close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

Патент USA US3045493

код для вставки
July 24, 1962
R. CASTRO ETAL
3,045,483
AIRCRAFT INSTRUMENTATION
Filed March 15, 1957
3 Sheets-Sheet 1
/10671275715’;
fecal Cairo
and
(ZZexazzakrM?mse
N55,.
July 24, 1962
R. CASTRO ETAL
3,045,483
AIRCRAFT INSTRUMENTATION
Filed March 15, 1957
2;.5
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
July 24, 1962
3,045,483
R. CASTRO ETAL
AIRCRAFT INSTRUMENTATION
Filed March 15, 1957
3 Sheets-Sheet 3
Ra
lR,jT?-q
é//
//
/,
WW6
§
H6.
??x
-N
‘am3R
JQ
_"
w
w
w
w
"m_
fJ
m
nu.0.2M.
MNA“Q w
Jr\%iaw
Iw.kl , Ni.[W
i@QT
United States Patent 0
ice
1
3,?4¥5,483
Patented July 24, 1962
2
means encompass or surround the replica, a true three
3,045,483
AIRCRAFT INSTRUMENTATION
Raoul Castro, Box 56, Broolr?eld, Ill., and Alexander M.
Hasse, Fort Worth, Tex.; said Hasse assignor to said
Castro
Filed Mar. 15, 1957, Ser. No. 646,380
18 Claims. (Cl. 73-178)
This invention relates in general to ‘aircraft instrumen
tation and relates in particular to a new and improved
aircraft instrumentation especially suitable for “blind”
?ying conditions.
In the ?eld of aircraft instrumentation, one of the
dimensional presentation is accomplished as will be more
clearly understood hereinafter. To especially adapt our
invention for ?ying presently used navigational systems,
we have provided a means of conveying in ?ight informa
tion for enroute navigation and precise instrument land
ing approaches by incorporating a course indicator, com
monly called a course bar, indicating the desired course
and displacement therefrom and a glide path indicator,
both of which are responsive to signals received from some
preselected radio guiding means or course ?nders which
transmit signals from a transmitter and are received by
the receiver in the aircraft in a Well-known manner so
major problems of instrument ?ying with conventional
that the navigational path, that is, either or both the
instruments is the interpretation required by the pilot from 15 course path and glide path selected by the pilot for travel
the information presented to him. A pilot ?ying under
of the aircraft, and its displacement therefrom, are in
visual ?ight conditions is accustomed to interpreting the
dicated. In this manner there is accomplished three di
attitude of the aircraft by judging of the position of the
mensional presentation of the events relating to the air
wings, for example, with respect to the horizon-er three
craft in the exact manner in which the pilot is accustomed
dimensional orientation. On the other hand, when in 20 to perceiving them.
strument ?ying is required, the pilot must re-evaluate and
It is important to note in connection with our instrument
interpret the attitude of the aircraft according to informa
that We have accomplished all of this in one compact in
strument and other navigational raids presently in use may
tion presented to him on the conventional vertically dis
be incorporated in our invention. This accomplishment
posed instruments on a panel-a two dimensional pre
sentation. The pilot’s ability, therefore, to ?y the same 25 in part is due to a new and improved means of moving
aircraft with visual reference to the ground as compared
the various elements that make up our instrument to
present the desired information to the pilot. Incidentally,
to ?ying when the ground is obscured, is largely depend
other navigational aids may be incorporated in our inven
ent on the information presented to him and his inter
tion and it will be apparent to those skilled in instrument
pretation thereof. Obviously, when a pilot is accustomed
to a three dimensional orientation of the plane with respect 30 ?ying that we are able to eliminate many instruments
necessitated by the practice of having vertically disposed
to the ground (which, by the way, is also the condition
instruments on a panel.
under which he learned to ?y), orientation of the plane
Accordingly, it is still another goal of our invention to
by the two dimensional information presented to him on
provide a new and improved ‘aircraft instrumentation
the conventional instruments requires interpretation time.
This time lag between the actual events as they are 35 which closely simulates visual ?ying conditions reducing
the time required to respond to the information presented
happening with respect to the plane and as ?nally inter
preted (even if correctly interpreted) may be dangerous
and incorporated enroute and landing ?ight information,
under certain circumstances.
all in one compact device.
If, therefore, the pilot can be presented with informa
tion more closely resembling ‘actual events, or otherwise
stated, more closely relating to what the pilot is ac
customed to preceiving under visual ?ight conditions, the
apparent from the following description when taken in
connection with the accompanying drawings in which:
FIGURE 1 is a side view, partially in section, showing
time lag and any errors due to misinterpretation will be
reduced. The accomplishment of this end or object rep
resents the primary purpose of our invention.
Another and important feature of this invention is the
adaptation thereof into presently used navigational systems
or ?ight director systems for indicating or conveying ?ight
information for enroute navigation and precise instrument
approaches.
