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Патент USA US3045747

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July 24, 1962
A. J. TURPIN
3,045,745
Low AIR PRESSURE BURNER
Filed Nov. 20, 1959
5 Sheets-Sheet l
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,4.45m No5/2 f. TUeP/N
BY
ATTORNEYS
July 24, 19.62
A. J. TURPIN
3,045,745
LOW AIR PRESSURE BURNER
Filed Nov. 20. 1959
5 Sheets-Sheet 2
@il
INVENTOR
ALEXANDER J.' TueP/N
ATTORNEYS
July 24, 1962
A. J. TURPIN
3,045,745
LOW AIR PRESSURE BURNER
Filed Nov. 20, 1959
5 Sheets-Sheet 3
zNvENToR
AMX/waffe f ïz/eP/A/
ATTORNEYS
3,045,745
tates Vate
Patented July 24, 1962
l
3,045,745
Alexander J. Turpin, Stewart Manor, NÉY., assignor to
LÚW AIR PRESSURE BURNER
Hauck Manufacturing Co., Brooklyn, N.Y., a corpora
tion of New York
Filed Nov. 20, 1959, Ser. No. 354,286
23 Claims. (Cl. 158-76)
2
FIGURE l is a schematic elevation of a dryer utilizing
my improved burner;
'
FIGURE 2 is a partially sectioned elevation of a burner
embodying features of my invention;
FIGURE 3 is a section through the nozzle end of the
burner drawn to enlarged scale;
FIGURE 4 is a partially sectioned fragmentary view
taken through the rear end of the burner;
This invention relates to burners for fluid fuel, and more
FIGURE 5 is a fragmentary front elevation of the
particularly to a burner using low pressure air.
nozzle drawn to still larger scale; and
The primary object of the present invention is to gen
FIGURE 6 is a partially sectioned elevation similar to
erally improve burners, particularly for use in rotary kilns
FIGURE 2 but showing a modification arranged for sea
or dryers, typically for the drying of sand or gravel.
sonal gas tiring.
Such dryers are used to dry the sand or gravel before
Referring to the drawing, and more particularly to FIG
mixing the same With asphalt for hot truck delivery. The 15 URE l, the rotary dryer or kiln 12 is mounted on and ro
equipment is large. For example, a typical mixer may
tated by appropriate rollers symbolized at 14. It is sup
mix a four ton batch in less than a minute, with an output
plied With wet sand or gravel through a suitable hopper
of 300 tons an hour. The drying operation may require
16, and as the dryer rotates, the material moves from
two or more gallons of fuel oil per ton, so that the burner
right to left until it is discharged at the left end into a
must burn, say 6100 to 1000 gallons of fuel per hour.
suitable hopper 18. The dryer is somewhat lower at the
There are important advantages in using the burner
left end, thus causing a gravitational shift of the material
with only low pressure air, and in dispensing with the
as the dryer rotates.
use of steam and/or high pressure air for atomizing the
The burner is indicated at 20. It is supplied with con
fuel oil. In contrast with steam, air has a drying action
stant low pressure air through a suitable pipe 22. It is
of its own, and low pressure air is more readily and 25 supplied with oil through pipe 24. A main oil supply
cheaply available than is high pressure air. The piping
is controlled by a valve 26, and a pilot oil supply is con
for supplying the low pressure air is large, and may range
trolled by a valve 28.
from, say 8-inch diameter pipe for a burner operating at
Following an ignition cone 30, the combustion gases
250 gallons per hour, to a l4-inch diameter pipe for a
are coniined and expanded in a combustion chamber 32,
burner operating at 1000 gallons per hour.
