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Патент USA US3045448

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July 24, 1962
Filed July 5, 1960
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
July 24, 1962
Filed July 5, 1960
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
J; /
United States Patent'O " rice
Patented July 24, 1962
Another object of the invention is to provide means
for decreasing the time required to attain ice cube for
mation in the cells of a grid and platen type of ice cube
Theodore G. Foster, North Syracuse, N.Y., assignor to
Carrier Corporation, Syracuse, N.Y., a corporation of
forming equipment.
It is also an object of the invention to provide means
for effectively breaking any bond between the formed ice
cubes and the side walls of the cells of the grid in ‘which
said cubes are formed.
This invention relates to ice making, more particularly
An additional object of the invention is to provide
to a refrigeration system for use in conjunction with ap '10 means freeing the formed ice from the ice forming ‘grid
paratus for making ice cubes.
as soon as possible after the completion of the ice‘form
A variety of equipment has been evolved for producing
ing cycle so that the ice cube forming equipment may be
Filed July 5, 1960, Ser. No. 40,585
3 Claims. (Cl. 62—65)
rectangularly shaped particles of ice of the so-called ice
utilized with maximum efficiency.
cube form. In forming these ice cubes in ‘commercial
It is also an object of the invention to provide relatively
quantities, a grid is generally employed containing a plu 15 uniform refrigeration effects in all the cells of the grid
rality of cells con?ning a volume of the con?guration of
of an ice forming machine so as to provide uniformity
the ice to be formed, and a movable platen is arranged
in the ice particles formed.
to close off the bottom of the grid to retain liquid to be
Another object of the invention is to provide a com
frozen within the cells of the grid. lFreezing of the liquid
pression refrigeration system for use in ice forming equip—
in the cells is accomplished by positioning the evaporator v20 ment in which all of the refrigerant is converted to a gas
of a compression refrigeration system in heat exchange
eous phase before passage to the compressor.
relationship with said cells whereby the ‘liquid to be
A further object of the invention is to utilize all the
frozen, con?ned within. the cells, may be cooled to freeze
refrigeration effects produced in converting the refrigerant
After the ice is formed, the platen is lowered to
to a gas.
permit harvesting of the ice from the cells of the grid. 25 These and other objects of the invention which will
A preferred icemaking apparatus of this type is shown
become hereafter more apparent are attained by pro
in co-pending application Serial No. 40,719 ?led by Wil
vision of a novel refrigeration system for an ice making
liam L. McGrath on July 5, 1960, now Patent No. 3,020,
machine. The novel refrigeration system is of a‘com:
pression type utilizing a primary and secondary evapo
In effecting refrigeration of the grid cells to form the 30 rator in series, with the primary evaporator positioned
desired ice, at number of problems are encountered due
in heat exchange relationship with the ice forming ele
to the desirability of producing ice cubes of uniform size
ment, and the secondary evaporator positioned in heat
and quality. In ‘order to produce a uniform quality of
exchange relationship with the supply of liquid to be
ice cubes, it is necessary that the temperature gradient
frozen. ‘The liquid line from the condenser of the re
across each of the cells be substantially the same, since ' - frigeration system is arranged in heat exchange relation
‘as is apparent the rate of ice formation, and the quality
of ice formation is a function of temperature. Unless
temperatures in each of the cells are substantially the
ship with the suction line to the compressor so as to in
sure full conversion of the refrigerant to the gaseous phase
before passage into the compressor. By means of a by.
same, the ice produced in each of the cells will not be ._
pass valve positioned between the compressor and the
the same. Where a compression refrigeration system is 40_ condenser, the hot compressed refrigerant from the c0m~
utilized in providing the desired refrigeration of the grid
pressor may be fed directly to the evaporator to heat the
cells, it is further necessary to insure the fact that all of
ice forming element to effect breaking of any bond be
the refrigerant ?owing through the refrigeration system‘ 7 tween the formed ice and the ice forming element during
will be in a gaseous state at the time of passage into
the harvesting portion of the ice_making cycle.
the suction connection to the compressor.
An important feature of the invention resides in the
' In effecting release of the formed ice from the grid
fact that the use of a secondary evaporator section per~
cells, it is necessary to break the ‘bond between the ice
mits the primary evaporator section effecting ice forming
‘and the cell walls. This can most readily be accomplished
to operate ?ooded, thereby providing a relatively uniform
,by heating of the walls, and as is apparent it would be
refrigerant cooling. gradient across the ice forming ele
most desirable to be able to employ the refrigeration
system to provide the necessary heat.
