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July 24, 1962 w. J. DIETER ETAL 3,045,617 CAN OPENER Filed March 10, 1958 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 WILLIAM J. DIE TER, BY JOHN H. SGHROEDER AND .PH/LIP F FLY/WV ATTORNEYS ‘July 24, 1962 w. J. DIETER ET AL 3,045,617 CAN OPENER‘ Filed March 10, 1958 ma 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 m ,R E, *3 374 % WW1 M m MwmPmum.n MHW) W1.M.5M¢mrMM” MAM50”T mum.f“R5,~m,“ 4,, _ w N T 0. rim _ tattis artist?‘ Patented July 24, 19552 2 l opener embodying certain aspects of the present inven _ _ 3,tl45,617 tion and showing the opener in a position wherein a can CAN @PENER may be connected thereto for opening; FIG. 2 is another perspective view of the device of FIG. 1 showing the opener in the position where a can William J. Dieter, John H. Schroeder, and Philip F. Flynn, Naperville, Ill., assignors to En Page Frecision Products (10., Naperville, Ill, a corporation of Illinois Filed Mar. 10, 1958, Ser. No. 720,196 11 Claims. (Cl. 113-1) _ would be locked thereto for opening the same; FIG. 3 is an enlarged side elevational view of the can The present invention relates to can openers, and more particularly to a new ‘and improved can opener which is adapted to remove the cover from a can without severing either the cover or the can and without coming in con tact with the contents in the can in any way. There are presently in use a substantial number of opener of the present invention showing the locking mechanism in its two extreme positions; FIG. 4 is a bottom plan view of the can opener of the present invention; FIG. 5 is a sectional view taken along the line 5—-5 of FIG. 3 ; , FIG. 6 is a fragmentary sectional view taken along vending machines which ‘dispense various types of food 15 the line 6—-6 of FIG. 4; ‘ such ‘as drinks and soups from sealed‘ containers or cans FIG. 7 is a sectional view through the seam opening which must be-opened before the contents can be con sumed. Preferably, a large number of these cans are stored in each machine and each can contains an indi roller used in the device of the present invention; FIG. 8-is a plan view of the curling roller employed vidual serving of food. Accordingly, when operation of 20 in the device of the present invention; FIG. 9 is a greatly enlarged, fragmentary sectional the machine is initiated by any suitable means such as the insertion therein of a proper coin or check, the de livered can must be opened. To this end can openers view showing a can ‘when ?rst placed in the opener of the present invention for removal of the cover thereof; FIG. 10 is an enlarged, fragmentary sectional view are associated with such dispenser. To fully comply similar to that in FIG. 9 but showing the seam opening with the regulations of the Food and Drug Administra 25 ‘roller in engagement with the can and in the process of tion, such can openers must not in any way be capable opening the seam which joins the cover to the can; of contaminating food. In order to prevent contamina FIG. 11 is an enlarged, fragmentary sectional view similar to FIGS. 9 land 10 showing the curling roller in engagement ‘with thecan cover and rolling the cover 01f the’ edge of the associated can; FIG. 12 is an enlarged sectional view showing the shapes of the cover and can at the completion of the tion of the food, it is desirable that no parts of the can opener actually contact the food. Therefore, it is im portant to employ with such vending machines a can opener which does not contact the contents of the can ‘ being opened. Likewise, there should be not cutting of the metal parts with the production of sharp edges and opening operation; and the like. FIG. 13 is a somewhat schematic, enlarged sectional view of the curling roller of the present invention look While these features described above are particularly ing upwardly with reference to FIGS. 10 and 11, illus desirable for can openers used with vending machines, trating its relative position with respect to the can being they are equally desirable in can openers used in domestic opened, and illustrating the transition ‘from the condition and commercial kitchens. However, can openers which of the can and cover of FIG. 10 to the condition shown are used ‘for domestic purposes should at least be such that no sharp edges are produced on either the can or its 40 in FIG. 11. Referring now to the drawings, and particularly to cover, and it would be desirable, although not necessary, that once the cover is removed by the can opener it could FIGS. 1 to 4 thereof, there is shown a can opener 20 which comprises a support or body member 21 includ be placed on the can for temporary protection of its contents. ing an arm 22 having near one end thereof an o?set por Therefore, a principal object of the present invention 45 tion or