We propose to accomplish the primary object and fea
ture of our invention by providing a miniature replica of
the aircraft ?xedly mounted on the aircraft itself (or on
These and other objects of our invention will become
to advantage the aircraft instrument constructed in ac
cordance with the teachings of our invention as arranged
45 for mounting on the aircraft instrument panel;
FIGURE 2 is a plan view partially in section showing to
advantage the miniature replica of the aircraft as disposed
for universal movement with respect to the means repre
senting the horizon and the compass, all constructed in
accordance with the teachings of our invention;
FIGURE 3 is an elevational view partially in section
showing to advantage the course indicator and glide path
indicator mechanism of our invention;
FIGURE 4 is an enlarged view of the glide path indi
some part thereof) so as to move about the three principal
axes of movement with the aircraft itself. This replica 55 cating mechanism taken along line 4-—4 of FIGURE 3;
is also disposed for free universal movement with respect
to and within a gyroscopically ?xed means representing
the horizon and means by which the heading of the air
craft is represented. It is important to note that with
and
FIGURE 5 is a view of the instrument panel taken
along line 5—5 of FIGURE 3.
Referring now to the drawings where like reference
this miniature replica directly connected to the aircraft 60 characters designate like parts throughout the several
itself, any pitch, roll, yaw or change of heading, of the
views, there is shown particularly in FIGURE 1, our air
aircraft will be immediately re?ected in the position of
craft instrument indicated in its entirety as 12, suitably
the replica with respect to the horizon indicating means
connected to a pair of servo motors or like devices 13 and
and the heading indicating means and since both these
14 each of which is respectively coupled to a localizer
3
4
receiver or like device and a glide path receiver or like
device indicated in their entirety as 15 and 16, respectively.
the compass ring and hemisphere) indicating the pitch of
the aircraft. Servo motor 34 being suitably connected to
Servo motor or like device 13 and servo motor or like
an output servo motor or like device of a gyroscopic com
device 14, being coupled for purposes of illustration to the
pass, indicated in its entirety as 35, causes movement of
receivers 15 and .16, cause operation of a pair of syn
chronously coupled servo motors or like devices in the
instrument 12 as will be explained in detail hereinafter.
A pitch and bank unit 17 containing a conventional
craft in a well-known manner.
electrically driven gyroscope having a vertical spin axis
same arcuate dimension as the periphery of the compass
is connected to a pair of servo motors or like devices
ring 26 and further having an oppositely radially out
the compass ring 26 according to the heading of the air
In more particularity, an attaching means 36, having
a pair of outwardly extending arms 37 and 38 of the
within the instrument 12, as will be explained in detail
wardly extending cylindrical arm 40 for receiving shaft
hereinafter, for the pitch and roll axis of the aircraft
41 of the servo motor, connects the compass ring 26 to
itself. Unit .17 will supply an electrical signal in accord
the servo motor 33 to cause rotation of the compass ring
ance with the relative attitude between the aircraft itself
about a tilt axis normal to the rotation axis of the gimbal
and the horizontal position to which it is directed in both 15 in response to a signal received from pitch and bank
the pitch and roll axis is a well-known manner.
unit 17. The compass ring is also provided with pe
Referring now to FIGURES 2 and 3 where there is
ripheral gear teeth which intermesh with a worm gear 42
shown the preferred form of an aircraft instrument con
which in turn is connected to shaft 43 of the servo mo
structed in accordance with our invention, the instrument
tor 34 through intermeshing gears 44 whereby rotation of
12 comprises a horizontally disposed miniature aircraft
the shaft 43 in response to a signal received from the gyro
replica 20 ?xedly attached on a vertical hollow upwardly
scopic compass 35 causes the compass ring 26 to rotate
opening cup-like cylindrical member 21. Hollow member
horizontally about its axis relative to the craft so as to
maintain its orientation in azimuth. Thus, it can be seen
21 is suitably a?ixed by means of an integral hollow tubu
lar portion 21a to a hollow semi-spherical downwardly
opening base 22 and extends therethrough. Base 22 is
that the wing tips 45 and 46 of the replica 20 being ?xedly
mounted to the aircraft itself form instrument pointers
in turn attached by any suitable means to a hollow up
which indicate to the pilot any roll or bank of the air
wardly opening semi-spherical base cover 23 and which
craft by the relationship between the compass ring 26
forms part of the enclosure, indicated in its entirety as 24
and the Wing tips. In addition, any pitch of the aircraft
(FIGURE 1) for the instrument, the details of which will
will be discernible by the relationship of the nose and the
30 compass ring. Thus, as can be seen, the three dimensional
be explained more in detail.
Replica 20 being ?xedly mounted to base 22 and base
visual relationship between the replica and the compass
cover 23, in the embodiment shown, is ?xedly attached to
duplicates precisely the activity of the aircraft with re
move with the aircraft through the attachment of the en
spect to the earth and for that reason instrument ?ying
closure 24 to the aircraft itself thus forming an integral
by our invention is greatly improved.
part of the aircraft. Replica 20, being disposed on top of 35
Turning now to FIGURES 3 and 5, it can be seen that
the cup-like member 21, is so constructed and arranged
a pair of hollow coaxial rods 50 and 51 extending at
as to be on the same horizontal plane with a U-shaped
their upper end into cup-like member 21 are slidably dis
gimbal 25 and a horizontally mounted ring-shaped com
posed in the hollow tubular portion 21a of the cup-like
pass ring 26; the latter being of smaller outer diameter
member 21 and project beyond the lower end of the tu
than the inner edges of, and disposed within, arms 27 40 bular portion 21a and are connected to servo motors or
and 28 of the gimbal 25. Attached to the radially inward
like devices. Rod 50 is ?xedly attached at its lower end
edge of the compass ring 26 and partially surrounding the
to one end of an arm 52. The other end of arm 52 is
replica 20, is a hollow spherical enclosure means 30 which
threadably connected to a rotatable screw 53. Screw 53,
moves with the vcompass ring; said enclosure means 30
being ?xedly connected to rotatable shaft 54 of servo mo
being open at the bottom as at 30a to movably cooperate 45 tor 55 causes the arm 52 to move upwardly or down
with cup-like member 21 as will be apparent hereinafter.
