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Патент USA US3045202

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July 17, 1962
Filed April 16, 1956
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United States Patent 0
Patented July 17, 1962
John R. Smith, Venetia, Pa., assignor to McGraw-Edison
Company, a corporation of Delaware
Filed Apr. 16, 1956, Ser. ‘No. 578,450
1 Claim. (Cl. 336—60)
portion of the cooling pipes 8 and being cooled and de
scending as it becomes cooler and denser and being dis
charged into the lower portion of the casing. Any other ‘
customary or usual type of external cooling of the dielec
tric may be employed.
This invention is particularly directed to the cooling
of the winding means whether it be a single winding or
This invention relates to induction apparatus and is
a multiplicity of windings.
particularly directed to an induction apparatus which may
FIGURE 3 shows one arrangement of the conducting
be relatively heavily loaded and yet will remain at a tem 10 winding. It will be noted that the conducting winding is
perature far below the destructive or damaging tempera
made up of a series of pancake coils which, as may be
seen from FIGURE 5, are spaced apart by any suitable
The induction apparatus may be a transformer, a choke,
dielectric strips or spacers 9 which interlock with vertical
or any other type of induction apparatus with or without
spacers 10 in the usual manner. The winding 3, it will
a magnetic core.
15 be seen, consists of spaced pancake windings so that the
The primary object of this invention is to provide a
dielectric ?uid can flow freely upwardly between succes
novel form of winding construction for the induction ap
sive pancake coils.
paratus in which each convolution projects axially beyond
Each successive convolution of the conductors 4 are
the adjacent convolution and thus provides an exposed
stepped upwardly so as to provide a series of exposed
surface for each convolution which is directly contacted 20 surfaces indicated by the reference character 11. These
by the flowing and cooling dielectric.
' Further objects of the invention are to provide a simple
exposed surfaces are directly contacted by the dielectric
and greatly enhance the cooling effect of the dielectric.
type of construction which does not require the use of
The successive convolutions are insulated from each other
additional apparatus and does not increase the over all
in any suitable manner. For example, the conductor 4
cost of the induction apparatus and which is easy to pro 25 may be wrapped with kraft paper or other suitable insulat
duce and highly ef?cient in operation.
ing material which is permeable to the dielectric.
Embodiments of the invention are shown in the accom
It is to be particularly noted that the rectangular conduc
panying drawings in which:
tor is arranged with its longer face vertical and its shorter
FIGURE 1 is a fragmentary transverse sectional view
face horizontal. This facilitates the arrangement of the
30 successive projecting portions or faces 11 of the winding
through a transformer.
FIGURE 2 is a side elevation drawn to a much reduced
4 as shown in FIGURE 3.
It has been found that the cooling effect is increased
FIGURE 3 is a view of a fragment of the transformer
by approximately 15% over the usual pancake form of
showing in section the winding construction.
coil, whether this pancake coil is dished or ?at. However,
FIGURE 4 is a view corresponding to FIGURE 3 show
by using the dished form with each of the successive con
ing a further form of the invention.
volutions projecting beyond the upper edge of the adja
FIGURE 5 is a view similar to FIGURE 3 but show
_ cent convolution this additional exposed cooling surface
ing insulating spacers in their relative position with respect
is obtained.
to the winding.
It is obvious that the successive pancake windings may
project upwardly as the center of the pancake winding
FIGURE 6 is a fragmentary view of one of the spacers. 40
Referring to the drawings particularly FIGURES l, 2
is approached as shown in FIGURE 3, or may project
and 3 it will be seen from FIGURE 1 that the induction
downwardly as shown in FIGURE 4 as the center of the
apparatus chosen for illustration is a transformer though
winding is approached,
this invention is applicable to chokes or other forms of
As shown in FIGURE 4 the conducting winding is in
induction apparatus with or without magnetic cores. The 45 dicated by the reference character 4’. FIGURE 4 dif
invention, however, is particularly useful in transformer
fers from FIGURE 3 only in that the pancake winding is
dished downwardly in FIGURE 4 whereas in FIGURE
ing or tank.
3 it is dished upwardly.
In FIGURE 1 a laminated magnetic core of cruciform
No attempt has been made to show the insulating
cross section is indicated by the reference character 1. 50 and mechanical structure of the transformer in detail as
Surrounding this core are the windings 2 and 3 which may
the invention is directed primarily to the peculiar and
beithe primary and secondary windings or vice versa.
novel way in which the additional cooling is obtained.