platform 23 ‘and at the other end thereof an aper tured bracket 24 for facilitating mounting of the opener’ is to provide a new and improved can opener. on a supporting wall or the like by means of a plurality of screws 25. A chuck 26, for rotatably supporting a can to be opened, is suitably journaled as by a shaft 26a ‘A further object of the present invention is to provide 50 in the offset portion or platform 23, and a bracket 27 in which a set of spaced rollers 28v and 29 are journaled is a new and improved can opener which removes the cover Another object of the present invention is to provide . a new and improved can opener whichremoves the cover ‘from a can without contacting the contents of the can. from a can without severing either‘ the cover or the can. pivotally mounted on the support member 21 so as to enable limited relative motion between the rollers 28 and 29 and the chuck 26. The bracket 27 is mounted to pivot 55 about a ?xed pivot 32 mounted on sup-port 21. A lock from a can and, moreover, which so shapes the cover and ing lever 31 having a hand engaging portion 31a is piv the can that the cover may again be placed on the can otally mounted as indicated at 39 (FIG. 3) to the body for temporary protection of the contents thereof. or support member 21 at ‘the end thereof remote ‘from Brie?y, the above and further objects are realized in bracket 24 and islconnected' to the bracket 27 by means accordance with the present invention by providing a can opener comprising a support member for rotatably 60 of a suitable linkage 33 so that the locking lever 31 con trols the relative positions of the rollers 28 and 29 with supporting a can, a first roller for engaging‘ said can be respect to the chuck 26. As illustrated, the linkage 33 tween the wall of the can'Iand a lock seam which secures is connected at one end to bracket 27 by pivot pin 33a the cover to the can, and a second roller which engages and at the other‘ end to lever 31 by pivot pin 33b. As the periphery of the cover after the seam has been spread out by ‘the ?rst roller and curls the periphery of the cover 65 shown in FIG. 4, the rollers 28 and 29‘ are connected to gether by suitable gearing 34- so as to be rotatable in uni back off the adjoining edge of the can. son and in the same direction'by a crank 35 which is di The invention, both as to its organization and method rectly‘ connected to the roller 28. As illustrated, the of operation, together with further objects and advan gearing 34- comprises gears 34a, 34b and 34c, the gears tages thereof, will best be understood by reference to the following detailed description taken in connection with 70 34a and 34b being secured to the shafts 36 and 37, re Another object of the present invention is to provide a new ‘and improved can opener which removes the cover the accompanying drawings, in which: FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a hand-operated can spectively, supporting the rollers 28 and 29, respective ly, while the ‘gear 34c is rotatable about a stationary shaft 3,045,617 u? 4 38. The crank 35, having a hand engaging portion 35a, the manner described hereinbefore, the covered can is pressed against the bottom of the chuck 26 so that a de may be attached to either of the shafts 36 or 37, but is speci?cally illustrated as attached to the shaft 36. The can opener 20 which is used to illustrate a num ber of aspects of the present invention is designed for manual operation. Nevertheless, it will be understood by those skilled in the art that the shaft 36 and some thnes even the lever 31 may be operated by electric motors or the like. However, since the principle of op pending cylindrical portion 47 on the chuck 26 extends into the central depressed portion of the cover 42 and engages the cover 42 along a circular line 48 which is approximately opposite the lower end of the seam 43. With the bottom edge of the chuck 26 thus engaging the inner wall of the cover 42, a shoulder 49 on the chuck 26 engages the uppermost part of the cover 42. By eration of the can opener is the same whether it is man 10 properly dimensioning the chuck 26 for a particular size fully or automatically operated, an understanding of the of can, a relatively tight ?t may be provided between invention is facilitated by describing it in connection with the chuck 26 and the cover 42 along the circular line 48. a hand-operated device. _ With the can thus mounted on the chuck 26, as the In order to facilitate an understanding of the functions lever 31 is moved from the position shown in FIG. 1 to of the various parts of the can opener 20‘ before consider 15 that shown in FIG. 2 thereby to move the roller 28 ing the detailed con?guration of these parts, a brief de toward the chuck 26, the periphery 51 of the roller 28 scription of ‘the over-all operation of the opener 