wardly dependent upon the direction of rotation of shaft
Gimbal 25 is connected to the instrument housing 31,
54. Movement upwardly or downwardly of the arm 52
which forms part of the enclosure 24, either directly
causes a corresponding movement upwardly or down
through a servo motor or the like device 32 or through a
wardly of the rod 50. In a similar manner, rod 51 (in
gearing system 32a as shown whereby the servo motor
causes a raising or lowering of arms 27 and 28 with
this embodiment slidably disposed within the rod 50) is
connected at its lower end to one end of an arm 56. The
opposite end of arm 56 is threadably connected to a ro
respect to the replica 20. Actually under ?ight conditions,
it is the gimbal 25 that remains horizontal to represent the
tatable screw 57 which in turn is ?xedly connected to
earth’s horizon to which the roll of the aircraft and replica
shaft 58 of servo motor ‘60. Rotation of the shaft 53
20 will be referenced. The operation of the servo motor 55 causes movement upwardly or downwardly of the arm 56
32 to cause the gimbal to remain horizontal when the air
and concurrent movement upward or downward of the
craft is banking or rolling is in response to the signal re
rod 51 in a manner similar to that described in connec
ceived in the servo motor 32 from the pitch and roll unit 17
tion with rod 50.
to which it is connected.
The upper end of rod 50 is provided with a horizontally
The outer extremities of the arms 27 and 28 of the 60 extending arm 61 ?xedly attached at one end to a collar
gimbal have a pair of servo motors or like devices 33 and
62 which in turn is ?xedly attached to the rod 50. The
34 which are conveniently located with respect to the
other end of arm 61 is pivotally connected to an up
housing so that they may move upwardly or downwardly,
wardly extending arm 63 (more clearly shown in FIG
respectively, with the movement of the arms of the gimbal
URE 4). The other end of arm 63 is pivotally con
in response to any roll of the aircraft and are so con 65 nected at its other end to an upwardly extending arm 64
structed and arranged as to be operable in any position of
to form a linkage between the arm 61 and a horizontally
the arms. Servo motor 33 being connected to the pitch
and bank unit 17 causes the forward portion (as viewed
extending rod 65 mounted at the top edge or rim of the
cup-like member 21. Rod 65 is ?xedly attached to the
arm 64 so that the linkage means, upon operative up
in the drawings) of the compass ring 26 and hemispherical
means to move upwardly or downwardly (and the back
70 ward and downward movement of arm 61, rotates the
rod 65 about its longitudinal axis. The end of the rod
65 opposite to the arm 64 extends radially outwardly
ward portion thereof to move correspondingly upwardly
or downwardly) to indicate the pitch of the aircraft.
Actually, it is the compass and hemispherical means which
remains horizontal, with the replica (by reason of its
departure from horizon-as indicated with reference to 75
beyond the tip 45 of the miniature replica 20, in which
the rod is pivotally received, and has attached thereto a
tip-like pointer member 65 which rotates with the rod 65.
aura/res
6
5
Pointer member 66 is connected to pointer members 67
and ‘68 (FIGURE 2) by means of curved rod or wire
70. Pointer members 66, 67 and 68 are so spaced about
FIGURE 2) is connected to the plate-like member 77
to indicate the desired heading and as shown in FIG
URE 2 can be conveniently arranged to correspond with
the periphery of the miniature replica 26 so as to coincide
the pointer member 67 and the nose 47 of the replica 20
with, and form part of, the pointers 45, 46 and 47, above
when the heading of the aircraft and the desired head
described, formed by the replica itself. It is to be noted
ing correspond. Thus, as can clearly be seen from the
that pointer member 68‘ is pivotally connected to the
description of our instrument in FIGURES 2 and 3 the
replica, and in this manner rotational movement of the
movement of the replica 20 by operation of the servo
arm 65 and pointer 66 will cause rotational movement of
motors 32, 33 and 34, with respect to the compass ring
the pointer 68 and an upward or downward movement 10 26 will present to the pilot an exact three dimensional
of the pointer 67 with respect to the nose d7 of the replica
duplication of the attitude of the aircraft with respect to
as shown in FIGURE 4. From the above description it
the earth at all times. For example, upward or down
can be seen that upward or downward movement of the
rod Si} by operation of the servo motor 55 will cause an
ward movement of the nose 47 will show the pitch of the
aircraft and any upward or downward movement of the
upward or downward movement of the pointer member
above described.
Similarly, the upper end of rod 51 is ?xedly connected
wing tips 45 and 46 with respect to the compass ring will
duplicate any bank or roll. The heading of the aircraft
will clearly be shown on the compass ring. A pilot will
be able to utilize this information and grasp its sig
to one end of a horizontally extending arm 71 for move
ni?cance since it is presented to him in a manner in which
67 (glide path indicator) by operation of the linkage
ment therewith.
The other end of rod 71 is pivotally
connected to one end of a downwardly extending arm
he is accustomed to receiving it during visual ?ying
conditions.
