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Патент USA US3045627

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July 24, 1962
Filed March 10, 1958
3 Sheets-Sheet 1
‘July 24, 1962
Filed March 10, 1958
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
*3 374
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Patented July 24, 19552
opener embodying certain aspects of the present inven
tion and showing the opener in a position wherein a can
may be connected thereto for opening;
FIG. 2 is another perspective view of the device of
FIG. 1 showing the opener in the position where a can
William J. Dieter, John H. Schroeder, and Philip F.
Flynn, Naperville, Ill., assignors to En Page Frecision
Products (10., Naperville, Ill, a corporation of Illinois
Filed Mar. 10, 1958, Ser. No. 720,196
11 Claims. (Cl. 113-1)
_ would be locked thereto for opening the same;
FIG. 3 is an enlarged side elevational view of the can
The present invention relates to can openers, and more
particularly to a new ‘and improved can opener which is
adapted to remove the cover from a can without severing
either the cover or the can and without coming in con
tact with the contents in the can in any way.
There are presently in use a substantial number of
opener of the present invention showing the locking
mechanism in its two extreme positions;
FIG. 4 is a bottom plan view of the can opener of the
present invention;
FIG. 5 is a sectional view taken along the line 5—-5
of FIG. 3 ;
FIG. 6 is a fragmentary sectional view taken along
vending machines which ‘dispense various types of food 15 the line 6—-6 of FIG. 4;
‘ such ‘as drinks and soups from sealed‘ containers or cans
FIG. 7 is a sectional view through the seam opening
which must be-opened before the contents can be con
sumed. Preferably, a large number of these cans are
stored in each machine and each can contains an indi
roller used in the device of the present invention;
FIG. 8-is a plan view of the curling roller employed
vidual serving of food. Accordingly, when operation of 20
in the device of the present invention;
FIG. 9 is a greatly enlarged, fragmentary sectional
the machine is initiated by any suitable means such as
the insertion therein of a proper coin or check, the de
livered can must be opened. To this end can openers
view showing a can ‘when ?rst placed in the opener of the
present invention for removal of the cover thereof;
FIG. 10 is an enlarged, fragmentary sectional view
are associated with such dispenser. To fully comply
similar to that in FIG. 9 but showing the seam opening
with the regulations of the Food and Drug Administra 25 ‘roller in engagement with the can and in the process of
tion, such can openers must not in any way be capable
opening the seam which joins the cover to the can;
of contaminating food. In order to prevent contamina
FIG. 11 is an enlarged, fragmentary sectional view
similar to FIGS. 9 land 10 showing the curling roller in
engagement ‘with thecan cover and rolling the cover 01f
the’ edge of the associated can;
FIG. 12 is an enlarged sectional view showing the
shapes of the cover and can at the completion of the
tion of the food, it is desirable that no parts of the can
opener actually contact the food. Therefore, it is im
portant to employ with such vending machines a can
opener which does not contact the contents of the can ‘
being opened. Likewise, there should be not cutting of
the metal parts with the production of sharp edges and
opening operation; and
the like.
FIG. 13 is a somewhat schematic, enlarged sectional
view of the curling roller of the present invention look
While these features described above are particularly
ing upwardly with reference to FIGS. 10 and 11, illus
desirable for can openers used with vending machines,
trating its relative position with respect to the can being
they are equally desirable in can openers used in domestic
opened, and illustrating the transition ‘from the condition
and commercial kitchens. However, can openers which
of the can and cover of FIG. 10 to the condition shown
are used ‘for domestic purposes should at least be such
that no sharp edges are produced on either the can or its 40 in FIG. 11.
Referring now to the drawings, and particularly to
cover, and it would be desirable, although not necessary,
that once the cover is removed by the can opener it could
FIGS. 1 to 4 thereof, there is shown a can opener 20
which comprises a support or body member 21 includ
be placed on the can for temporary protection of its
ing an arm 22 having near one end thereof an o?set por
Therefore, a principal object of the present invention 45 tion or platform 23 ‘and at the other end thereof an aper
tured bracket 24 for facilitating mounting of the opener’
is to provide a new and improved can opener.
on a supporting wall or the like by means of a plurality
of screws 25. A chuck 26, for rotatably supporting a
can to be opened, is suitably journaled as by a shaft 26a
‘A further object of the present invention is to provide 50 in the offset portion or platform 23, and a bracket 27 in
which a set of spaced rollers 28v and 29 are journaled is
a new and improved can opener which removes the cover
Another object of the present invention is to provide .