. t
Another feature of the invention resides in the fact
‘It is with the above problems and desiderata in mind
that the present means, including both method and ap
that the heat exchange between the liquid and suction
lines of the refrigeration system insures the conversion
paratus, have been vevolved. The novel means embodied
of the refrigerant to the gaseous phase before passage to
in a unique compression refrigeration system serve to 55 the compressor.
‘ .
cool the liquid to ‘be supplied to the grid, and serve fur
An additional feature of the invention resides in the
ther to permit selective cooling or heating of the cells
‘ fact that all of the refrigeration effects produced in con
of- the grid, with the cooling action taking place only
verting the refrigerant to a vapor phase are vutilized.
until all the cells of the grid are tilled with cubes of
A further feature of the invention resides in the ar
desired quality at which time beating of the grid ‘may
rangement of the cooling refrigerant evaporator coils of
be effected by the refrigeration system to break any bond
the novel refrigeration system in proximity to the lower
between the formed ice and the cell walls. The novel
portions of the grid cells of a grid and platen type ice
refrigeration system is so arranged as to provide -a uni—
making machine whereby the cooler portionof the liquid
form cooling gradient across each of the cells of the grid;
to be frozen will be placed in heat exchange relationship
and‘ further utilizes the refrigeration effects involved in 65 with the evaporating refrigerant so as to increase'the
converting the refrigerant into a gas so as to provide
efficiency with which the ice may-be formed. ' '
efi'icient‘refrigeration‘ operation, and insuring the pres
ence of only gaseous refrigerant in the suction line to the
(It is also a feature of this invention that the novel
refrigeration system is provided with a bypass line, and
valve arranged to permit compressed refrigerant to be
'1" 1It is accordingly 3 primary object of this invention to 70 passed into heat exchange relationship with the'ice form
provide means‘lfor effecting efficient cooling of the cells
ing element to break the bond between the formed ice
of a grid and platen type of ice cube forming equipment.
and the ice forming element.
The speci?c structural details of a preferred embodi
ment of the invention, ‘and their mode of functioning will
be made most manifest and particularly pointed out in
clear, concise, and exact terms in conjunction with the
may be retained therein. The particular ice making ap
paratus here employed is provided with a platen arranged
beneath the grid cells, with liquid to be frozen supplied to
accompanying drawings, wherein:
the grid cells via nozzles 48 on a water header 45, and
with a water collection pan 70 beneath the grid and platen
as more fully described in the aforementioned co-pending
FIGURE 1 is a perspective view of a grid and platen
type of ice making machine with parts broken away to
application. It will, however, be appreciated that a va
reveal the details thereof illustrative of the type of appa
riety of other grid and platen types of refrigeration appa
ratus in conjunction with which the instant novel refrig
ratus may be employed.
eration system may be employed;
The platen 65 is of a plate-like con?guration substan
FIGURE 2 is a schematic diagram of the novel refrig
tially coextensive with the bottom area of grid 55, and is
eration system here employed‘; and
preferably formed with a serpentine passageway so as to
FIGURE 3 is a circuit diagram illustrating a control
accommodate the tubing employed in fabricating evapo
means suitable for regulating the operation of the novel
rator 25. The primary portion of evaporator 25 ar
refrigeration system and the ice making apparatus.
15 ranged within the serpentine passageway in platen 65 is
Referring now more particularly to the drawings, like
connected to the secondary evaporator portion 26, and to
numerals in the various ?gures will be taken to designate
the suction line of the refrigeration system by ?exible re
like parts.
frigerant conduits 69 so as to permit movement of the
The ice making machine to which the instant refrig
platen with respect to the relatively ?xed refrigeration
eration system is applied is more fully described in the 20 system components.
aforementioned co-pending application. The ice making
The control circuit illustrated diagrammatically in
FIGURE 3 controls the operation of the aforedescribed
refrigeration system, water supply system and grid and
relatively rigid sheet material supported'on a framework
platen ice forming components to attain a continuous sup~
9 of angle irons or the like. A bunker 12 is formed at 25 ply of uniform ice of desired quality and quantity. An
the bottom of the housing 11, and provided with a hinged
electrical circuit as shown in FIGURE 3 couples pump
door 13 permitting access to the interior of the bunker 12.
motor 100, platen moving gear motor 85 and refrigera
apparatus here shown in FIGURE 1 is arranged within a
rectangular housing 11 formed of sheet metal, or the like
Leading to the bunker is a chute 14 extending from an
tion system compressor motor 106.
opening in horizontal partition 15 arranged above the
Coupled to the compressor motor is an overload relay
bunker 12. Vertical partition 16 extends upwardly from 30 107, a starting relay 108, a running capacitor 109, and
horizontal partition 15 and separates the heat dissipating
a starting capacitor 110 such as conventionally employed
components of the refrigeration system, to be hereinafter
described, from the ice forming equipment, and the water
in refrigeration system motor compressor units.