72 which in turn is pivotally connected at its other end
It can also be seen from the above description that en
to one end of an arm 73 forming an integral part of an
route and landing navigational information can be super
L-shaped element 74. The other arm 75 of the L-shaped
link element 74 extends upwardly and through a slot 76
formed in a relatively flat circular plate 77 located in
imposed on the replica 20 and thus easily interpreted by
the relationship of this latter information and that pre
sented by the replica 26. As explained above, the opera
tion of servo motor 60 according to the signal received
from a receiver 15 will be clearly discernible by the posi
tion of the course bar 78 with respect to the heading in
the plane of the replica 26‘. Plate 77, being of lesser di
ameter than the corresponding inner diameter of the hole
formed in the replica Z6}, is free‘to rotate about its ver
tical axis with respect to the replica 2d and the arm 75
has a course bar 78 attached at an angle thereto and
parallel with the plane of the replica 2t)‘ and the plate 77
for reasons hereinafter to be described. The lower end
of arm 74 which also forms the other extremity of arm
73 is connected, as at 86, for pivotal movement, to a
downwardly extending arm till integrally formed on collar
32. This collar 82 is in turn ?xedly attached to a vertically
extending rotatable rod 83 of diameter less than the inner
diameter of hollow rods 56 and 51 and rotatably received
dicator 92.
As is well-known, the direction to a range
signal transmitter can be selected as a course, or pre
selected navigational path of travel, and any ‘deviation
from that selected course will be immediately recognized
by the movement of the course bar 78 to the right or to
the left of center. For example, if the desired heading
indicator 92. is directed toward a known range transmitter
as the selected heading (which selection is easily accom
plished in our instrument by manipulation of the knob
96 above explained to rotate plate 77 and course bar 78
therein so as to be free to rotate the L-shaped member 40 to any desired heading) the gyroscopic compass and its
74 and the circular plate 77 for a purpose hereinafter
associated servo motors will maintain the course bar 78
described.
on this heading. Any deviation or drift due to Winds or
From the above description it can be seen that any up
ward and downward movement of the arm 56 by opera
tion of the servo motor 64} will cause upward and down
ward movement of the arm 71 which in turn causes the
otherwise will be discernible by the angular or lateral
change, respectively, in position of the course bar.
L-shaped member 74- to pivotally rotate about pivot point
St) to move the course bar '78 to the right or to the left
as viewed in FIGURE 2.
To accommodate control of the means indicating the
desired heading of the aircraft according to signals re
Similarly, upon landing approaches signals received in
the glide slope receiver 16 which is connected to the servo
motor 55 will cause a deviation of the glide slope pointer
67 with respect to the nose 47 of the replica 20‘. Any
displacement of the aircraft upwardly or downwardly
from the correct glide path will be immediately discernible
by the relative position of the pointer 47 and the pointer
67. Also any displacement of the aircraft to the right or
ceived from a range transmitter as will be explained, the
plate-like member 77 is ?xedly attached to the rod 83 for
to the left of the localizer beam will be immediately
discernible by the position to the right or to the left of
rotatable movement therewith. The other end of the rod
the course bar 7%}. Proper interpretation of this informa
83 extends below and beyond the hollow rods 54} and 51
55
tion and correction of the pilot’s errors in the attitude
and is connected to a flexible cable 84 through a suitable
or location of the aircraft will be obvious. Also, the
gearing means or the like, such as bevel gears 85. The
precise position of the aircraft itself with respect to the
other end of the ?exible cable is suitably attached in any
horizon can be immediately perceived by the position of
convenient manner to another rod 86 which in turn is
the replica 2t) with respect to the compass ring. Further
connected to a servo motor or like device 87 by means
60 explanation of the operation of these enroute and land
of a gearing means or like devices 88. For convenience
ing navigational instruments herein is deemed unnecessary
in selecting the desired heading to correspond to the di
since their operation is conventional and ‘well-known. It
rection of a range or radio guiding means, a suitable knob
is important to note that this information is presented to
90 is connected to the shaft 66 and disposed in such a
the pilot in relationship to the aircraft with respect to a
manner so as to disengage the gearing means 86 to per
65 localizer or range transmitter beam or glide slope path.
mit the knob to rotate the ?exible shaft 84 which in
Further uses of such instrumentation as in holding pro
turn will rotate the shaft 83, the plate 77, and the course
cedures, localizer interpretation, etc. are apparent and it
bar 78 through the gearing means 85, as desired. In this
is to be equally obvious that our invention has eliminated
manner, the servo motor or like device 87 which is suit
ably synchronized to an output servo motor or like device 70 many instruments presently necessary.
It is to be noted, also, that our device is a rather simple,
91 of a gyroscopic compass (either the compass which
operates servo motor 35 or a separate one) will control
compact instrument and, as shown, is surrounded by the
enclosure 24 so that it may be conveniently located for
the movement of the plate-like member 77 according to
viewing by the pilot. Enclosure 24 encloses our instru
the signals received in the gyroscopic compass in the con—
ment by a diagonally located plate 93 conveniently ?tted
ventional manner. A suitable pointer such as 92 (see 75
over and attached to the base member :24 and the en
3,045,483
closure is provided with suitable false ‘bases or cavities 94
to conceal any of the wiring and the servo motors as desir
able. While we have shown the enclosure as suitable for
mounting on an instrument panel, obviously, our inven
tion is equally well suited for mounting on a pedestal or
any other convenient place.