a new and improved can opener whichremoves the cover
‘from a can without contacting the contents of the can.
from a can without severing either‘ the cover or the can.
pivotally mounted on the support member 21 so as to
enable limited relative motion between the rollers 28 and
29 and the chuck 26. The bracket 27 is mounted to pivot
55 about a ?xed pivot 32 mounted on sup-port 21. A lock
from a can and, moreover, which so shapes the cover and
ing lever 31 having a hand engaging portion 31a is piv
the can that the cover may again be placed on the can
otally mounted as indicated at 39 (FIG. 3) to the body
for temporary protection of the contents thereof.
or support member 21 at ‘the end thereof remote ‘from
Brie?y, the above and further objects are realized in
bracket 24 and islconnected' to the bracket 27 by means
accordance with the present invention by providing a
can opener comprising a support member for rotatably 60 of a suitable linkage 33 so that the locking lever 31 con
trols the relative positions of the rollers 28 and 29 with
supporting a can, a first roller for engaging‘ said can be
respect to the chuck 26. As illustrated, the linkage 33
tween the wall of the can'Iand a lock seam which secures
is connected at one end to bracket 27 by pivot pin 33a
the cover to the can, and a second roller which engages
and at the other‘ end to lever 31 by pivot pin 33b. As
the periphery of the cover after the seam has been spread
out by ‘the ?rst roller and curls the periphery of the cover 65 shown in FIG. 4, the rollers 28 and 29‘ are connected to
gether by suitable gearing 34- so as to be rotatable in uni
back off the adjoining edge of the can.
son and in the same direction'by a crank 35 which is di
The invention, both as to its organization and method
rectly‘ connected to the roller 28. As illustrated, the
of operation, together with further objects and advan
gearing 34- comprises gears 34a, 34b and 34c, the gears
tages thereof, will best be understood by reference to the
following detailed description taken in connection with 70 34a and 34b being secured to the shafts 36 and 37, re
Another object of the present invention is to provide
a new ‘and improved can opener which removes the cover
the accompanying drawings, in which:
FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a hand-operated can
spectively, supporting the rollers 28 and 29, respective
ly, while the ‘gear 34c is rotatable about a stationary shaft
38. The crank 35, having a hand engaging portion 35a,
the manner described hereinbefore, the covered can is
pressed against the bottom of the chuck 26 so that a de
may be attached to either of the shafts 36 or 37, but is
speci?cally illustrated as attached to the shaft 36.
The can opener 20 which is used to illustrate a num
ber of aspects of the present invention is designed for
manual operation. Nevertheless, it will be understood
by those skilled in the art that the shaft 36 and some
thnes even the lever 31 may be operated by electric
motors or the like. However, since the principle of op
pending cylindrical portion 47 on the chuck 26 extends
into the central depressed portion of the cover 42 and
engages the cover 42 along a circular line 48 which is
approximately opposite the lower end of the seam 43.
With the bottom edge of the chuck 26 thus engaging the
inner wall of the cover 42, a shoulder 49 on the chuck
26 engages the uppermost part of the cover 42. By
eration of the can opener is the same whether it is man 10 properly dimensioning the chuck 26 for a particular size
fully or automatically operated, an understanding of the
of can, a relatively tight ?t may be provided between
invention is facilitated by describing it in connection with
the chuck 26 and the cover 42 along the circular line 48.
a hand-operated device. _
With the can thus mounted on the chuck 26, as the
In order to facilitate an understanding of the functions
lever 31 is moved from the position shown in FIG. 1 to
of the various parts of the can opener 20‘ before consider 15 that shown in FIG. 2 thereby to move the roller 28
ing the detailed con?guration of these parts, a brief de
toward the chuck 26, the periphery 51 of the roller 28
scription of ‘the over-all operation of the opener 20 may
is moved over the adjoining surface of the can 41 into the
be helpful. It will be appreciated that in order to use
space between this can 41 and the adjacent surface of
the can opener 20 to remove the cover from a can, the
the curled~over end’ of the cover ‘42. As shown in FIG.
