The cycle is thus completed and it repeats ac
cording to the foregoing.
It will be appreciated from the foregoing that the con
trol for adjusting the range or position of movement of
the reciprocating table may be made at a remote point.
The potentiometer means 48 and 50 may be adjusted to
appropriate condition for adjusting the point at which the
cores 38 or 40, relative to the corresponding transformer
32 or 34, produces the necessary induced voltage for fir
ing the respective tube means 52 or 54. The potentiom
eter means 48 and 50 may be located at any convenient
point, such as on a panel ‘100 which may be mounted on
the base 10 or other location. Upon rotation of the knobs
or dials on the potentiometer means, in a customary man
ner, a corresponding setting may be provided for deter
mining the point at which the tube means fire and become
conducting. Adjustments may be made in the potentiom
eter means even dunlng movement of the table, and it is
not necessary to stop the table in order to make such ad
justments. The potentiometer means 48 and 50 are set
table independently of each other and, if it is desired to
have the table reciprocate in a range offset or non-sym
7). Upon rotation of the control knobs 106 and 108,
corresponding movements of the pointers 122 and 124 is
effected.
The connection between the shafts 102 and 104 through
the ‘gears mentioned establishes a means for transmitting
rotation of one of the shafts to the other, upon certain
relationship existing therebetween. Assume, for exam
ple, that the control knobs 106 and 108 are turned to
ward each other a maximum amount so that the pointers
122 and 124 are approximately at the mid point of their
range of movement, and adjacent the vertical in FIG. 5.
The pointers will not be coincident, but spaced apart to
indicate a minimum Working range of the `work table.
Then assume it were desired to rotate the knob 106 fur
60 ther to the right, or the knob 108 further to the left.
Such movement of either knob as indicated will cause
corresponding movement of the other knob in the same
direction by means of the pin 118 and finger 120. In
the centered position mentioned, the finger 120 is sub
stantially in engagement with the pin 118. Further move
ment of the knob 108 to the left will result in the finger
engaging the pin and rotating the gear 116 thereby. The
rotation is transmitted through intermediate lgear 112
and gear 110 fixed on the shaft 102 which then rotates
metrical with respect to the base, the potentiometer means 70 the control element in the potentiometer 48. On the
may ‘be set to define the limits of reciprocation at any
other hand, if the control knob 106 were rotated to the
such desired location. yFor example, if it should be de
right from the position assumed, the rotation of the shaft
sired to have the table reciprocate between a position at
102 will result in rotation of the gear 110 fixed thereto
the right (FIG. 2) and another position adjacent the mid
and intermediate gear 112 and gear 116. The latter gear,
dle of the base, for example, the potentiometer means 50 75 acting through the pin 118, engages the finger 120 and
3,045,165
9
rotates the shaft 104. Thus, when the control knobs or
potentiometers are adjusted in maximum position toward
each other, rotation of one results in rotation of the other
in the respective directions indicated.
10
FIG. 8 is furthermore effective for preventing creeping
- effect in the limit setting.
The variation in current due
to the heating of the transformers 32 and 34 is exactly
counteracted by variation in an opposite sense in current
due to heating of the transformers 138 and 140.
The control means of FIG. 8 is also adapted to estab
lishing a minimum working range and shifting that range
The position of the control knobs and the pointers 122
and 124 in their relatively proximate positions as de
scribed, establishes -the minimum working range of the
work table. It is desired that the length of this working
in a manner generally similar to that described in connec
range correspond with the requirements of the lwork to be
tion with the arrangement of FIGS. 5 to 7. An arrange
done. In the practice of the present invention it may be 10 ment for this purpose is shown in FIGS. 9 and l0 in which
fixed at a very small value with corresponding advantage
certain of the elements are indicated semi-diagrammati
in operation of the work table. Either control knob may
cally. The control means of FIGS. 9 and l0 may be
be rotated away from the other without affecting the
mounted in a suitable and conventional manner as on the
other. FIG. 6 indicates such position in which the con
panel 100 of- FIG. l, in replacement of the control means
trol knob 106 has been rotated away from the other con
including the potentiometers 48 and 50.> The beam or
trol knob, namely, in counterclockwise direction, and it
bar 146 is made up of two parts, 148 and 150, secured
will be seen that the pin 118 is separated from the finger
on respective gears 152 and 1'54, which in turn are suit
120.ably mounted on a shaft 156. A pin 158 is secured to
This minimum working range may be shifted along the
one of the gears, e.g.`, the outer gear 152, and disposed
maximum range of operation of the table by turning the
for engaging the counterpart arm 150` on the inner gear.