From the foregoing description of our invention, it can
3. In an aircraft having gyroscopic attitude and azimuth
sensing means; a ?ight instrument having means connected
to said gyroscopic means for indicating the pitch, bank,
and yaw of the aircraft; means de?ning a replica of said
aircraft within said instrument and ?xed on said aircraft
for indicating the attitude and direction of the aircraft by
relative movement between said replica and said ?rst
mentioned means, said replica having a longitudinal di
be seen that our invention comprises in its broadest aspects
mension as a facsimile of a fuselage and disposed substan
a three dimensional simulation of the activity of an aircraft
with respect to the earth coupled with a convenient man 10 tially parallel to the main axis of the aircraft fuselage and
a lateral dimension as a facsimile of a wing and disposed
ner of presenting enroute and landing information to the
pilot.
While the various parts herein have been described as
upper or lower or in a left or right position, such descrip
tion refers only to the relative position of the parts as
shown in the drawings and is not intended to be a limita
tion of the invention.
We claim:
substantially parallel to the main axis of the aircraft Wing;
said replica being mounted in permanent alignment and
relationship with said aircraft, said second mentioned
means comprising compass ring means horizontally dis
posed and controlled to maintain parallel relationship with
the horizon and orientation in azimuth and surrounding
the replica but movable relative thereto so that the lon
1. In an aircraft having gyroscopic attitude and azi
muth sensing means; a ?ight instrument having means
connected to said gyroscopic means for indicating the
pitch, bank, and yaw of the aircraft; means de?ning a
replica of said aircraft within said instrument and ?xed on
said aircraft for indicating the attitude and direction of the
aircraft by relative movement between said replica and said
?rst mentioned means, said replica having a longitudinal
gitudinal and lateral dimensions of the replica each by
their relationship with the surrounding compass ring means
dimension as a facsimile of a fuselage and disposed sub
from a pre-determined course path.
4. In an aircraft having gyroscopic attitude and azimuth
sensing means; a ?ight instrument having means connected
stantially parallel to the main axis of the aircraft fuselage
and a lateral dimension as a facsimile of a Wing and dis
when viewed perspectively will assume a three-dimensional
effect indicating the exact heading and the attitude that
the aircraft has with the horizon; and means comprising
a course bar superimposed on said attitude indicating
means and said replica and responsive to a signal received
in said aircraft for indicating displacement of the aircraft
posed substantially parallel to the main axis of the aircraft 30 to said gyroscopic means for indicating the pitch, bank,
wing; said replica being mounted in permanent align
ment and relationship with said aircraft, said second men
tioned means comprising compass ring means horizontally
disposed and controlled to maintain parallel relationship
with the horizon and orientation in azimuth and surround
ing the replica but movable relative thereto so that the
longitudinal and lateral dimensions of the replica each
by their relationship with the surrounding compass ring
means when viewed perspectively will assume a three
dimensional effect indicating the exact heading and the
attitude that the aircraft has with the horizon; and means
superimposed on said attitude indicating means and said
replica and responsive to a signal received in said aircraft
for indicating displacement of the aircraft from a pre
determined navigational path.
‘2. In an aircraft having gyroscopic attitude and azi
muth sensing means; a ?ight instrument having means
connected to said gyroscopic means for indicating the
pitch, bank and yaw of the aircraft; means de?ning a
and yaw of the aircraft; means de?ning a replica of said
aircraft within said instrument and ?xed on said aircraft
for indicating the attitude and direction of the aircraft
by relative movement between said replica and said ?rst
mentioned means, said replica having a longitudinal di
mension as a facsimile of a fuselage and disposed sub
stantially parallel to the main axis of the aircraft fuselage
and a lateral dimension as a facsimile of a wing and dis
posed substantially parallel to the main axis of the air
craft wing; said replica being mounted in permanent align
ment and relationship with said aircraft, said second men
tioned means comprising compass ring means horizontally
disposed and controlled to maintain parallel relationship
with the horizon and orientation in azimuth and sur
rounding the replica but movable relative thereto so that
the longitudinal and lateral dimensions of the replica
each by their relationship with the surrounding compass
ring means when viewed perspectivcly will assume a
three-dimensional effect indicating the exact heading and
replica of said aircraft within said instrument and ?xed 50 the attitude that the aircraft has with the horizon; means
superimposed on said attitude indicating means and said
on said aircraft for indicating the attitude and direction
replica and responsive to a signal received in said air
of the aircraft by relative movement between said replica
craft for indicating displacement of the aircraft from a
and said ?rst mentioned means, said replica having a lon
pre-determined course path; and means comprising pointer
gitudinal dimension as a facsimile of a fuselage and
disposed substantially parallel to the main axis of the air 55 means cooperating with said replica and responsive to a
signal received in said aircraft for indicating displacement
craft fuselage and a lateral dimension as a facsimile of a
of the aircraft from a pre-determined glide path.