20 may is moved over the adjoining surface of the can 41 into the be helpful. It will be appreciated that in order to use space between this can 41 and the adjacent surface of the can opener 20 to remove the cover from a can, the the curled~over end’ of the cover ‘42. As shown in FIG. locking lever 31 is pivoted into engagement with the arm 20 10, the active surface 51 of roller 28 is beveled so that 22 of the support member 21, as shown in FIG. 1, so this movement of the roller 28 into the seam 43 forces that the rollers 28 and 29 ‘and their shafts 36 and 37, re the edge of the can 41 and the surrounding portion 45 spectively, are moved as a unit with bracket 27 a sub of the cover upwardly away from the body of the can stantial distance away from the chuck 26. This position and against the shoulder 49 so that the outwardly ex of the rollers 28 and 29 is shown in phantom in FIG. 3. tending portions of the can 41 and of the cover 42 lie A sealed can, generally designated at 41 (FIG. 2), to be in a plane which is substantially perpendicular to the opened, can then be placed with the cover thereof in en principal longitudinal axis of the can 41, as clearly in gagement with the bottom of the chuck 26 so that part dicated in FIG. 10 of the drawings. As yet, the cover of the lip of the can is positioned between the bottom of 42 is not released from the can 41 although the seal be the chuck and the upper edge of the roller 28. The lock 30 tween the cover 42 and the can 41 is broken when the ing lever 31 is then pivoted in a clockwise direction from lever 31 is operated to_ force the periphery 51 of the the position shown in FIG. 1 to the position shown in roller 28 into the seam. FIG. 2, thereby moving the rollers 28 and 29 toward the When the crank 35 is now rotated, the roller 28, which bottom of the chuck 26 and thus clamping the lip of the constitutes a seam opening roller, rolls around the can can between ‘the chuck 26 and the roller 28. The linkage 41 by virtue of a plurality of teeth 52 thereof (FIG. 7) 33, by virtue of the location of the pivot points 33a, 33b which engage the folded-over portion 45 of the cover 42 and 39, includes an over-center mechanism so that with and cause the can 41 and the chuck 46 to which it is at the lever 31 in the position illustrated in FIG. 2 the rollers tached to rotate. Accordingly, successive portions of the 28 and 29 cannot .move away ‘from the chuck 26 as the seam 43 are opened and pressed against the shoulder 49, result of any force exerted thereon due to variations in 40 as shown in FIG. 10, during rotation of the roller 28. the size or strength of the can land are effectively locked The portions of the seam 43 which have been opened in position. The crank 35 is then rotated in a counter to the position shown in FIG. 10 by the roller 28 are clockwise direction, as viewed in FIGS. 1 and 2, to cause next engaged by the roller 29 which constitutes a curling therollers 28 and 29 to rotate in the same direction as or seam releasing roller and which, as best shown in viewed in FIG. 1, and thereby progressively to release 45 FZG. 11, is tilted at a slight angle so that the face thereof ‘the-cover from the can as the top of the can rotates clockwise as viewed in FIG. 1. As the can rotates, suc cessive portions of the lip thereof move into engagement with the rollers 28 and 29 to release the cover from the is substantially parallel with a conical surface 53 on the chuck 26. The surface 53 terminates at the bottom, at the shoulder 49. The roller 29 thus engages the folded over portion 45 of the cover 42 thereby to press it up can. When the opening operation has been completed 50 wardly and against the conical surface 53 of the chuck and the cover is free from the can, the locking lever 31 26, curling the periphery of the cover back of the ad is rotated in a counterclockwise direction from the posi joining edge of the can. As shown in FIG. 11, once the tion of FIG. 2 to the position shown in FIG. 1, thereby roller 29 has traversed the entire periphery of the body moving the rollers 28 and 29 away ‘from the chuck 26 of can 41, the cover 42 is free and may be removed from and thereby enabling removal of the cover from the can. 55 the can as shown in FIG. 12. Although in FIGS. 9 to In FIGS. 9 to 12 of the drawings there are shown the 12 the U-shaped portion 44 of the can 41 is shown to successive steps involvedin the method of the present ‘be of sufficient length so that the edges of the can 41 invention for removing the cover from a can. Conven extend beyond the periphery of the shoulder 49 so that tionally, cans 41 in which food or the like is preserved the edge thereof is ‘bent upwardly by the curling roller comprise a cylindrical body portion to the ends of which 60 29, since this dimension of the cans is not held very are secured covers 