The gear motor 85 utilized for effecting movement of
the platen with respect to the plate is coupled to the plate
supply equipment, as seen to the left in FIGURE 1.
The novel refrigeration system which may here be em 35 via a crank arm 86 and connecting rod 87 such as more
ployed with optimum effectiveness as best seen in FIG
fully described in co-pending application Serial No.
URE 2 comprises a compressor 20 constituted by a scaled
40,718 ?led in the name of Carl G. Alt.
motor compressor unit such as is conventionally em
In addition to the gear motor cam switch 117, the gear
ployed in compression refrigeration systems. The com
motor energizing circuit is provided with a gear motor
pressor 20 is coupled via discharge line 21 to condenser 40 manual switch 130, as shown in FIGURE 3. Gear motor
22 which is connected via liquid refrigerant line 23
switch 130 is of a single pole double throw type and is
through thermal expansion valve 24 to primary platen
evaporator 25 in series with secondary water pre-cooling
provided to permit manual energization of the gear motor
for cleaning purposes.
Control of the condenser fan motor 101 is provided by
‘evaporator 26, from which suction line 27 extends back
to compressor 20 to complete the closed ?uid circuit 45 means of a condenser fan switch 132.
through which refrigerant is circulated. It will be ob
served that part of liquid line 23, and suction line 27 are
arranged in heat exchange relationship at 30.
Expansion valve 24 is controlled by means of thermo
Switch 132 is of a
single pole single throw pressure sensitive type. Ranco
switch 010-2005 is found suitable for the purpose. As
seen in FIGURE 2 the pressure sensitive element 133 of
switch 132 is arranged in communication with refrigerant
static bulb 31 arranged in heat exchange relationship with , 50 discharge line 21 so as to sense the compressor head pres
‘suction line 27 so that the amount of refrigerant ?owing
sure, whereby the switching action will be made a func
from the condenser 22 to the evaporator is regulated in
tion of this head pressure. Solenoid valve 34 is arranged
response to the temperature of refrigerant in the suction
for control of refrigerant ?ow through the previously de
scribed refrigeration system.
A bypass line 32 is extended from discharge line 21 55 A platen switch 135 of a single pole double throw lever
from a point before condenser 22 to evaporator 25, per
action type is ‘arranged in the circuit of pump motor 100
mitting the ?ow of compressed refrigerant directly from
and solenoid valve 34. This platen switch 135 is arranged
the compressor to the evaporator. Regulation of the flow
so as to close the circuit to the pump motor 100 when the
of refrigerant through the bypass line 32' is effected by
platen is in contact with the grid, and simultaneously close
means of solenoid valve 34 the operation of which will 60 the solenoid valve 34. When the platen moves away
be more fully described hereafter in connection with the
from the grid, the solenoid valve is energized to open, and
novel control means.
the pump motor is deenergized.
The water supply circuit here employed as best seen in
A manual control switch 138 is arranged in the circuit
FIGURE 1 includes a water Storage sump 35 to which
to compressor motor 106, pump motor 100, solenoid valve
water is fed by water main connection 36 which feeds 65 34, gear motor 85 and condenser fan motor 101. Manu
water to sump 35 through any desired control valve means.
a1 control switch 138 is a three position switch which per
Sump discharge line 41 leads the water from the sump
mits manual control of the ice making apparatus compo
through pump 42 via ?exible water header supply line 43
nents so as to permit: complete shut off of the unit; opera
to water distribution header 45. The water header dis
tion of only pump motor 100; or operation of all compo
tributes the water to' the cells of the ice forming grid 55. 70 nents. When the apparatus is completely shut off, cam
Rod 122 mounted in brackets 124 extends through pro
138’ is moved to a position where neither contact arm
jections from the corners of grid 55 and support the grid
engages a contact. To operate only the pump motor,
on framework 9. A platen 65 is pivotally mounted on
cam 138'is moved to a position where the left contact is
rod 66 carried in bearings 67 on framework 9 to close off
engaged by the left contact arm and the right contact is
the bottom of the grid cells so that liquid to be frozen 75 open. For operation of all components, cam 138' is
moved to a position urging each contact arm int-o engage- ‘
ment with a contact.