wing and disposed substantially parallel to the main axis
5. In an aircraft having gyroscopic attitude and azimuth
of the aircraft wing; said replica being mounted in per
sensing means; a ?ight instrument having means connected
manent alignment and relationship with said aircraft, said
to said gyroscopic means for indicating the pitch, bank,
second mentioned means comprising compass ring means
and yaw of the aircraft; means de?ning a replica of said
horizontally disposed and controlled to maintain parallel
aircraft within said instrument and ?xed on said aircraft
relationship with the horizon and orientation in azimuth
for indicating the attitude and direction of the aircraft
and surrounding the replica but movable relative thereto
by relative movement between said replica and said ?rst
so that the longitudinal and lateral dimensions of the re
plica each by their relationship with the surrounding 65 mentioned means, said replica having a longitudinal di
mension as a facsimile of a fuselage and disposed sub
compass ring means when viewed perspectively will as
stantially parallel to the main axis of the aircraft fuselage
sume a three-dimensional effect indicating the exact head
and a lateral dimension as a facsimile of a Wing and dis
ing and the attitude that the aircraft has with the hori
posed substantially parallel to the main axis of the air
zon; means superimposed on said attitude indicating
means and said replica and responsive to a signal received 70 craft wing; said replica being mounted in permanent
alignment and relationship with said aircraft, said second
in said aircraft for indicating displacement of the air
mentioned means comprising compass ring means hori
craft from a pre-determined course path; and means co
zontally disposed and controlled to maintain parallel re
operating with said replica and responsive to a signal re
ceived in said aircraft for indicating displacement of the
lationship with the horizon and orientation in azimuth
aircraft from a pro-determined glide path.
75 and surrounding the replica but movable relative thereto
8,045,483
@
‘id
so that'the longitudinal and lateral dimensions of the
ing pointer means cooperating with the nose of said replica
and responsive to a signal received in said aircraft whereby
displacement of said pointer means indicates displacement
of the aircraft from a pre-determined glide path.
8. In an aircraft having gyroscopic attitude and azimuth
replica by their relationship with the surrounding compass
ring means when viewed pertpectively will assume a three
dimensional effect indicating the exact heading and the
attitude that the aircraft has with the horizon; and means
comprising a course bar superimposed on said attitude
sensing means; a ?ight instrument having means connected
indicating means and said replica and responsive to a
signal received in said aircraft whereby displacement of
to said gyroscopic means for indicating the pitch, bank,
and yaw of the aircraft; means de?ning a replica of said
said course ‘bar from center indicates displacement of
aircraft within said instrument and ?xed on said aircraft
the aircraft from a pre-determined course path.
10 for indicating the attitude and direction of the aircraft
6. In an aircraft having gyroscopic attitude and azimuth
by relative movement between said replica and said
sensing means; a ?ight instrument having means connected
?rst-mentioned means, said replica having a longitudinal
to said gyroscopic means for indicating the pitch, bank,
dimension as a facsimile of a fuselage and disposed sub
and yaw of the aircraft; means de?ning a replica of said
stantially parallel to the main axis of the aircraft fuselage
aircraft within said instrument and ?xed on said aircraft
and a lateral dimension as a facsimile of a wing and dis
for indicating the attitude and direction of the aircraft
posed substantially parallel to the main axis of the air
by relative movement between said replica and said ?rst
craft Wing; said replica having a nose aligned with the
mentioned means, said replica having a longitudinal di
longitudinal dimension of the replica, and said replica
mension as a facsimile of a fuselage and disposed sub
being mounted in permanent alignment and relationship
stantially parallel to the main axis of the aircraft fuselage
with said aircraft, said second mentioned means com
prising compass ring means horizontally disposed and
controlled to maintain parallel relationship with the
horizon and orientation in azimuth and surrounding the
longitudinal dimension of the replica, and said replica
replica but movable relative thereto so that the longi
being mounted in permanent alignment and relationship 25 tudinal and lateral dimensions of the replica by their re
with said aircraft, said second mentioned means com
lationship with the surrounding compass ring means when
prising compass ring means horizontally disposed and
viewed perspectively will assume a three-dimensional effect
controlled to maintain parallel relationship with the
indicating the exact heading and the attitude that the
horizon and orientation in azimuth and surrounding the
aircraft has with the horizon; and means cooperating
replica but movable relative thereto so that the longi 30 with the nose‘ of said replica and responsive to a signal
tudinal and lateral dimensions of the replica by their re
received in said aircraft for indicating displacement of
lationship with the surrounding compass ring means when
the aircraft from a pre-determined glide path.
viewed perspectively will assume a three-dimensional
9. In an aircraft having gyroscopic attitude and azimuth
effect indicating the exact heading and the attitude that
sensing means; a flight instrument having means connected
the aircraft has with the horizon; means de?ning a course 35 to said gyroscopic means for indicating the pitch, bank,
bar superimposed on said attitude indicating means and
and yaw of the aircraft; means de?ning a replica of said
said replica and responsive to a signal received in said
aircraft within said instrument and ?xed on said aircraft
aircraft whereby displacement of said course bar from
for indicating the attitude and direction of the aircraft
center indicates any displacement of the aircraft from a
by relative movement between said replica and said ?rst
pre-determined course path; and means comprising pointer 40 mentioned means, said replica having a longitudinal di
and a lateral dimension as a facsimile of a wing and
disposed substantially parallel to the main axis of the air~
craft Wing; said replica having a nose aligned with the
means cooperating with the nose of said replica and re
mension as a facsimile of a fuselage and disposed sub
sponsive to a signal received in said aircraft whereby dis
placement of said pointer means from the nose of said
replica indicates displacement of the aircraft from a pre
stantially parallel to the main axis of the aircraft fuselage
craft wing; said replica having a nose aligned with the
on said attitude indicating means and said replica and
responsive to a signal received in said aircraft for in
dicating displacement of the aircraft from a pre-deter
mined navigational path; and means for selecting the
and a lateral dimension as a facsimile of a wing and dis
posed substantially parallel to the main axis of the air
determined glide path.