30 which leads directly into- the left end of the dryer. Thus
To automatically control or modulate the air supply
the hot combustion gases flow counter to the sand or
then requires a correspondingly large valve, which in turn
gravel which moves from right to left. The used com
must be motor operated, preferably in controlled relation
bustion gases are collected at 34, and led to a ñue 36
to the oil supply. The latter may be controlled automati
and a stack or chimney 38. Ordinarily an exhaust blower
cally, as by means of a thermostat responsive to the tem 35 40 is provided, this being located between the iiue 36 and
perature of the sand or gravel as it leaves the dryer. With
the stack 38. The blower is driven by an electric motor
ordinary burners it is not feasible to reduce the oil supply
42. A suitable ñlter or separator of known type may be
rate without reducing the air supply because otherwise the
disposed in the flue 36, as indicated at 44.
flame is extinguished by the air. The needed equipment
The main oil valve 26 may be controlled by a suitable
would be simpler and less expensive if the air supply 40 actuator 46, which in turn is responsive t0 circuitry at 48,
could remain constant while controlling only the fuel.
responsive t-o a thermostatic element 50 located in the
This is particularly true in the case of a dryer or kiln as
hopper 18. The arrangement is such that the volume or
here contemplated, because the maintained air supply
rate of fuel oil supplied through the burner is modulated
would not be wasted and instead would have an important
or varied in accordance with the needs of the dryer, as by
and relatively inexpensive drying action of its own.
maintaining a constant discharge temperature, and at
One primary object of the present invention is to pro
times the main oil supply may be entirely cut oif. How
vide a burner which will maintain ignition if the main oil
ever, the burner is not wholly extinguished unless and
supply is reduced or even stopped without reducing or
until the pilot valve 2.8 is closed, which in the present case
modulating the air supply. This object is fulfilled gen
is done manually, and only in the event of a true com
erally by the provision of a pilot oil supply leading to pilot 50 plete shut-down of the equipment.
nozzle tubes which are independent in operation, although
The burner 20 is shown only symbolically in FIGURE
physically close to the main oil nozzle. An ancillary ob
l, but is drawn to larger scale in FIGURE 2. This shows
ject of the presentV invention is to prevent the maintained
a burner comprising an air pipe 50 leading directly from
air supply from blowing out the pilot flames, and with this I, an air body S2. There is a main oil tube 54 extending
object in view, the latter are located outside the high
axially through the air pipe 50. An oil atomizing nozzle,
velocity air stream.
generally designated 56, is located at the forward end of
Still another object is to combine the pilot nozzle tubes
the oil tube 54 and the burner. A pilot oil tube S8 ex
with a main oil nozzle of a particularly efficient charac
tends axially through the main oil tube 54. The motor
ter, the latter making use of multiple concentric oil dis
controlled valve 26 controls the main oil supply, that is,
60
charge rings with sknife edges, and being so arranged that
the supply of oil to the tube 54, while the manually op
air flows on both sides of each ring.
erated valve 28 controls the supply of oil to the tube 58.
`Still another object is to provide for adjustment of the
There are a plurality of radial pilot nozzle tubes 60 at
effective length of the pilot nozzle tubes, that is, their
the forward end of the pilot oil tube 58. These have
effective radius relative to the radius of the high velocity
air stream, which adjustment may be made outside the 65 tips 62 which are located outside the high velocity air
burner at the rear end thereof.
To accomplish the foregoing general objects, and other
more specific objects which will hereinafter appear, my in
vention resides in the constant low pressure burner ele
stream so that ignition is maintained if the main oil sup
ply is stopped without reducing the air supply. If the
radial pilot nozzle tubes 60 are too short and consequently
are disposed directly in the high velocity air stream, the
ments, and their relation one to another, as are herein
70 pilot flames will be extinguished by the high velocity air,
after described in the following specification. The speciñ
cation is accompanied by drawings in which:
and it is therefore important to properly adjust the length
of the p-ilot nozzle tubes 60, that is, their eifective radius
3,045,745
4
J
tion 92 is desired not only for normal operation, and to
insure adequate flow of air through the passages 70 and
air stream.
72, but also for an additional advantage later described.
In FIGURES 2 and 3 it will be observed that the tip
The various parts just described which are located at
62 of the radial pilot nozzle tube 60 is cut at an angle, so
that it slopes outward in the direction of flow. This pro Ul the forward end of the burner are preferably made of
high temperature metal. For example, they may be made
vides the individual pilot nozzle tube with a knife edge
of a type 309 stainless steel, which has 25% chromium
from which oil is atomized as it is wiped by the flowing
and 12% nickel. The oil tubes may be made of a type
a1r.