appropriate control knob 106 or 108 in the appropriate
direction. For example, assuming such minimum work
The gears are in mesh with respective trains of gears 160
and 162 for rotation by control knobs 164 and 166.
ing range to be positioned on the mid point and it is de
Pointers 168 are arranged in a manner as described in
sired to shift it to some point to the right, rotation of the
connection with FIGS. 5 to 7. Assuming a minimum
control knob 106 in clockwise direction Iwill produce that 25 Working range, disposed centrally, the pin 158 is at or
result. If it is desired to shift that minimum working
engaged by the beam element or arm 150. Upon rotation
range to the left, it is done by rotating the control knob
of the control knob 166 to the left, for example, the gear
108 in counterclockwise direction. The minimum work
154 is rotated counterclockwise as is the arm 150i. The
ing range may be shifted entirely across the maximum
latter engages the pin 158 and rotates the gear 152 and
range of the reciprocation of the table if the minimum 30 arm 148 in a similar direction. Rotation of the gear 152
ranlge is located adjacent one end of the maximum range,
effects rotation of the control knob 164 in the same direc
as will be understood by rotation of the appropriate con
tion. An opposite effect is produced by.-rotation of the
trol knob in the correct direction.
control knob 164 to the right or clockwise. Further de
It is also desirable, in a modified form of the invention,
scription of the operation is believed unnecessary, `since it
to provide for the tube means to be arranged to act coun
ter to each other adjacent the reversing position, each
being energized for a small period before the other is
de-energized so that the relay switches controlled thereby
35 is the same as described in connection with FIGS. 5 to 7.
I also have found it possible to utilize switch means
for control by the work table, and the elimination of the
electronic tube means. Such switch means is shown in
are actuated with greater precision due to the fact that
FIG. ll in its essential respects, certain details of con
the tube becoming active Ibecomes so immediately upon 40 struction being omitted. Switch means 170 of conven
de-energization of the other tube, as `distinguished from
tional nature have pins 172 engageable by actuating
an arrangement in which it becomes active solely upon
fingers or leaves 174. These switches are mounted on
being energized since the latter condition may vary be
cause of variation in heating up of the tube.
The modification of the invention shown in FIG. 8
makes it possible to vary the working range of recipro
cation in infinitesimal amounts. While the foregoing
control means is effective for varying the work range in
suitable bases 176 on a common axis element 178 and are
swingable about- the axis element within small limits by
means of cams 180 `engaging the bases 176.
are provided with control knobs 182.
The cams
The lingers or
leaves 174 are actuated by a central element 184 similar
to a lever in operation, mounted on the axis element 178
very fine increments, it is, however, limited to the value
represented between adjacent turns of the potentiometer
for swinging movement thereon, and engaging the fingers
of steps. In the arrangement of FIG. 8 this variation may
the form of a roller mounted on «a rotatable member 188
rotatable about an axis element 190 coaxial with an actu
ating arm 192. The latter has a roller 194 on its free
174 alternately. The swinging movement of the element
and the increments of variation therefore are in the form 50 184 is accomplished by a follower 186 which may be in
be in infinitesimal increments. The circuit diagram of
FIG. 8 includes the essential elements of the correspond
ing portion of the diagram of FIG. 3, but without the po
tentiometers. It will be seen that the tube means 52 and
54 are arranged for control by the cores 38 and 40‘ in
association with the corresponding transformers 32 and
34, as described in connection with the circuit of FIG. 3.