45 craft wing; said replica having a nose aligned with the
7. In an aircraft having gyroscopic attitude and azimuth
longitudinal dimension of the replica, and said replica
sensing means; a flight instrument having means connected
being mounted in permanent alignment and relationship
to said gyroscopic means for indicating the pitch, bank,
with said aircraft, said second mentioned means com
and yaw of the aircraft; means de?ning a replica of said
prising compass ring means horizontally disposed and
aircraft within said instrument and ?xed on said aircraft 50 controlled to maintain parallel relationship with the
for indicating the attitude and direction of the aircraft
horizon and orientation in azimuth and surrounding the
by relative movement between said ‘replica and said ?rst
replica but movable relative thereto so that the longi
mentioned means, said replica having a longitudinal di
tudinal and lateral dimensions of the replica by their
mension as a facsimile of a fuselage and disposed sub
relationship with the surrounding compass ring means
stantially parallel to the main axis of the aircraft fuselage 55 when viewed perspectively will assume a three-dimensional
and a lateral dimension as a facsimile of a wing and dis
effect indicating the exact heading and the attitude that
posed substantially parallel to the main axis of the air
the aircraft has ‘with the horizon; means superimposed
longitudinal dimension of the replica, and said replica
being mounted in permanent alignment and relationship
with said aircraft, said second mentioned means com
prising compass ring means horizontally disposed and
controlled to maintain parallel relationship with the
pre-determined navigational path.
10. In an aircraft having bank responsive, heading re
horizon and orientation in azimuth and surrounding the
sponsive, and pitch responsive mechanisms; an aircraft
replica but movable relative thereto so that the longi 65 instrument visible to the pilot; means in said instrument
tudinal and lateral dimensions of the replica by their
connected to said bank, heading, and pitch responsive
relationship with the surrounding compass ring means
mechanisms for indicating to the pilot the bank, heading
when viewed perspectively will asume a three-dimensional
and pitch of the aircraft, said means including means de
effect indicating the exact heading and the attitude that
?ning a two-dimensional replica of said aircraft having a
the aircraft has with the horizon; means comprising a 70 ?rst dimension disposed parallel to the main axis of the
course bar superimposed on said attitude indicating means
aircraft fuselage and a second dimension disposed parallel
and said replica and responsive to a signal received in
to the main axis of the aircraft Wing, the ?rst said means
said aircraft whereby displacement of said course bar
including compass ring means horizontally disposed and
from center indicates any displacement of the aircraft
controlled by said mechanisms to maintain a parallel re
from a pre-determined course path; and means compris 75 lationship with the horizon and orientation in azimuth,
3,045,483
1l
12
the said compass ring means surrounding said replica but
movable relative thereto so that said replica and its rela
tionship to the surrounding ring means when viewed per
said instrument having means connected to said bank,
heading, and pitch responsive mechanisms for indicating
to the pilot the bank, heading and pitch of the air
craft, the second said means including compass ring
spectively will assume a three-dimensional effect indicat
ing the exact heading and the attitude that the aircraft CI means horizontally disposed and controlled by said mech
anisms to maintain a parallel relationship with the hori
has with the horizon; and means superimposed on said
zon and orientation in azimuth, the said compass ring
indicating means for indicating aircraft displacement
means surrounding said replica but movable relative there—
from a pre-determined navigational path.
to so that said replica and its relationship to the sur
11. In an aircraft having bank responsive, heading re~
sponsive, and pitch responsive mechanisms; an aircraft 10 rounding ring means when viewed perspectively will as
instrument visible to the pilot; means in said instrument
sume a three~dimensional effect indicating the exact head
connected to said bank, heading, and pitch responsive
mechanisms for indicating to the pilot the bank, heading
ing and the attitude that the aircraft has with the horizon;
and means comprising a course bar superimposed on
said replica for indicating aircraft displacement from a
and pitch of the aircraft, said means including means de
?ning a two-dimensional replica of said aircraft having 15 pre-determined course path.
15. In an aircraft having bank responsive, heading
a ?rst dimension disposed parallel to the main axis of the
responsive, and pitch responsive mechanisms; an aircraft
aircraft fuselage and a second dimension disposed parallel
instrument visible to the pilot, means de?ning an aircraft
to the main axis of the aircraft wing, the ?rst said means
including compass ring means horizontally disposed and
replica having a fuselage parallel to the aircraft fuselage
controlled by said mechanisms to maintain a parallel re
and a wing parallel to the aircraft wing in said instru
ment, said instrument having means connected to said
lationship with the horizon and orientation in azimuth, the
said compass ring means surrounding said replica but mov
able relative thereto so that said replica and its relation
ship to the surrounding ring means when viewed per
bank, heading, and pitch responsive mechanisms for in
dicating to the pilot the bank, heading and pitch of the
indicating means for indicating any aircraft displacement
from a pre-determined navigational path and from a pre
aircraft, the second said means including compass ring
means horizontally disposed and controlled by said mech
anisms to maintain a parallel relationship with the hori
zon and orientation in azimuth, the said compass ring
means surrounding said replica but movable relative there
to so that said replica and its relationship to the surround
determined path of glide.