locking lever 31 is pivoted into engagement with the arm 20 10, the active surface 51 of roller 28 is beveled so that
22 of the support member 21, as shown in FIG. 1, so
this movement of the roller 28 into the seam 43 forces
that the rollers 28 and 29 ‘and their shafts 36 and 37, re
the edge of the can 41 and the surrounding portion 45
spectively, are moved as a unit with bracket 27 a sub
of the cover upwardly away from the body of the can
stantial distance away from the chuck 26. This position
and against the shoulder 49 so that the outwardly ex
of the rollers 28 and 29 is shown in phantom in FIG. 3.
tending portions of the can 41 and of the cover 42 lie
A sealed can, generally designated at 41 (FIG. 2), to be
in a plane which is substantially perpendicular to the
opened, can then be placed with the cover thereof in en
principal longitudinal axis of the can 41, as clearly in
gagement with the bottom of the chuck 26 so that part
dicated in FIG. 10 of the drawings. As yet, the cover
of the lip of the can is positioned between the bottom of
42 is not released from the can 41 although the seal be
the chuck and the upper edge of the roller 28. The lock 30 tween the cover 42 and the can 41 is broken when the
ing lever 31 is then pivoted in a clockwise direction from
lever 31 is operated to_ force the periphery 51 of the
the position shown in FIG. 1 to the position shown in
roller 28 into the seam.
FIG. 2, thereby moving the rollers 28 and 29 toward the
When the crank 35 is now rotated, the roller 28, which
bottom of the chuck 26 and thus clamping the lip of the
constitutes a seam opening roller, rolls around the can
can between ‘the chuck 26 and the roller 28. The linkage
41 by virtue of a plurality of teeth 52 thereof (FIG. 7)
33, by virtue of the location of the pivot points 33a, 33b
which engage the folded-over portion 45 of the cover 42
and 39, includes an over-center mechanism so that with
and cause the can 41 and the chuck 46 to which it is at
the lever 31 in the position illustrated in FIG. 2 the rollers
tached to rotate. Accordingly, successive portions of the
28 and 29 cannot .move away ‘from the chuck 26 as the
seam 43 are opened and pressed against the shoulder 49,
result of any force exerted thereon due to variations in 40 as shown in FIG. 10, during rotation of the roller 28.
the size or strength of the can land are effectively locked
The portions of the seam 43 which have been opened
in position. The crank 35 is then rotated in a counter
to the position shown in FIG. 10 by the roller 28 are
clockwise direction, as viewed in FIGS. 1 and 2, to cause
next engaged by the roller 29 which constitutes a curling
therollers 28 and 29 to rotate in the same direction as
or seam releasing roller and which, as best shown in
viewed in FIG. 1, and thereby progressively to release 45 FZG. 11, is tilted at a slight angle so that the face thereof
‘the-cover from the can as the top of the can rotates
clockwise as viewed in FIG. 1. As the can rotates, suc
cessive portions of the lip thereof move into engagement
with the rollers 28 and 29 to release the cover from the
is substantially parallel with a conical surface 53 on the
chuck 26. The surface 53 terminates at the bottom, at
the shoulder 49. The roller 29 thus engages the folded
over portion 45 of the cover 42 thereby to press it up
can. When the opening operation has been completed 50 wardly and against the conical surface 53 of the chuck
and the cover is free from the can, the locking lever 31
26, curling the periphery of the cover back of the ad
is rotated in a counterclockwise direction from the posi
joining edge of the can. As shown in FIG. 11, once the
tion of FIG. 2 to the position shown in FIG. 1, thereby
roller 29 has traversed the entire periphery of the body
moving the rollers 28 and 29 away ‘from the chuck 26
of can 41, the cover 42 is free and may be removed from
and thereby enabling removal of the cover from the can. 55 the can as shown in FIG. 12. Although in FIGS. 9 to
In FIGS. 9 to 12 of the drawings there are shown the
12 the U-shaped portion 44 of the can 41 is shown to
successive steps involvedin the method of the present
‘be of sufficient length so that the edges of the can 41
invention for removing the cover from a can. Conven
extend beyond the periphery of the shoulder 49 so that
tionally, cans 41 in which food or the like is preserved
the edge thereof is ‘bent upwardly by the curling roller
comprise a cylindrical body portion to the ends of which 60 29, since this dimension of the cans is not held very
are secured covers 42. Each cover is sealed to the can
closely, the edge of some cans may not extend beyond
body by means of a lock seam generally indicated at 43
the periphery of the shoulder 49. However, in either
(FIG. 9) which comprises a U-shaped peripheral chan
case, the ‘folded-over portion 45 of the cover 42 is moved
nel 44 on the edge of the can 41, and an interlocking
out of locking engagement with the can 41 by the action
portion 45 on the periphery of the cover 42 which ?ts 65 of the curling roller ‘29.