swinging end mounted for engagement by the cam means
or taper 24. The lever 192, as will lbe understood, is
actuated by the cam means or taper 24 in the manner de
scribed labove in connection with the ñrst embodiment of
the invention, further details of which `are believed not
The cores 38 and 40 are operated by the beam or bar
necessary to lbe described. Upon swinging movement of
36 in the manner described above. However, in replace 60 the arm 192 in one direction or the other, the follower
ment of the potentiometers 48 and 40 are additional trans
186 engages one or the other of a pair of ñngers 196
formers 138 and 140 which are controlled by cores 142
suitably mounted and preferably mounted on the axis
and 144 mounted on a beam or bar 146. The beam or
element 178, and arranged for swinging the element 184
bar 146 is adjusted by a suitable adjusting knob 147 for
in corresponding direction. The ñngers 196 are pref
setting the cores 142 and 144 relative to the transformers 65 erably independently mounted and are spring biased to
138 and 140 to counterbalance the effect of the trans
a home position. The connection between the ñngers 196
formers 32 and 34. The effect of such adjustments 'will
and the lever member 188 may 'be as desired, such `as by
be understood, the transformers having corresponding ele
friction.
i
ments arranged in counteracting attitude. 'I'he extent to
70 The switches 170 are swingable toward and from each
which the cores 132 and 134 may be projected into and
other, i.e., toward and from a central vertical axis. Upon
withdrawn from their corresponding transformers may be
movement of the switch means inwardly toward that axis
varied in infinitesimal amounts and the point at which
the limits of reciprocation of the table are reduced, and
the corresponding tube means 52 and 54 are ñred can be
upon movement of the switch means away from the axis,
varied in infinitesimal increments. The arrangement of 75 the limits are enlarged. Thus, the limits of the working
3,045,165
1i
l-.ïì
t
range of the work table can be varied and shifted along
the maximum range corresponding to the capacity of the
ting the points at which the tube means become 'liring rela
tive to the positions of the reciprocable instrumentality.
machine. The adjustments necessary for accomplishing
6. A reciprocable instrumentality and electrical control
these results may be made while the machine is in opera
tion. The adjustments thus made are in infinitesimal in
means in combination therewith for use in controlling the
crements.
switch means in the circuit means, tube means in said
circuit means associated with each end of a range of move
While I have disclosed herein certain preferred embodi
ments of the invention, it will be understood that changes
may lbe made therein within the scope of the appended
claims.
i claim:
l. ln apparatus of the character disclosed, a recipro
cable table, reversible drive means for driving the table,
means for controlling the drive means including switch
means associated with the table at each end of the range
of movement of the table, tube means for controlling
each switch means, means controlled by the movement of
the table varying the bias on the tube means and render
movements thereof, comprising7 circuit means, reversible
ment of the instrumentality, and adapted for actuation
of the switch means alternately at respective endsof said
range in response to alternate firing of the tube means
and rendering of the corresponding portions of the circuit
means conducting, means controlled by the instrumental
ity varying the bias imposed on the tube means according
to the movement of the instrumentality, and means for
varying the points at which the tube means are rendered
ñring and conducting relative to the movement of the in
snumentality and thereby varying the effective spacing
between the tube means.