42. Each cover is sealed to the can closely, the edge of some cans may not extend beyond body by means of a lock seam generally indicated at 43 the periphery of the shoulder 49. However, in either (FIG. 9) which comprises a U-shaped peripheral chan case, the ‘folded-over portion 45 of the cover 42 is moved nel 44 on the edge of the can 41, and an interlocking out of locking engagement with the can 41 by the action portion 45 on the periphery of the cover 42 which ?ts 65 of the curling roller ‘29. around the U-shaped end 44 and is received in the chan As best shown in FIG. 11, the face of the curling roller nel thereof. A hermetically ‘tight seal between the can 29 is centrally recessed at 56 to provide a raised peripheral 41 and the cover 42 is assured by means of a rubberlike surface in which a plurality of grooves 57 (FIG. 8) are sealing gasket 46 which ?lls the space between the can cut to provide a plurality of peripherally disposed teeth and cover within the seam 43 thereof. Also, an improved 58 which selectively engage the cover 42 thereby to assist seal is provided because the center portion of the cover in the rotation of the can 41 as the crank 35 is rotated. is depressed within the ends of the can 41 and portions Considering in greater detail the various parts of the of the cover abut against the inner wall of the can 41 can opener 20, and referring to FIGS. 1 to 5, the roller throughout a substantial area near the ends thereof. supporting bracket 27' is secured to a pair of ‘arms 69 In order to remove the cover 42 from the can 41 in 75 and 61 by means of a plurality of bolts 62, and the arms 8,045,617 6 60 and 61 extend‘ upwardly above the bracket 27 on. opposite sides of the body arm 22 for ‘pivotal connection thereto at the pivot point 32, As best shown in FIG. 3, and the shaft 260, which has a depending pontion 112 threadedly received in a tapped hole 113 in the chuck 26, extends :therethrough. A needle bearing assembly the upper ends of the arms ($17 and 61 and the arm 22 are 114- is interposed between the shaft 26a and the wall of apertured and a pintle de?ning the pivot point 32 ex the bore 110, and a resilient snap ring 115 is positioned tends the'rethrough. Accordingly, the bracket 27 is pivot in an annular groove 116 in the shaft 26a to prevent ex ally attached to the body member 20. cessive axial movement of the chuck 26. Because of the The locking lever 31 is provided with a bifurcated end relatively high force which is exerted upwardly on the 66, the tines of which extend on opposite sides of a chuck 26 during the opening of a can, a thrust bearing projection or ear 67 of the platform 23, and a pintle de 10 117 is interposed between the end of the shaft 26a and the ?ning the pivot 39 extends through suitable apertures in platform 23. the tines 66 and in the ear 67 thereby pivotally to secure Considered in greater detail and referring panticularly the lever 31 to the body member 211. The linkage 33 to FIGS. 3 and 5, the thrust bearing 117 comprises a U comprises a pair of linkage arms 71 and 72 which are shaped body member 118‘ which is secured at its ends disposed on opposite sides of the lever 31 and pivotally by suitable means such as bolts to the platform 23. The attached thereto by pivot means 330 and 33b. As shown upper end of the shaft ‘26w extends toward the high-t of best in FIGS. 1 to 3, the pivot means 33b is disposed in the body member 118. - The shaft 26a is prow'ded at its close proximity to the pintle de?ning the pivot 39 to upper end with a recess 12!). A steel ball 121 having a provide a'suitable lever arm to facilitate coupling of a diameter slightly less than that of rthe recess 120 is posi force from the lever 31 to the bracket 27 via the link tioned in said recess, and a ball retaining collar 122 hav age 33. ' ing a circular opening 123 in the top thereof is threaded The bracket'27 is‘ somewhat concave-convex in cross section (FIG. 4) and, as best shown in FIG. 5 of the drawings, includes an aperture 89 in the center portion thereof through which an enlarged shank 36a on the shaft 3-5 secured to the roller 28 extends. A suitable needle bearing assembly 82 is interposed between the shank 36a and the bore st} to provide a bearing journal in which the shaft 36 of roller 28 is rotated. As best shown in FIG. 6, a similar bore 83 is provided in the bracket 27 in spaced apart relationship from the bore 85, and an en larged shank 37a on the shaft 37 secured to the roller 29 extends therethrough. Also, a needle bearing assem— “in bly 35 is interposed between the shank 37a and the bore $3 to provide a suitable journal for the shaft 357 of the over the upper end of the shaft 26a. The center portion of the Ug-shaped member 118- is pro vided with a threaded aperture 126., and a machine'screw 127 having a concave lower end 128 is threaded therein so that the concave surface 128‘ engages the top of the ball 121. As best shown in FIG. 5, the radius of curvature of the recess 128 is substantially the same as the radius of the ball 121 so that a good thrust bearing is provided between the ball 121 and'the screw 127. Moreover, the set screw 127 enables adjustment of the relative positions of the shoulder 49 and the roller 28 thereby to enable ef?