Main control ‘switch 140 serves to automatically con
trol the cycles of operation of the ice making apparatus
in response to pressure and temperature ‘ conditions.
Switch 140 is preferably of the Ranco dual control single
pole double throw type. As seen in FIGURE 2, switch
1'40 is formed with a pressure sensing cut off element 141
arranged in communication with suction line 27 of the
From secondary evaporator 26, the refrigerant vapor
?ows through the suction line 27 where any moisture in
the vapor will be further vaporized as a result of the ac
‘1 tion of the high temperature refrigerant in discharge line
21. Vaporized refrigerant flows back to the compressor
through suction line 27 for recycling through the refrig
eration system.
After the desired ice is formed in the grid cells, the re
. frigeration system may be employed to break the bond
refrigeration system and a temperature sensitive cut in 10 between the for-med ice and the grid cell walls by closing
element 142 arranged to sense the temperature in the grid
valve 34 which causes compressed refrigerant from com
cells preferably by being fastened to the grid 55. For
pressor 20 to be diverted through bypass line 32 to evap
convenience, the temperature sensitive cut in element ‘142
is'shown in FIGURE 2 to be mounted on the platen of
orator 25. The diverted condensing refrigerant heats the
grid to free the formed ice.
the instant ice forming apparatus.
It is thus seen that an improved refrigeration system has
A bin switch 145 is mounted in the ice storage bin or ~
been provided for use in conjunction with a grid and
bunker and is arranged to control the operation of the
ice making apparatus in response to the quantities of ice
platen type of ice making apparatus for both freezing and
defrosting of the formed ice.
The use of a ?ooded evap
produced. -
orator in heat exchange relationship with the ice forming
The novel refrigeration means here provided are partic 20 grid‘ cells permits the relaitvely uniform cooling of all of
ularly adapted for use in conjunction with a grid and
the grid cells to form ice of uniform quality. Additional
platen type of ice making apparatus to effect the uniform
ly, the heat exchanger in the suction line of the compres
freezing of liquid to be frozen in the cells of the ice form
sor insures vaporization of the refrigerant prior to enter-_,
ing grid so as to produce uniform quality ice cubes in
ing to the compressor.
each of the grid cells at a relatively rapid rate. The novel 25 The above disclosure 'has been given by way of illus
refrigeration system as best seen in FIGURES 1 and 2 is
tration and elucidation, and 'not by way of limitation, and
of a compression refrigeration type in which the compres
it is desired to protect all embodiments of the herein
sor 20, condenser 22, and two part evaporator 25, 26 are
disclosed inventive concept within the scope of the ap
arranged in a ?uid circuit through which refrigerant may
pended claims.
be circulated.
30 I claim:
The compressor 20 compresses refrigerant in its gaseous
1. In an ice maker, the combination of an ice forming
phase, and discharges the high pressure high temperature
element, a supply sump for liquid to be frozen, means for
refrigerant vapor into the air cooled condenser 22 which
supplying the liquid from the supply sump to the ice form-'
is in heat exchange relationship with the ambient air.
ing element, and means for refrigerating the ice forming
Depending on the temperature of the ambient air, and 35 element, said refrigerating means comprising primary
the pressure in discharge line- 21, condenser fan motor
heat absorbing refrigerant evaporating means in heat ex
101 will be set into operation. Thus if additional cooling
change relationship with the ice forming element; sec
is required to lower the head pressure in line 21 the fan
ondary heat absorbing refrigerant evaporating means in
motor will be operated to increase the rate of air ?ow
contact with the liquid to be frozen in the supply sump
over the condenser coils, or if head pressures ‘are too low, 40 to form ice on a portion thereof, said secondary means be
the fan motor will be quiescent so as to minimize the rate
ing in fluid communication with said primary means re
of heat exchange between the ambiance and the refriger
ant in the condenser, whereby refrigerant head pressures
will build up in the refrigeration system.
ceiving liquid refrigerant therefrom to insure the presence
of liquid refrigerant throughout said primary means
whereby uniform refrigeration effects will be produced
' From the condenser, during the normal refrigeration 45 throughout the ice forming element, means for discontinu
cycle, the condensed refrigerant vapor now in a liquid
ing refrigeration of the ice vforming element and the sup
phase, flows through liquid line 23 to thermal expansion
ply of liquid refrigerant to the secondary means, and
valve 24.