However, the construction has been shown with the
In actual tests a conducting winding having the Verti
constructions where the transformer is enclosed in a cas
windings 3 of a‘heavy conducting strip of rectangular 55 cal dimension of .325 inch and a horizontal of .091 inch
cross section indicated by the reference character 4, the
was employed. This particular construction showed ‘an
winding as a whole being indicated by the reference
character 3 in FIGURES 1 and 3 and the two windings
actual increase in e?iciency in cooling of from 10% to
15% as compared with a similar winding in which no
primary and secondary being indicated generally by the
exposed vertical surface was provided for each successive
convolution of the conducting winding.
reference character 5 in FIGURE 2. This invention is
applicable to any other type of conducting winding or 60 Any suitable means may be employed for constructing
conducting windings.
the conducting winding. For instance, the pancake coils
may be wound ?at with the spacers in place and may be
A metal casing 6 surrounds the transformer and con
subsequently dished by placing a suitable former below
tains a dielectric whose upper level is shown in FIGURE
the winding and forcing the winding against such former.
2 and is indicated by the reference character 7. i
Or if desired the dished pancake windings may be
It is usual to provide some means for circulating the
dielectric, such as 'oil for instance, and for cooling the
dielectric externally of the casing 6. For example, the
cooling or radiating pipes 8 may be provided which open
formed while the winding is taking place.
It is obvious that other forms of radiators could be
provided for cooling the dielectric and other forms of in
duction apparatus could be employed as the invention is
into the upper and lower portions of the casing 6. This 70 not limited solely to the particular form illustrated, nor
provides a natural or gravity ?ow of dielectric externally
is it limited to the particular way in which the dielectric
of the casing, the hot dielectric passing into the upper
is cooled. However, the invention is directed as herein
enhanced by following the invention hereinabove set forth.
Although this invention has been described in consi~
derable detail, it is to be understood that such description
above set forth to the Peculiar construction whereby the
increase in cooling is obtained.
It is to be noted particularly that the pancake windings
is intended as illustrative rather than limiting, as the in
vention may be variously embodied and is to be inter~
preted as claimed.
1 claim:
do not obstruct the flow of oil or other dielectric but
assist in the upward flow of the oil as each pancake wind
ing heats‘ the oil and directs it upwardly. Also it is to
be noted that the pancake coils are not enclosed as units.
Each individual convoluting projects beyond the ‘adjacent
An induction apparatus for use as a transformer hav
convolution and is directly exposed to the upwardly ?ow
ing cooling dielectric.
ing a magnetic core structure and a conducting winding
In other words, the dished arrangement of each pan
cake coil causes each pancake coil to have a chimney
action in addition to the general upward ?ow of the main
body of the oil. The dished shape of the pancake coil
provides guiding, upwardly inclined, surface which aug
ment the upward ?ow of the oil. It is to be noted that
for each individual pancake coil that heat is transmitted
surrounding said core structure, said winding consisting
of conductor means having a rectangular cross section
wound spirally in spaced layers with the successive con
ductors of each layer in substantial contact with each
other and with successive convolutions in the several
layers arranged in partially overlapping relation to ad
jacent convolutions and having a portion of each of said
successive convolutions projecting beyond the adjacent
to the oil at vertically spaced points throughout the en
convolution measured axially of the winding, said wind
tire vertical height of the pancake coil itself. This effect
ing forming a substantially rigid structure, and a cooling
is immediately apparent when the dished pancake coil of 20 medium in which the winding is immersed, said cooling
this invention is contrasted with a. horizontally arranged
medium contacting the end faces and the side faces of
pancake coil. In the horizontally arranged pancake coil
said projecting portions and flowing from one face to a
construction there would be no upward flow of oil except
successive face of the convolutions of each layer to there
the general upward ?ow of the whole body of ‘the oil.
by enhance the cooling effect of the cooling medium.
In the present invention the upward ?ow of the main 25,
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
body of the oil is materially augmented by the individual
action of each pancake coil as described immediately here
It is intended that the term “?uid” shall be understood
Herrold ______________ __ July 6, 1915
to cover either a liquid or a gas.
Wooldridge __________ __ May 16, 1916
In addition, it is to be
understood that forced circulation of oil in the tank could
Sauer _______________ __ Dec. 18, 1934
be employed.
Knotts et al ___________ __ Aug. 16, 1949
Camilli et al. _________ __ June 19, 1956
Whiteman _____________ __ Apr. 15, 1958
It will be seen that a novel form of induction apparatus
has been provided in which the cooling eifect is greatly
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