304 stainless steel which has 18% chromium and 8%
Considering the main oil nozzle 56 in greater detail,
nickel.
and referring to `FIGURES 2, 3 and 5 of the drawing,
Referring now to FIGURE 4 of the drawing, the air
this comprises one or more annular oil discharge rings
body 52 of the burner is closed at its rear end by means
64, 66, with means, in this case a plurality of sloping
from the axis of the burner, relative to the radius of the
of a plate 94.
passages 68, to deliver oil from the main oil tube 54 to
the rings. There are air passages 70 and 72 so arranged
as to deliver air from the air pipe 50 to both sides of 'the
The main oil tube 54 terminates at 96
where it is received in a bushing 98, which is itself thread
edly received in plate 94 for adjustment, and its adjust
ment is locked by means of a lock nut 100. A nipple
102 leads to a T 104, to which the oil supply pipe 106
rings. The rings terminate in annular knife edges 74 and
76, and the air flowing ou both sides of the oil discharge
rings servesto wipe the oil from the knife edges and to
is connected. The oil flows around the pilot oil tube
58 and then into the oil tube 54. The opposite end of
T 104 is closed by a threaded bushing 108. This receives
It will be noted that the knife edges 74 and 76 consti
a T 110, which acts as an elbow, its opposite end being
tute the innermost end of the burner, and that the pilot
closed by a plug 112 which is removable for cleaning.
nozzle tubes 60 preferably pass radially through the rings
Pilot oil is supplied through a pipe 114 to the T 110.
64 and 66 to a radius greater than the radius of the rings.
It would be difficult to assemble the pilot oil tube 58
The main nozzle provides for rapid atomization and
with a threaded connection, because of the need to bring
combustion of large quantities of fuel oil. Some whirl
the many threaded connections at both ends of both oil
or spin of the air supply preferably is provided, and the
pipes to a tight condition, while registering the pilot noz
passages 70 and '72 are directed somewhat sideward or
zle tubes with the main nozzle. For this reason, packing
tangentially. The oil is brought to a knife edge in order
is employed instead of a threaded connection, and in the
to avoid accumulation of oil such as would take place
at a thick edge. The sharper the knife edge the better, 30 present case there is an O ring 116 between the bushing
108 and the tube 58.
and in practice it is brought down to a wire edge, that is,
Reverting to FIGURE 3, the convergent air stream
it is sharp but not so sharp that one would cut oneself
is indicated in broken lines at 130. The tip 62 is located
by mere contact with the edge.
just outside the air stream. It will be evident that ad
To atomize a large quantity of oil it is desirable to in
justment of tip 62 toward the right will bring it fur
crease the linear length of the knife edge. This is done
ther outside the air stream, while adjustment toward the
»by making each ring of adequate diameter, and by utiliz
left will bring it further into the air stream. It is thus
ing more than one ring and knife edge. With sufficient
possible to vary the effective radius of tip 62 relative to
length of knife edge, the oil may be brought down to a
that of Vthe air stream, and thereby to bring about a de
thickness of only a few microns at the knife edge, which is
40 sired relationship such that pilot ignition may be main
good for atomization.
tained, without reduction in air supply and regardless of
I find that the oil may be delivered to the knife edge on
changes in the main fuel oil supply.
one side, or the other, or both, indiflerently, provided that
The said adjustment is obtained by means of the thread
the oil is wiped from the knife edge by air on both sides.
ed bushing 98 and lock nut 100 shown in FIGURE 4.
Failure to deliver air on both sides will cause oil to accu
mulate into undesirable droplets on the side having no 45 Rotation of bushing 98 moves the entire nozzle assem
bly toward the right or left. This is not an adjustment
a1r.
which is made frequently, and usually the adjustment is
Referring now to FIG. 3, the oil discharge rings 64
made only once, either at the factory, or at the time of
and 66 are secured to a hub-like element 80, which in
installation. The adjustment has the advantage of great
turn is secured to the forward end of the main oil tube
54, as is indicated by the threaded connection at 82. The 50 ly increasing the dimensional tolerances when making the
burner.
element 80 has the air passages 70 and 72 and the oil
Reverting now to FIGURE 2, the air body 52 has se
passages 68. The assembly also carries three dowl-like
atomize the same.
elements or spacers 84 which serve to center the nozzle
cured thereto, as by welding, a pipe 140 with flange 142
relative to the air pipe 50‘.