Expansion valve 24 meters refrigerant into primary
evaporator portion 25 which is in heat exchange relation
ship with the cells of the ice forming grid. In the illus
trated embodiment of the invention; this is accomplished
by arranging evaporator 25- within the platen of the ice
forming apparatus. Inthe primary evaporator 25, the
refrigerant absorbs heat from the liquid to be frozen in
the grid cells. The heat absorbed serves to vaporize the
refrigerant in evaporator 25 which then ?ows into sec
means for supplying gaseous refrigerant to the primary
means and to the secondary means to free ice therefrom,
ice freed from the secondary means remaining in the sump
to cool incoming warm liquid to be frozen.
2. In a method of refrigerating an ice forming element
having a supply sump for liquid to be frozen, the steps
which consist in evaporating liquid refrigerant in heat ex
change relation with the ice forming element, passing liq
uid refrigerant remaining after its passage through the ice
forming element through a secondary evaporator in the
ondary evaporator 26 arranged to direct the evaporating
sump in contact with liquid to be frozen in the sump there
‘ refrigerant therein int-o heat exchange relationship with
forming ice on the secondary evaporator and provid
the supply of liquid to be frozen in the supply sump. The 60 ing a uniformrefrigerating effect throughout the ice form
secondary evaporator may be disposed in the liquid in the
sump or may be arranged adjacent the sump. This two
part evaporator arrangement serves to substantially in
ing element, discontinuing passage of ‘liquid refrigerant to
the ice forming element and the secondary evaporator,
passing gaseous refrigerant through the ice forming ele-‘
sure ?ooded operation of primary evaporator 25, whereby
ment and the secondary evaporator to free ice therefrom,
uniform refrigerant effects in each of the grid cells will 65 and employing the ice freed from the secondary means re
be obtained; thus producing uniform ice cubes.
maining in the sump to cool incoming warm liquid to be
In addition, during the freezing cycle a body of liquid
adjacent the secondary evaporator 26 is solidi?ed. Dur
3. In an ice maker, the combination of a grid having a
ing the defrost cycle, the condensing refrigerant‘ flows 70 plurality of cells therein in which liquid to be frozen may
through the secondary evaporator 26 and frees the ice
be con?ned, a sump containing liquid to be frozen, means
formed adjacent the secondary evaporator. The ice rises
to supply liquid to be frozen from the sump to the cells
to the top of the liquid in the sump 35. At the initiation
of the grid, a platen for closing the cells of the grid, and
of the next cycle, (this ice is used to additionally cool the
means for refrigerating the platen, said refrigerating means
incoming warm liquid to be frozen.
75 comprising a compressor compressing gaseous refrigerant,
a. condenser receiving compressed refrigerant from the
compressor, a primary evaporator in said platen coupled
to said condenser via an expansion valve metering the
ice therefrom, ice freed from the secondary evaporator
remaining in the sump to cool incoming warm liquid to
be frozen.
condensed refrigerant to said primary evaporator, a sec
7 References Cited in the ?le, of this patent
ondary evaporator in said sump coupled to said primary
evaporator to receive liquid refrigerant therefrom and to
said compressor to supply gaseous refrigerant thereto,
said secondary evaporator being placed in contact with liq
to form a closed circuit through which refrigerant may
Howe ______________ __ Dec. 25, 1956
?ow, means for discontinuing the supply of condensed
refrigerant to said primary and secondary evaporators,
and means for supplying gaseous refrigerant to said pri
mary evaporator and to said secondary evaporator to free
Bayston ____________ __ Aug. 23, 1960
Switzerland __________ _.. Oct. 16, 1945
uid in said sump to form ice on a portion thereof, said
primary evaporator operating ?ooded during ‘the freezing
operation to provide uniform refrigerating effects over the
platen so as to uniformly freeze the liquid con?ned in the
cells of the grid, appropriate refrigerant conduits con
necting said compressor, condenser, expansion valve, pri
mary evaporator, and secondary evaporator in such order 15
Seilacker ____________ .._ Ian. 29,
Rasshach ____________ __ July 28,
Voorhees ____________ __ Nov. 25,
Baer ________________ __ Oct. 21,
Cook _______________ __ Oct. 14,
Henderson ____________ __ Feb. 8,
Swenson _____________ __ Mar. 6,
Chapman ____________ __ Mar. 27,
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