7. Electrical control means for controlling the move
means for independently varying the bias imposed on the 20 ments of a reciprocable instrumentality, comprising cir
cuit means, a reversing switch in said circuit means, tube
tube means and thereby varying the points `at which the
means associated with each end of ‘a range of movement
tube means become conducting relative to the positions
of «the instrumentality to `be controlled, and adapted to
of the table and thereby varying the effective spacing be
control the reversing switch upon being fired, a first pair
tween the tube means and switch means at the ends of
LO Ul of transformers in series with respective tube means,
the range of movement of the table.
an armature `adapted for moving into «and out of each of
2. Apparatus of the character disclosed comprising a
said transformers for controlling the induced voltage
reciprocable table, a reversible electrical motor for driv
therein and -thereby controlling the ñring of 4the respec
ing the table, switch means corresponding to each end of
tive tube means, means mounting said armatures for
the range of movement of the table for controlling the
mutually alternately and oppositely moving them into and
electric motor for driving the table in a corresponding di
out of respective .transformers in response to move
rection, tube means for controlling each switch means,
ment in opposite directions of the instrumentality to be
each tube means including -a first tube for actuating the
controlled, a second pair »of transformers respectively in
respective switch means and a second tube controllingT the
series with the ñrst pair of transformers, an armature
bias on the first tube, transformer means for controlling
adapted for moving into and out of each transformer
the bias on the second tube, armature means for varying
of said second pair for controlling the induced voltage
the voltage on each transformer means, and thereby ren
thereof `and thereby controlling the tiring of the respec
dering the tube means conducting, actuated by the table
tive tube means, the transformers of the second pair
at respective ends of the range of movement thereof, and
ing them conducting, and manually adjustable electrical
manually adjustable electrical means for independently
being oppositely arranged relative to the respective trans
varying the bias imposed on the tube means and thereby 40 formers of the first pair, and means mounting the arma
tures with fthe transformers of the second pair for mu
varying the points at which the tube means are rendered
tually alternately »and loppositely moving them into and
conducting relative to the positions of the table with re
out of .the associated transformers.
spect to the ends of said range of movement.
v
8. The invention set out in claim 7 wherein means is
3. in apparatus of the character disclosed, a recipro
provided for adjustably moving the armatures related to
cable ta‘ble, reversible drive means for driving the table,
.the second pair `of transformers, .to set positions relative
electric circuit means for controlling the drive means in
to the respective transformers `and thereby controlling
cluding switch means operative for reversing the direc
the position of the `armatures lassociated with the ñrst
tion of drive of the drive means corresponding to each
pair of transformers relative to those transformers at
end of a range of movement of the table, tube means for
which the induced voltage `therein is such as to cause iir
controlling each switch means, a transformer for each
50 ing of the respective tube means.
tube means, and a core for each transformer movable by
9. The invention set out in claim 8 wherein means is
the table relative to the transformer for varying the in
provided for manually setting `the armatures related to
duced voltage thereof, and a second transformer for each
tube means, and a core for each second transformer mov
the second transformers selectively or in unison to, re
able manually relative thereto to different set positions for C11 Ul spectively, vary the range of reciprocation of the table,
or shift the range along a greater range of capacity.
varying the induced voltage thereof, the first and second
l0. The invention set out in claim 4, wherein the
transformers lbeing of relatively opposed bias.
periods in which ‘the tube means are fired and made con
4. A reciprocable instrumentality and control means in
ducting cverlap slightly.
combination -therewith for use in controlling the move
ll. Control means comprising a source of current, a
ments thereof comprising a source of current, a pair of
60 pair »of transformer means connected with said source,
transformer means connected with said source, electronic
electronic tube means connected with each transformer
»tube means connected With each transformer means, re
means, reversing switch means operable by said tube
versing switch means operable by said tube means in
means in respectively opposite directions in response to
respectively opposite directions in response to the tube
the Atube means firing and conducting through their por
means firing and conducting through their portions of
tions of circuit, a reciprocably sv/ingable beam, armature
the circuit, armature means movable into and out of said
means mounted on each end of said beam and movable
transformer means in mutually opposite directions for op
'alternately and mutually oppositely into and out of re
positely varying the induced voltage in the respective
spective `transformer means in response to swing-ing move
transformer means and thereby oppositely tiring the tube
means, and means for mounting the armature for such 70 ment of said beam >on its pivot axis, said armature means
being operative in so moving into and out of said trans
movement into and out of the transformer means by and
former means for varying the induced voltage therein
in response to the movements of said reciprocable instru
and thereby oppositely firing the tube means, and means
mentality.