The pilot oil tube 58 passes through the hub-like ele
ment 80v and its forward end threadedly receives a nipple
which is suitably dimensioned for connection to an air
pipe leading to the burner. Body 52 is inwardly flanged
at 144 to receive the end plate 94, and it is outwardly
flanged at 146 to receive a reducing flange 148, which is
welded to and forms a part of the pipe 50 constituting
suitable plug 88. The nipple 86 receives the radial pilot
the forward part of the burner.
nozzle tubes 60 previously referred to. In the present
Air is supplied by a centrifugal blower, although it can
60
case, there are three such tubes.
be supplied by a positive displacement blower. The cen
Referring now to FIGURE 5, the nipple or extension
trifugal blower has the advantage of using less power
86 may be hexagonal in cross section, thereby facilitating
when less air is required. The pressure may be selected
the mounting of three pilot nozzle tubes 60 on alter
or extension 86.
This is closed at its forward end by a
in a range up to five pounds per square inch.
nate faces. It could be square in section for four tubes,
In referring to a “constant pressure” air supply, it is
and so on. The inner ends of tubes 60 may be thread 65
meant that the air supply is not “modulated” in con
ed, and are threadedly received in mating holes in nip
formity to the oil supply. However, on occasion it may
be adjusted, as by means of a manually adjustable butter
ily valve or by adjustment at the blower, to take care
of a rather permanent change in requirement. For ex
ample, the burner may have a capacity of 400 g.p.h., but
the condition of the sand or gravel, while variable, may
require a maximum of 300 g.p.h. to dry the same, in which
case the air supply may be reduced to take care of 300 in
75 stead of 400 g.p.h.
ple 86. The rotative position of each tube 60 is im
portant because of its sloping tip 62 which must be prop
erly oriented, and to permit this the tubes 60 are pro
vided with lock nuts 90 which may be tightened after 70
properly orienting the tubes.
The air pipe 50 (FIG. 3) is preferably terminated at
its forward end by a frusto-conical portion 92. This
causes the air stream to be convergent as indicated by
broken lines 130 at the end of the burner. The por
3,045,745
5
`In the springtime the sand many be quite wet and
may require `a greater fuel consumption than in the fall
when the sand is relatively dry. Thus, the air supply may
be varied as between the Ispring and the fall, but such
»a variation or adjustment isV relatively infrequent, and is Cl
to be differentiated from a continuous change or modu
lation such fas is produced lby the thermostat in the dis
charge hopper.
Although the present burner is primarily van oil burner,
in some installations it m-ay be desired to provide for
conversion from oil to gas, for seasonal gas tiring. This
takes care of a locati-on where it is more economical to
use oil in winter when gas `is being heavily used for heat
ing, :and yet more economical to use gas in summer
when an excess is available at low cost. Such a burner
is shown in FIGURE 6. This burner is substantially
the same as that previously described, except for the ad
dition of a gas body 160 having a flange 162 which iS
secured to the ñanges 146 and 148 previously described.
The gas body 160 concentrically surrounds the air pipe
50 and it terminates `at its forward end in a frusto-conical
part ‘164.
The air stream draws gas along with it. However it
is desirable to provide flame retention means which per
6
At the burner tip a concentric arrangement is preferred,
but Vfor a different reason. One advantage is to provide
equal oil distribution to the three pilot tubes, and another
advantage is that tall of the pilot tubes may be made alike
and interchangeable. Accordingly, if the pilot oil pipe
S8 is collateral instead of coaxial, it nevertheless prefer
ably turns' inward and is connected to a nipple ‘86 at the
burner tip, which nipple preferably is in concentric rela
tion to the burner tip.
The pilot tubes 60 need not be straight radial tubes as
shown, but such tubes ‘are the simplest to make Aand
assemble. Other constructions might be employed pro
vided, however, that the discharge of pilot oil is located
at the proper ydistance from the burner axis, that is, near
the outside of the high velocity air stream.
It should be understood in the present burner that the
oil is supplied at low pressure, and that it is a heavy
oil which would not be latomized by its own jet action.
It does not contain enough kinetic energy for atomiza
tion, and instead it is the air which atomizes the oil.