é cient operation of the can opener 20. While a particular type of thrust bearing 117 has been shown, it will be understood that any other suitable type of- thrust bearing may be used to restrain the upward movement of the The shaft 36 of roller 28 ?ts into the bore 87 of bevel chuck 26 While permitting the relatively free rotation gear 3dr: and the latter is secured to shaft 36 by means thereof in response to rotation of the crank 35. of a suitable set screw 9%} and the crank 35 is in turn se In view of the detailed description included above, the cured to the end of the gear 34a by means of a plurality operation of the can opener of the present invention will of screws 91 which extend through suitable apertures 92 readily be understood and no further discussion is in in the crank 35 and are threaded into tapped holes in cluded herewith. a shanklike extension of the gear'34a. Obviously, any While the present invention has been described with other means of uniting the handle 35, the gear 34a, the respect to a particular embodiment thereof, it will be shaft 36 and the roller 28 may be employed. 45 understood, of course, that it is not desired that the in In a similar manner, the gear 34b is secured to the ention be limited thereto, since changes and modi?cations shaft 27 by a set screw 9h. 7 may be made, and it is, therefore, contemplated by the The gear Me is effectively an idler ‘gear loosely mounted appended claims to cover all such changes and modi?ca on a bolt or stationary shaft 38. A washer 103 may be tions as fall within the true spirit and scope of the in interposed between the gear34c and the head of the roller 29. i bolt or shaft 38' to provide a bearing surface which en gages the adjoining surface of the idler gear 340. in accordance with the present invention and as best shown in FIG. 4, the axis ofrrotation of the roller 28 intersects the axis of rotation of the chuck 26. However, as best shown in FIGS. 4 and 13, the axis of rotation of the curling roller 29 is displaced from the axis of rotation of the chuck ‘26 so that only the leading edge of the roller 29 engages the folded-over pontion 45 of the cover 42 of can 41. Accordingly, there is no drag exerted on the can 41 by portions other than the leading edge of the roller 29 engaging it and, moreover, inasmuch as the trail ing edge of the rollerv 29 does not engage the portion of the cover 42' which is folded against the conical sur— face 53 of the chuck 26, it cannot engage this ‘folded-back portion of the cover and move it away from the surface 53 so that it might again interlock with the edge of the vention. . - What is claimed as new and desired to be secured by Letters Patent of the United States is: l. A can opener ‘for a can having a cover joined to a can body by a lock seam forming a channel between the can body and lock steam and comprising a frame including a support means for rotatably supporting a can to be opened, a ?rst roller having a beveled periphery for spreading out said seam away ‘from the body of the can, means pivoted to said frame for moving said roller ‘- into said channel in engagement with the lock seam join-i ing the cover with the body of said can, means for rotat ing said roller while in engagement with said can and cover to cause said can and cover to rotate whereby said ?rst roller effectively rolls around said seam to spread out said seam, a second roller for engaging said seam im mediately after it has been spread out by said ?rst roller for uncurling the edge of said cover back of the ad can 4'1. In a device built in accordance with the present joining edge of the body of the can to release it com invention, the axis of rotation of the roller 29 was dis pletely from said can without cutting either said cover placed by 4-° from the position it would occupy had it 70 or said can, and driving means for simultaneously rotat intersected the axis of rotation of the chuck 26. In this ing both of said rollers in the same direction. device [the conical surface 53 had an angular-ity of 4° 2. A can opener as set ‘forth in claim 1 above where and was, furthermore, parallel with the face of roller 29. in said frame additionally includes a ?xed portion and In order rotatably to mount the chuck 26 in the plat means for adjusting said support means relative to said form 23, the latter is provided with a bore 110 (FIG. 5 ), 75 ?xed portion of said frame are provided. ‘ 3,045,617 