around the U-shaped end 44 and is received in the chan
As best shown in FIG. 11, the face of the curling roller
nel thereof. A hermetically ‘tight seal between the can
29 is centrally recessed at 56 to provide a raised peripheral
41 and the cover 42 is assured by means of a rubberlike
surface in which a plurality of grooves 57 (FIG. 8) are
sealing gasket 46 which ?lls the space between the can
cut to provide a plurality of peripherally disposed teeth
and cover within the seam 43 thereof. Also, an improved
58 which selectively engage the cover 42 thereby to assist
seal is provided because the center portion of the cover
in the rotation of the can 41 as the crank 35 is rotated.
is depressed within the ends of the can 41 and portions
Considering in greater detail the various parts of the
of the cover abut against the inner wall of the can 41
can opener 20, and referring to FIGS. 1 to 5, the roller
throughout a substantial area near the ends thereof.
supporting bracket 27' is secured to a pair of ‘arms 69
In order to remove the cover 42 from the can 41 in 75 and 61 by means of a plurality of bolts 62, and the arms
60 and 61 extend‘ upwardly above the bracket 27 on.
opposite sides of the body arm 22 for ‘pivotal connection
thereto at the pivot point 32, As best shown in FIG. 3,
and the shaft 260, which has a depending pontion 112
threadedly received in a tapped hole 113 in the chuck
26, extends :therethrough. A needle bearing assembly
the upper ends of the arms ($17 and 61 and the arm 22 are
114- is interposed between the shaft 26a and the wall of
apertured and a pintle de?ning the pivot point 32 ex
the bore 110, and a resilient snap ring 115 is positioned
tends the'rethrough. Accordingly, the bracket 27 is pivot
in an annular groove 116 in the shaft 26a to prevent ex
ally attached to the body member 20.
cessive axial movement of the chuck 26. Because of the
The locking lever 31 is provided with a bifurcated end
relatively high force which is exerted upwardly on the
66, the tines of which extend on opposite sides of a
chuck 26 during the opening of a can, a thrust bearing
projection or ear 67 of the platform 23, and a pintle de 10 117 is interposed between the end of the shaft 26a and the
?ning the pivot 39 extends through suitable apertures in
platform 23.
the tines 66 and in the ear 67 thereby pivotally to secure
Considered in greater detail and referring panticularly
the lever 31 to the body member 211. The linkage 33
to FIGS. 3 and 5, the thrust bearing 117 comprises a U
comprises a pair of linkage arms 71 and 72 which are
shaped body member 118‘ which is secured at its ends
disposed on opposite sides of the lever 31 and pivotally
by suitable means such as bolts to the platform 23. The
attached thereto by pivot means 330 and 33b. As shown
upper end of the shaft ‘26w extends toward the high-t of
best in FIGS. 1 to 3, the pivot means 33b is disposed in
the body member 118. - The shaft 26a is prow'ded at its
close proximity to the pintle de?ning the pivot 39 to
upper end with a recess 12!). A steel ball 121 having a
provide a'suitable lever arm to facilitate coupling of a
diameter slightly less than that of rthe recess 120 is posi
force from the lever 31 to the bracket 27 via the link
tioned in said recess, and a ball retaining collar 122 hav
age 33.
ing a circular opening 123 in the top thereof is threaded
The bracket'27 is‘ somewhat concave-convex in cross
section (FIG. 4) and, as best shown in FIG. 5 of the
drawings, includes an aperture 89 in the center portion
thereof through which an enlarged shank 36a on the shaft
3-5 secured to the roller 28 extends.
A suitable needle
bearing assembly 82 is interposed between the shank 36a
and the bore st} to provide a bearing journal in which
the shaft 36 of roller 28 is rotated. As best shown in
FIG. 6, a similar bore 83 is provided in the bracket 27
in spaced apart relationship from the bore 85, and an en
larged shank 37a on the shaft 37 secured to the roller
29 extends therethrough. Also, a needle bearing assem—
bly 35 is interposed between the shank 37a and the bore
$3 to provide a suitable journal for the shaft 357 of the
over the upper end of the shaft 26a.