The burner is a convenient one to use because a sin
gle -l-ow pressure air supply serves for the pilot as well
as the main burner, even though a heavy oil must be
atomized in large quantity. Moreover, only a single fuel
Although the plot oil and the main
mits some of the gas to burn with some of the air which 25 supply is needed.
eddies behind the end of the burner and which therefore
is not moving `at high velocity. yIn the present case, a
number, say six, of small chambers 166 tare provided
around the outside of the conical portion 164. As here
shown, these chambers have the configuration of a three 30
sided pyramid, each chamber requiring only -two tri
angular sides, while the conical portion 164.» acts as the
oil are separately controlled, they come from a single
source indicated at 24 in FIG. l, so that only one oil
pump and one oil preheater are needed. Although the
oil is a heavy oil pumped at low pressure, it is usable for
the pilot flame as well as the main llame.
With three or more pilots, as here shown, there is a
uniform ignition around the burner, and there is no dis
tortion of the flame pattern.
end. The conical portion 164 has an aperture 168 lead
As previously explained, the present burner accommo
ing to each of the Ichambers to feed it some of the gas, 35 dates a “wide turndown,” that is, the main oil supply
and the outer edge of each chamber is preferably aper
may be turned down greatly without modulating or re
tured or slo-tted as shown at 170. This ring of small
ducing the air supply, and without the burner being ex
third side.
Each chamber is open at the front or right
chambers around the end of the burner acts :as a flame
tinguished.
Indeed, the main oil supply may tbe shut
retention means when lburning gas.
olf completely, without reducing the air supply, and with
The gas supply is connected to Ian elbow 172 which is 40 out extinguishing the pilot flames. With a correct Oil
welded to the gas body 160 at 174, and which is provided
to-air ratio, ordinary burners can Ibe turned down only,
with a flange 176 for connection to a suitable gais supply
say, 30% (without modulating the air supply). With a
p1pe.
rich oil-to-air ratio, they can be turned down more. H-ow
It will be understood tha-t the oil supply is shut off
ever, with the present burner, the main oil supply can
when using gas. The gas is ignited Iby Ia gas pilot flame
be turned vdown to a very low value, say 20% or 10%,
which is not shown in the present drawing, and which may 45 and yet the oil being supplied will |be atomized and
be conventional. This gas pilot flame 'also may be used
‘burned by the pilot llames. At such a low value, the
for ignition of the oil burner, and it is common to ignite
pilot oil and pilot flames themselves form a substantial
a large oil burner in that manner. The gas pilot llame
part of the burner action, and they supply a substantial
itself may be ignited electrically by spark ignition, or
part of the burner heat.
in other desired fashion. When `a gas pilot is used to 50
It is believed that the construction and operation of
ignite the oil burner, the pilot flame may be left on if
my improved lofw air pressure burner, as well as the ad
gas is cheaply »avail-able, or shut off if gas is expensive, as
vantages thereof, will be apparent from the foregoing
when bottled gas is being used solely for ignition pur
poses.
detailed description. It will also be apparent that while
I have shown and described my invention in several pre
In respect to the oil burner pilot nozzle tubes, whether 55 ferred forms, changes may lbe made in the structures
or not .an auxiliary gas jacket is employed, it may be
shown, without departing from the scope of the inven
explained that when the nozzle tubes project out too far,
tion, as sought to be deñned in the following claims.
the oil flowing from their tips is not atomized, and falling
I claim:
out of the air stream, will collect on the ñre brick lined
1. An oil burner having a forward end and compris
ignition cone 30 (FIGURE l), and then run out on the 60 ing an air pipe open at its forward end and from which
ground, or if it remains, it will build up ‘as carbon. The
a high velocity air stream may flow, a main oil tube eX
pilot flames will remain lit, but the oil drip and the carbon
tending through the air pipe and having a forward end,
collection both are objectionable. On the other hand,
an oil atomizing nozzle at the -forward end of the
if the pilot nozzle tips are too far in, relative to the high
oil tube and burner, said nozzle being non-rotatable, a
velocity air stream, the pilot flames will lbe extinguished. 65 pilot
oil tube extending through the main oil tu‘be and
The correct ‘adjustment avoids both difñculties.