for mounting said beam for said swinging movement by
5. The invention set out in claim 4 in which manually
operable electrical means is provided for adjustably set 75 a reversibly moving instrumentality the movements of
3,045,165
13
14
which are to be controlled, and manually operable elec
former means Aand thereby oppositely tiring the tube
trical means for setting the points lait which the tube means
means, said larmature mean-s being «adapted to be moved
become firing relative to the positions of [the instrumen
by the controlled instrumentality, said potentiometer
tality.
means being independently adjustable to vary the cur
rent `to the respective tube means and thereby varying
12. The invention :set out in claim 11 wherein the beam
` is provided with means for Iactuation =by the controlled
the position of each 'armature relative to the respective
instrumentality in movements of the latter Iin directions
generally longitudinally of the beam.
13. The invention set out in claim 4 in which each
transformer means `at which :the corresponding ftube means
fires and laccordingly varying ‘the range of movement of
the controlled instrumentality.
tube means includes a first tube for controlling the switch l0
16. The invention set out in claim 15 wherein single
means 4and -a second ytube for controlling the bias on the
means is provided for varying in unison the. positions
first tube, land the induced voltage is utilized for control
ling the bias lon the second tube.
of the armatures relative to the corresponding transformer
means .at which the tube means iire and thereby shifting
a given range of movement along «a greater range of
.
14. Control means for controlling the movements of
a reciprocating instrumentality, comprising a source of 15 capacity.
current, a pair of transformer means connected with said
17. The invention set out in claim 7 in combination
source, electronic tube means connected `with each trans
with :a reciprocable instrumentality loperably Iarranged for
former means, reversing «switch means »oper-able by said
moving the first mentioned armatures into :and out of the
respective transformers.
tube means in respectively ‘opposite directions in response
to «the tube means tiring :and conducting through their 20
18. The combination set out in claim l1 in combina
portions of ythe circuit, potentiometer means interposed
tion with a reversibly moving instrumentality operably
arranged for swinging said beam.
in circuit in series with each tube means, armature means
movable into and out of said transformer means in mu
19. The 4invention set ont in icl-aim 14 in combination
with I.a reciprocable instrumentality operably arranged for
tually opposite directions for opporsi-’Lely varying the
induced voltage in the respective transformer means and 25 moving said `armatures relative to `said transformers.
thereby oppositely firing the :tube means, and means for
20. The invention set ont in claim 15 in combination
mounting the «armatures for such movements relative to
with a reciprocable instrumentality operably arranged for
the transformers by a reciprocating instrumentality the
moving said armature means into and out of the trans
former means.
movements yof which are to be controlled.
`15. Control means for controlling the movements of
References Cited in the tile of this patent
la reciprocating instrumentality, comprising a source of
UNITED STATES PATENTS
current, «a pair of transformer means connected with said
source, electronic :tube means connected with each trans
1,860,499
Furnas etal ___________ __ May 31, 1932
former means, reversing switch means operable by said
1,939,437
tube means in respectively opposite directions in response 35 2,285,666
to the «tube means firing and conducting through their
2,370,701
portions of thecircuit, potentiometer means interposed
2,541,879
in circuit in series with each tube means, armature means
movable into and out of the respective transformer means
' 2,617,864
in opposite and mutually exclu-sive directions for oppo
sitely varying the induced voltage in the respective trans
. Currier ______________ __ Dec. 12, 1933
King _________________ _.. June 9,
Woodbury ____________ .__ Mar. 6,
Martin ______________ __ Feb. 13,
Rogers _______________ _.. Aug. 5,
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40
1952
Johnson _____________ __ Nov. 11, 1952
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1951
Fischer ______________ __ Ian. 20, 1953
\
Chubb _______________ _„ Oct. 16, 1956
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