The center portion of the Ug-shaped member 118- is pro
vided with a threaded aperture 126., and a machine'screw
127 having a concave lower end 128 is threaded therein
so that the concave surface 128‘ engages the top of the
ball 121. As best shown in FIG. 5, the radius of curvature
of the recess 128 is substantially the same as the radius
of the ball 121 so that a good thrust bearing is provided
between the ball 121 and'the screw 127. Moreover, the
set screw 127 enables adjustment of the relative positions
of the shoulder 49 and the roller 28 thereby to enable ef?é
cient operation of the can opener 20. While a particular
type of thrust bearing 117 has been shown, it will be
understood that any other suitable type of- thrust bearing
may be used to restrain the upward movement of the
The shaft 36 of roller 28 ?ts into the bore 87 of bevel
chuck 26 While permitting the relatively free rotation
gear 3dr: and the latter is secured to shaft 36 by means
thereof in response to rotation of the crank 35.
of a suitable set screw 9%} and the crank 35 is in turn se
In view of the detailed description included above, the
cured to the end of the gear 34a by means of a plurality
operation of the can opener of the present invention will
of screws 91 which extend through suitable apertures 92
readily be understood and no further discussion is in
in the crank 35 and are threaded into tapped holes in
cluded herewith.
a shanklike extension of the gear'34a. Obviously, any
While the present invention has been described with
other means of uniting the handle 35, the gear 34a, the
respect to a particular embodiment thereof, it will be
shaft 36 and the roller 28 may be employed.
45 understood, of course, that it is not desired that the in
In a similar manner, the gear 34b is secured to the
ention be limited thereto, since changes and modi?cations
shaft 27 by a set screw 9h.
may be made, and it is, therefore, contemplated by the
The gear Me is effectively an idler ‘gear loosely mounted
appended claims to cover all such changes and modi?ca
on a bolt or stationary shaft 38. A washer 103 may be
tions as fall within the true spirit and scope of the in
interposed between the gear34c and the head of the
roller 29.
bolt or shaft 38' to provide a bearing surface which en
gages the adjoining surface of the idler gear 340.
in accordance with the present invention and as best
shown in FIG. 4, the axis ofrrotation of the roller 28
intersects the axis of rotation of the chuck 26. However,
as best shown in FIGS. 4 and 13, the axis of rotation of
the curling roller 29 is displaced from the axis of rotation
of the chuck ‘26 so that only the leading edge of the roller
29 engages the folded-over pontion 45 of the cover 42
of can 41. Accordingly, there is no drag exerted on the
can 41 by portions other than the leading edge of the
roller 29 engaging it and, moreover, inasmuch as the trail
ing edge of the rollerv 29 does not engage the portion
of the cover 42' which is folded against the conical sur—
face 53 of the chuck 26, it cannot engage this ‘folded-back
portion of the cover and move it away from the surface
53 so that it might again interlock with the edge of the
What is claimed as new and desired to be secured by
Letters Patent of the United States is:
l. A can opener ‘for a can having a cover joined to
a can body by a lock seam forming a channel between
the can body and lock steam and comprising a frame
including a support means for rotatably supporting a can
to be opened, a ?rst roller having a beveled periphery
for spreading out said seam away ‘from the body of the
can, means pivoted to said frame for moving said roller
‘- into said channel in engagement with the lock seam join-i
ing the cover with the body of said can, means for rotat
ing said roller while in engagement with said can and
cover to cause said can and cover to rotate whereby said
?rst roller effectively rolls around said seam to spread
out said seam, a second roller for engaging said seam im
mediately after it has been spread out by said ?rst roller
for uncurling the edge of said cover back of the ad
can 4'1. In a device built in accordance with the present
joining edge of the body of the can to release it com
invention, the axis of rotation of the roller 29 was dis
pletely from said can without cutting either said cover
placed by 4-° from the position it would occupy had it 70 or said can, and driving means for simultaneously rotat
intersected the axis of rotation of the chuck 26. In this
ing both of said rollers in the same direction.
device [the conical surface 53 had an angular-ity of 4°
2. A can opener as set ‘forth in claim 1 above where
and was, furthermore, parallel with the face of roller 29.
in said frame additionally includes a ?xed portion and
In order rotatably to mount the chuck 26 in the plat
means for adjusting said support means relative to said
form 23, the latter is provided with a bore 110 (FIG. 5 ), 75 ?xed portion of said frame are provided.