0 ca ?ange adapted to engage the underside of the folded 3. A can opener as set forth in claim 1 wherein said over portion of said cover. ?rst roller includes a plurality of teeth displaced from said periphery and engageable with said seam after it is 8. Apparatus as set forth in claim 4 wherein said chuck comprises a generally cylindrical member having at partially ‘folded back. 4. Apparatus vfor removing the covers from cans of the type having .a lock seam :for securing the cover to the can, one end thereof a depending cylindrical portion of re bracket, said roller having a beveled ?ange positionable from a radius of said can. in said channel between the side of said can and the 10. The can opener of claim 1 wherein said rollers are mounted on a part of said support means, which part duced diameter for reception in a depressed cen'tral por tion of said cover, said depending portion terminating in said lock seam comprising an outwardly directed a radial shoulder which engages the uppermost part of U-shaped channel on the edge of the can and an inter said cover throughout an annular area, and said chuck locking portion on the periphery of the cover which ?ts around the edge of the can and enters the channel thereof, 10 further comprises a generally conical cover engaging por tion disposed above and adjacent to said shoulder against said apparatus comprising a body member, a chuck jour which said curling roller forces said seam of said cover. naled in said body, said chuck having means thereon .for 9. The can opener of claim 1 wherein the axis of rota engaging the cover of a can, a support bracket pivotally tion of the rollers are ?xed relative to one another and mounted on said body member along an axis substantially said ?rst roller is disposed on a radius of said can and parallel to a plane perpendicular to the axis of rotation the axis of said second roller is disposed slightly askew of said chuck, a seam opening roller journaled in said portion of said cover which is disposed in said channel‘ for opening the channel and bending the lock seam hori~ zontally away from the can, a curling roller journaled in said bracket adjacent to said seam opening roller, said curling roller being positioned to engage said cover be is movable relative to another part thereof, and wherein said rollers are bodily movable as a unit with said one part toward and away from a can to be opened. 11. A chuck for use in a can opener, comprising a gen erally cylindrical member supported at one end and hav ing at the other end thereof a depending cylindrical por yond the end of said can after said seam has been opened and bent horizontally by said seam opening roller for bending the periphery of said seam upwardly and to bend tion of reduced diameter terminating at its upper end in a shoulder adapted to ?t in a depressed central portion the edge of said cover toward the center of said can. 5. A can opener comprising a body, a rotatable sup of a can cover and ‘a generally conical cover engaging portion adjoining said shoulder and disposed immedi port member mounted in said body, a bracket pivoted on said body, seam opening roller means journaled in said 30 ately above said shoulder, the diameter of said conical portion decreasing in an upward direction. bracket and movable by said bracket into a predetermined position with respect to said support, and adjustable means References Cited in the ?le of this patent interposed between said body and said support for ad UNITED STATES PATENTS justing the distance between said support and said roller means when said bracket is in said predetermined posi 859,838 Powers ______________ __ July 9, 1907 tion. 1,289,645 Burpee ______________ .._ Dec. 31, 1918 6. A can opener as set forth in claim 5 wherein a thrust bearing is connected between said support member and said ‘body, and said adjustable means constitutes a por tion of said thrust bearing. 7. A seam opening roller ‘for opening a can of the type including a body portion and a cover and comprising a generally cylindrical member having a beveled externally directed annular ?ange at one end adapted to be moved between a lock seam formed by the cover and can and the body of the can, and a plurality of cover engaging teeth on the surface of said member remote from said 40 1,319,395 1,974,671 Huddleston __________ __ Oct. 21, 1919 Egan _______________ __ Sept. 25, 1934 2,028,202 2,119,135 2,196,182 2,311,660 2,334,407 2,466,123 2,479,200 2,845,887 2,852,836 Gauthier ____________ __ Jan. 21, Link ________________ __ May 31, Arnesen _____________ __ Apr. 9, Hothersall __________ __ Feb. 23, Grebe ______________ __ Nov. 16, Osplack _____________ __ Apr. 5, Birks _______________ __ Aug. 16, Kradoska ____________ __ Aug. 5, McNicol ____________ __ Sept. 23, 1936 1938 1940 1943 1943 1949 1949 1958 1958 is~'