having a forward end, a plurality of radial pilot nozzle
The pilot oil pipe 58 may be collateral and outside
tubes at the Iforward end of the pilot oil tube, said pilot
of instead of within the main oil pipe 54, but we deal
nozzle tubes having tips located near the periphery of
here with a burner for very heavy oil which must be
preheated, and the coaxial arrangement shown has an 70 the high velocity air stream from the air pipe and ad
justable to a position outside the air stream, said pilot
>advantage in that the pilot oil flowing through the inner
nozzle tubes being open at said tips for discharge of oil.
pipe is kept warm and may even be additionally pre
2. An oil burner having a forward end and compris
heated, »as well :as being insulated from the cooling action
of the air supply, by the main oil Isupply flowing between
ing an air pipe open at its forward end and from which
pipes 58 and 54.
75 a high velocity air stream may ñow, a main oil tube
3,045,745
7
having a forward end, a main oil supply means for said
main oil tube, an yoil atomizing nozzle at the forward
end of the oil tube and burner, said nozzle being non
rotatable, a pilot oil tube having a forward end, pilot
nozzle tubes `disposed radially at the forward end `of the
pilot oil tube, said pilot nozzle tubes having tips located
near the periphery of the high velocity air stream from
the air pipe and adjustable to a position outside the air
stream, said pilot nozzle tubes Íbeing open at said tips
for discharge of oil, whereby ignition is maintained even
after wide turndown of the main oil supply without re
tubes having tips which slope radially outward and for
wardly at a radius large enough to come near the periph
ery of the high velocity air stream from the air pipe and
adjustable to a lposition outside the air stream, whereby
ignition is maintained even after wide t-urndown of the
main oil supply without reducing the air supply, said
pilot nozzle tubes passing through said atomizing nozzle
and having an effective radial length greater than the
radius of the atomizing nozzle.
7. An oil burner having a forward end and comprising
an air pipe for constant pressure air, `said pipe being open
ducing the air supply, said pilot nozzle tubes passing
at its forward end from which pipe a high velocity air
through said atomizing nozzle and having an effective ra
dial length greater than the radius of the atomizing noz
zle.
3. An oil burner having a forward end and compris
ing an air pipe open at its forward end and from which
stream may ñow, a main oil tube extending axially through
the air pipe and having a forward end, an oil atomizing
nozzle at the forward end of the oil tube and burner,
said nozzle being non-rotatable, -a pilot oil tube extending
axially trough the main oil tube and having a forward end,
Ia valve controlling the supply of oil to the main but
not the pilot oil tube, a plurality of radial pilot nozzle
tubes at the forward end of the pilot oil tube, said pilot
nozzle tubes having tips which slope radially outward and
a high velocity air stream may flow, a main `oil tube ex
tending axially through the air pipe and having a for
ward end, an oil atomizing nozzle at the forward end
of the oil tube and burner, said nozzle being non-rotata
forwardly at a radius large enough to come near the
ble, a pilot oil tube extending axially through the main
periphery of the high velocity air stream from the air pipe
oil tube and having a forward end, a plurality of radial
and adjustable to a position `outside the air stream, said
pilot nozzle tubes disposed radially at the forward end of
the pilot oil tube, said pilot nozzle tubes having tips lo 25 pilot nozzle tubes passing through said atomizing nozzle
and having an effective radial Ilength greater than the
cated near the periphery of the high velocity air stream,
radius of the atomizing nozzle.
from the air pipe and adjustable to a position outside the
8. An oil burner having a forward end and compris
air stream, said pilot nozzle tubes being open at said tips
ing an air pipe open at its forward end and from which
for discharge of oil, said pilot nozzle tubes passing
through said atomizing nozzle and having an effective 30 a high velocity air stream may flow, a main oil tube having
a forward end, a main oil supply line for said main oil
radial length greater than the radius of the atomizing
tube, an atomizing nozzle at the forward end of the oil
nozzle.