?ange adapted to engage the underside of the folded
3. A can opener as set forth in claim 1 wherein said
over portion of said cover.
?rst roller includes a plurality of teeth displaced from
said periphery and engageable with said seam after it is
8. Apparatus as set forth in claim 4 wherein said
chuck comprises a generally cylindrical member having at
partially ‘folded back.
4. Apparatus vfor removing the covers from cans of the
type having .a lock seam :for securing the cover to the can,
one end thereof a depending cylindrical portion of re
bracket, said roller having a beveled ?ange positionable
from a radius of said can.
in said channel between the side of said can and the
10. The can opener of claim 1 wherein said rollers
are mounted on a part of said support means, which part
duced diameter for reception in a depressed cen'tral por
tion of said cover, said depending portion terminating in
said lock seam comprising an outwardly directed
a radial shoulder which engages the uppermost part of
U-shaped channel on the edge of the can and an inter
said cover throughout an annular area, and said chuck
locking portion on the periphery of the cover which ?ts
around the edge of the can and enters the channel thereof, 10 further comprises a generally conical cover engaging por
tion disposed above and adjacent to said shoulder against
said apparatus comprising a body member, a chuck jour
which said curling roller forces said seam of said cover.
naled in said body, said chuck having means thereon .for
9. The can opener of claim 1 wherein the axis of rota
engaging the cover of a can, a support bracket pivotally
tion of the rollers are ?xed relative to one another and
mounted on said body member along an axis substantially
said ?rst roller is disposed on a radius of said can and
parallel to a plane perpendicular to the axis of rotation
the axis of said second roller is disposed slightly askew
of said chuck, a seam opening roller journaled in said
portion of said cover which is disposed in said channel‘
for opening the channel and bending the lock seam hori~
zontally away from the can, a curling roller journaled in
said bracket adjacent to said seam opening roller, said
curling roller being positioned to engage said cover be
is movable relative to another part thereof, and wherein
said rollers are bodily movable as a unit with said one
part toward and away from a can to be opened.
11. A chuck for use in a can opener, comprising a gen
erally cylindrical member supported at one end and hav
ing at the other end thereof a depending cylindrical por
yond the end of said can after said seam has been opened
and bent horizontally by said seam opening roller for
bending the periphery of said seam upwardly and to bend
tion of reduced diameter terminating at its upper end in a
shoulder adapted to ?t in a depressed central portion
the edge of said cover toward the center of said can.
5. A can opener comprising a body, a rotatable sup
of a can cover and ‘a generally conical cover engaging
portion adjoining said shoulder and disposed immedi
port member mounted in said body, a bracket pivoted on
said body, seam opening roller means journaled in said 30 ately above said shoulder, the diameter of said conical
portion decreasing in an upward direction.
bracket and movable by said bracket into a predetermined
position with respect to said support, and adjustable means
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
interposed between said body and said support for ad
justing the distance between said support and said roller
means when said bracket is in said predetermined posi
Powers ______________ __ July 9, 1907
Burpee ______________ .._ Dec. 31, 1918
6. A can opener as set forth in claim 5 wherein a thrust
bearing is connected between said support member and
said ‘body, and said adjustable means constitutes a por
tion of said thrust bearing.
7. A seam opening roller ‘for opening a can of the type
including a body portion and a cover and comprising a
generally cylindrical member having a beveled externally
directed annular ?ange at one end adapted to be moved
between a lock seam formed by the cover and can and
the body of the can, and a plurality of cover engaging
teeth on the surface of said member remote from said
Huddleston __________ __ Oct. 21, 1919
Egan _______________ __ Sept. 25, 1934
Gauthier ____________ __ Jan. 21,
Link ________________ __ May 31,
Arnesen _____________ __ Apr. 9,
Hothersall __________ __ Feb. 23,
Grebe ______________ __ Nov. 16,
Osplack _____________ __ Apr. 5,
Birks _______________ __ Aug. 16,
Kradoska ____________ __ Aug. 5,
McNicol ____________ __ Sept. 23,
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