ing ring means when viewed perspectively will assume a
spectively will assume a three-dimensional effect indicat
ing the exact heading and the attitude that the aircraft
has with the horizon; and means superimposed on said
12. In an aircraft having bank responsive, heading re
sponsive, and pitch responsive mechanisms; an aircraft
instrument visible to the pilot; means de?ning an aircraft
replica having a fuselage parallel to the aircraft fuselage
and a wing parallel to the aircraft wing in said instru
ment, said instrument having means connected to said
bank, heading, and pitch responsive mechanisms for in—
dicating to the pilot the bank, heading and pitch of the
aircraft, the second said means including compass ring
means horizontally disposed and controlled by said mech
anisms to maintain a parallel relationship with the hori
zon and orientation in azimuth, the said compass ring
means surrounding said replica but movable relative
thereto so that said replica and its relationship to the
surrounding ring means when viewed perspectively will
assume a three-dimensional effect indicating the exact
heading and the attitude that the aircraft has with the
horizon; and means superimposed on said replica for in
dicating the aircraft displacement from a pre-determined
navigational path.
13. In an aircraft having bank responsive, heading
responsive, and pitch responsive mechanisms; an aircraft
three-dimensional effect indicating the exact heading and
the aircraft has with the horizon; means comprising a
course bar superimposed on said replica for indicating
aircraft displacement from a pre-determined course path;
and means comprising pointer means movable with re
spect to the nose of said replica for indicating displace
ment of the aircraft from a pre-determined path of glide,
and from a pre-determined heading.
16. In combination with an aircraft having gyroscopic
attitude and azimuth sensing means, an aircraft attitude in
dicator comprising an aircraft replica having nose means
and wing means mounted in permanent alignment and
relationship with said aircraft to simulate said aircraft,
compass ring means horizontally disposed and surround
ing said replica, said replica and said compass ring being
mounted in movable relationship with each other and the
compass ring being gyroscopically controlled by said ?rst
mentioned means to maintain a parallel relationship with
the horizon and stabilized in azimuth, said nose means
and using means being closely adjacent the ring means
instrument visible to the pilot; means de?ning an aircraft
so that their position above or below the ring means indi
cates the pitch and bank of the aircraft with respect to
replica having a fuselage parallel to the aircraft fuselage
the horizon clearly and directly and whereby the position
and a wing parallel to the aircraft wing in said instru 55 of the nose circumferentially of the compass ring repre
ment, said instrument having means connected to said
sents the aircraft orientation in azimuth.
bank, heading, and pitch responsive mechanisms for in
17. The combination claimed in claim 16 wherein said
dicating to the pilot the bank, heading and pitch of the
compass ring means comprises an enclosure means sur
aircraft, the second said means including compass ring
rounding said replica.
means horizontally disposed and controlled by said mech
18. In an aircraft having gyroscopic attitude and azi
anisms to maintain a parallel relationship with the hori
muth sensing means, an aircraft attitude indicator com
zon and orientation in azimuth, the said compass ring
prising means de?ning a replica of an aircraft having
means surrounding said replica but movable relative there
nose means and wing means, means de?ning a compass
to so that said replica and its relationship to the sur
ring disposed about said replica, said replica being dis
rounding ring means when viewed perspectively will as 65
posed in close proximity to said compass ring in sub
sume a three-dimensional effect indicating the exact head
stantially coplanar relationship therewith but in perma
ing and the attitude that the aircraft has with the horizon;
nent alignment and relationship to said aircraft to move
and means superimposed on said replica for indicating
therewith, said compass ring being movably mounted and
aircraft displacement from a pre-determined course path
gyroscopically controlled by said ?rst mentioned means to
and from a pre-determined path of glide.
70 maintain a parallel relationship with the horizon and
14. In an aircraft having bank responsive, heading re
stabilized in azimuth, both said replica and said compass
sponsive, and pitch responsive mechanisms; an aircraft
ring
being arranged in said aircraft to be viewed perspec
instrument visible to the pilot, means de?ning an aircraft
tively so that the nose and wings and their relationship
replica having a fuselage parallel to the aircraft fuselage
and a wing parallel to the aircraft wing in said instrument, 75 to said compass ring simulates the aircraft attitude with
3,045,483
13
14
the horizon in the same manner and in the same way that
the pilot visualizes the aircraft itself with the horizon.
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
1,726,643
1,975,442
2,323,897
2,467,412
Borresen ____________ __
Allen _______________ __
Carter ______________ _._
Walthen _____________ __
Sept.
Oct.
July
Apr.
3,
2,
13,
19,
1929
1934
1943
1949
2,567,212
2,685,226
2,700,898
2,747,293
2,782,395
2,796,594
Klopp et al ___________ __ Sept. 11, 1951
Crane _______________ __ Aug. 3, 1954
Fragola et a1. ________ __ Feb. 1, 1955
Lyons _______________ __ May 29', 1956
Hammond ___________ _._ Feb. 19, 1957
Chombard ___________ __ June 18, 1957
FOREIGN PATENTS
349,026
Great Britain _________ __ May 19, 1931
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
0
Размер файла
1 355 Кб
Теги
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа