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Патент USA US3045666

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July 24, 1962
A. FQRMIA
3,045,655
CYLINDER HEAD FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION
RECIPROCATING ENGINES
Filed March 22, 1961
2 Sheets-‘Sheet 1
July 24, 1962
A. FORMIA
CYLINDER HEAD FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION
RECIPROCATING ENGINES
Filed March 22‘, 1961
3,045,655
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
United States Patent O? ice
3,045,655
Patented ‘July 24, 1962
2
1
‘Such an arrangement of intake and exhaust conduits is
3,045,655
CYLINDER HEAD FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION
RECIPROCATING ENGINES
Antonio Forrnia, Turin, Italy, assignor to Fiat Societa
per Azioni, Turin, Italy
Filed Mar. 22, 1961, Ser. No. 97,530
Claims priority, application Italy Apr. 30, 1960
4 Claims. (Cl. 123-30)
This invention relates to a cylinder head for reciprocat
ing internal combustion engines, more particularly of the
diesel type.
The object of this invention is to provide an engine
cylinder head, in which the arrangement in plan view of
the intake and exhaust valves leads to an arrangement of
induction conduits adapted to effect a double helical tur
bulent flow in the cylinder.
According to‘ this invention the induced air reaches
made actually possible by a particular arrangement of
valves 4, 5 visible on FIG. 2. It will be seen that the in
take valves 4 extend parallel therebetween on a plane
E—E which is a chordal plane with respect to the cylinder
15 forming an acute angle with the longitudinal axial plane
A—A of the engine, whereby the inner end sections of the
intake conduits 7, 8 reach their respective valve seats
without interfering with each other. The exhaust valves
5 are similarly arranged on a chordal plane forming
an acute angle with plane A—A and, in the preferred em
bodiment shown, all the valves are uniformly spaced
around the geometrical axis of the cylinder.
Intake
valves 4 are actuated by a single rocker 10 acting on a
bridge piece 16 seated on the stems of the valves 4.
Exhaust valves 5 are similarly actuated by a single rocker
12 acting on a bridge piece 13 seated on the stems of
the valves 5.
The rockers are swingable on a common
pivot supported from the cylinder head, the geometrical
the inside of the cylinder in a condition subdivided into
two helical turbulent ?ows by virtue of which it is dis 20 axis of the pivot being indicated by B—-B in FIG. 2 and
extending horizontally parallel ‘with the plane A—A at
tributed within the cylinder in such manner as to facilitate
a location between the latter and the lateral side In of the
and activate the combustion process.
cylinder head. The rocker arms diifer in length but
The improved cylinder head is substantially charac
the two rockers have equal lever ratios. The rockers are
terized by the fact that it comprises in association with
each cylinder two separate poppet valve controlled in 25 actuated in a known manner by means of push-rods (not
shown) extending through a common passage 14 in the
duction conduits each of which opens into the cylinder in
cylinder head towards their actuating camshaft. A fuel
a direction downwardly and tangentially of the cylinder
injector 9 is seated in the cylinder head on the geometrical
so that the air drawn into the cylinder is subdivided into
axis of the cylinder having its tip 9:: projecting into the
two helical flows directed substantially downwardly.
Moreover, according to this invention, the intake valves
are operated by means of a single rocker and push rod.
Further characteristic feature and advantages will be
understood from the appended detailed description re
ferring to the accompanying drawings given by way of a
non limiting example, wherein:
cylinder, as far as a diesel engine is concerned; a common
spark plug can be substituted for the injector when the
engine is an internal combustion engine of the Otto-cycle.
What I claim is:
1. In an internal combustion engine a cylinder, a cyl
inder head having a pair of separate downwardly curved
elbow-shaped intake passageways having substantially the
FIG. 1 is a part sectional elevational view of the head
same lengths, each passageway having an inlet and an
and
outlet port, both inlet ‘ports being situated on the same
FIG. 2 is a plan view thereof.
side of the cylinder head, both outlet ports beings sit
On the drawings the head 1 is secured in a known man
ner to the engine block by means of stud bolts 2 and com 40 uated substantially tangentially to the wall of the cylinder
and on the same side of a plane corresponding to a cyl
prises a cover 3 con?ning a chamber housing the rockers
inder diameter making an acute angle with the longi
for the valve gear and valve return springs.
tndinal axis of said engine, said cylinder head having
In association with each cylinder the head is formed
for each outlet port a seat formed circumferentially of
with a seats for a pair of intake and exhaust poppet valves
45 each outlet port and an intake valve for each outlet port
4, 5, respectivly.
operable to a seated position and an unseated position.
The valves 5 control their respective branches of a bi
2. In an internal combustion engine having means
furcated exhaust conduit 6, the branches having a com
de?ning a cylinder, the improvement which comprises,
mon outlet section 611 opening on one side 1a of the cylin
a cylinder head having a pair of separate intake passage
der head with respect to a longitudinal vertical plane
50 'ways of substantially equal cross-section and lengths, each
A—A of the engine.
passageway having an inlet port situated on a same side
The valves 4 control a pair of separate intake conduits
of the cylinder head and each having an outlet port and
7, 8 respectively, which are downwardly curved when seen
in elevational cross-sectional View (FIG. 1) and open into
the cylinder 15 in directions which are co-current and
an elbow-shaped portion curving downwardly to respec
tive outlet ports each disposed to discharge two separate,
the cylinder when seen in cross-sectional plan view (FIG.
2) whereby two co-current helically downwardly directed
?ows of combustion air are induced in the cylinder during
each suction stroke of the engine.
helically relative to the longitudinal axis of said cylinder,
said outlet ports being disposed spaced relative to each
cylinder, a ba?le such as 7a is cast-formed on an intra
cylinder and making an acute angle with the longitudinal
axis of the engine, each passageway having a length
thereof extending between its respective outlet port and
elbow-shaped portion disposed to de?ne a path for a
substantially tangential (circumferential) with respect to 55 parallel, air streams downwardly, circumferentially and
other on the same side of a plane corresponding to a
diameter of said cylinder, the centers of the outlet ports
In order to increase the whirl of the air ?ows in the 60 lying in a common plane corresponding to a chord of said
dorsal surface of each intake conduit 7, 8 at a location
adjacent its respective valve head, thereby to substantially
prevent the air ?ow from being part-de?ected backwardly
in the direction C (FIG. 1) by the valve head and there 65 volume of air-moving therethrough to move in a direction
substantially tangential to the inner wall of the cylinder
by to direct the bulk of induced air in direction D over
in a common area of a semi-cylinder de?ned by the ?rst
and beyond the edge section of the valve head which is
rnentioned plane and the wall of the cylinder thereby to
remote from the ba?le.
cause the air streams moving therethrough and through
The inlet sections of the intake conduits 7, 8 open
outwardly on a lateral side 1b of the cylinder head which 70 respective elbow-shaped portions of said passageways into
the cylinder to move along a helical path downwardly
is opposite to the side 1a, whereby intake and exhaust
through said cylinder when they enter said cylinder, said
manifolds can be easily ?tted to the head.
3,045,655
3
4
cylinder head having for each outlet port a seat formed
circumferentially of each outlet port, and an intake valve
for each outlet port operable to a seated position and
an unseated position.
3. In an internal combustion engine a cylinder, a cyl
inder head having a pair of separate downwardly curved
to a chord of said cylinder and making an acute angle
with the longitudinal axis of the engine, each passageway
having a length thereof extending between its respective
outlet port and elbow-shaped portion disposed to de?ne
a path for a volume of air moving therethrough to move
in a direction substantially tangential to the inner wall
elbow-shaped intake passageways having substantially the
of the cylinder in a common area of a semi-cylinder de
same lengths, each passageway having an inlet and an
outlet port, both inlet ports being situated on the same
?ned by the ?rst-mentioned plane and the wall of the cyl
inder thereby to cause the air streams moving there
side of the cylinder head, both outlet ports being situated 10 through and through respective elbow-shaped portions
substantially tangentially to the cylinder wall and on the
same side of a plane corresponding to a cylinder diameter
making an acute angle with the longitudinal axis of said
of said passageways into the cylinder to move along a
helical path downwardly through said cylinder when they
enter said cylinder, said cylinder head having for each
engine, said cylinder head having for each outlet port a
outlet port a seat formed circumferentially of each outlet
seat formed circumferentially of each outlet port and 15 port, and an intake valve ‘for each outlet port operable to
an intake valve for each outlet port operable to a seated
a seated position and an unseated position, in each intake
position and an unseated position, in each intake passage
passageway a batlle formed by a lip extending radially
way a ba?le formed by a lip extending radially away
away from a part of the circumference of the respective
from a part of the circumference of respective intake
intake passageway, and each of said battles being arranged
passageways, and each of said ba?les being arranged 20 adjacent each valve seat and on the upstream side of
adjacent each valve seat and on the upstream side of said
said seat so as to shield a peripheral portion of the outlet
seat so as to shield a peripheral portion of the outlet
port and direct the air stream to the far side of said
port and direct the air stream to the far side of said outlet
outlet port and toward the cylinder wall.
port and toward the cylinder wall.
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
4. In an internal combustion engine having means de 25
?ning a cylinder, the improvement which comprises a
UNITED STATES PATENTS
cylinder head having a pair of separate intake passage
ways of substantially equal cross-section and lengths,
each passageway having an inlet port situated on a same
side of the cylinder head and each having an outlet port 30
and an elbow-shaped portion curving downwardly to the
respective outlet ports each disposed to discharge two
separate, parallel, air streams downwardly, circumferen
tially and helically relative to the longitudinal axis of
said cylinder, said outlet ports being disposed spaced
relative to each other on the same side of a plane cor
responding to a diameter of said cylinder, the centers
of the outlet ports lying in a common plane corresponding
1,733,696
Ricardo ____________ __ Oct. 29, 1929
2,001,358
2,318,914
Guernsey __________ __ May 14, 1935
Anderson et al. ______ __ May 11, 1943
587,276
703,281
Great Britain ________ __ Apr. 21, 1947
Great Britain _________ __ Feb. 3, 1954
1,200,645
France _____________ __ June 29, 1959
FOREIGN PATENTS
OTHER REFERENCES
Augsberg, German application 1,032,972, printed
June 26, 1958 (K1 46A210), 1 sht. dwg. 2 pp. spec.
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