tube and burner, said nozzle comprising annular oil dis
4. An oil burner having a forward end and comprising
charge rings having knife edges, means to deliver oil from
an air pipe open at its forward end and from which a
high Velocity air stream may flow, a main oil tube hav 35 said main oil tube to the annular rings, means to deliver
air from «the air pipe to both sides of said rings, a pilot
ing a forward end, a main oil supply line for said main
oil tube providing an oil supply which is maintained in
oil tube, an oil atomizing nozzle at the forward end of
dependently of the control of the main oil supply, pilot
the oil tube and burner, said nozzle being non-rotatable,
nozzle tubes disposed radially at the forward end of the
a pilot oil tube having a forward end, pilot nozzle tubes
disposed radially at the forward end of the pilot oil tube, 40 pilot `oil tube and burner, said pilot nozzle tubes having
said pilot nozzle tubes having tips which slope radially
outward and forwardly at a radius large enough to come
near the periphery of the high velocity air stream from
the air pipe and adjustable to a position outside the air
stream, said pilot nozzle tubes Ibeing open at said tips
for discharge of oil, whereby ignition is maintained even
after wide turndown of the main oil supply without re
ducing the air supply.
5. An oil burner having a forward end and comprising
an air pipe open at its forward end and from which a
high velocity air stream may flow, a main oil tube eX
tending axially through the air pipe and having a forward
end, an oil atomizing nozzle at the forward end of the
oil ydischarge tips, the oil discharge tips of said pilot nozzle
tubes being located near the periphery of the high velocity
air stream from the air pipe and adjustable to a position
outside the air stream, whereby ignition is maintained
even after wide turndown of the main oil supply without
reducing the air supply.
`9. An oil burner having a forward end and comprising
an air pipe open at its forward end and which a high
velocity air stream may flow, a main oil tube extending
axially through the air pipe and having `a forward end, an
atomizing nozzle at the forward end of the oil tube and
burner, said nozzle comprising annular oil discharge rings
having knife edges, means to deliver oil from said main
oil tube to the annular rings, means to deliver air from
oil tube and burner, said nozzle being non-rotatable, a
pilot oil tube extending axially through the main oil tube 55 the air pipe toy both sides of said rings, said knife edges
constituting the forward end of the burner, a pilot oil
and having a forward end, a plurality of radial pilot noz
tube extending axially through the main oil tube and hav
zle tubes at the forward end of the pilot oil tube, said
ing a forward end, `a plurality of radial pilot nozzle tubes
pilot nozzle tubes having tips which slope radially out
at the forward end of the pilot oil tube, said pilot nozzle
ward and forwardly at a radius large enough to come
near the periphery of the high velocity air stream from 60 tubes having tips located near the periphery of the high
velocity air stream from the air pipe and adjustable to a
the air pipe and adjustable to a position outside the air
position outside the air stream, said pilot nozzle tubes
stream, said pilot nozzle tubes being open at said tips
passing radially through said annular rings of said atomiz
for discharge of oil.
ing nozzle to a radius larger than the radius of said rings.
6. A heavy oil burner having a forward end and com
l0. An oil burner having a forward end and comprising
prising an air pipe for constant pressure air, said pipe 65
and air pipe open at its forward end yand from which a
being open at its forward end from which pipe a high
high velocity air stream may flow, .a main oil tube having
velocity air stream may flow, a main oil tube having a
a forward end, a main oil supply line for said main oil
forward end, a main oil supply line for said main oil
tube, an atomizing nozzle at the forward end of the oil
tube, an oil atomizing nozzle at the forward end of the
oil tube and burner, a pilot oil tube having a forward 70 tube and burner, said nozzle comprising annular oil dis
charge rings having knifeedges, means to deliver oil from
end, a single source of heavy oil for both the pilot oil
said main oil tube to the annular rings, means to deliver
tube and the main oil tube, said nozzle being non-rotata
air from the air pipe to both sides of said rings, a pilot
ble, a valve controlling the supply of oil to the main but
oil tube extending through the burner, and having a for
not the pilot oil tube, pilot nozzle tubes disposed radially
at the forward end of the pilot oil tube, said pilot nozzle 75 ward end, pilot nozzle tubes disposed `radially at the
-forward end of the pilot oil tube, -said pilot nozzle tubes
having tips which slope radially outwardly and forwardly
`at a radius large enough to come near the periphery
of the high velocity air stream from the air pipe and ad
justable to a position outside `the air stream, whereby
ignition is maintained even after wide turndown of the
high velocity air stream may flow, a main oil tube having
a forward end, a main oil supply line for said main oil
tube, an atomizing nozzle at the forward end of the oil
Itube and burner, said nozzle comprising a plurality of
`concentric annular oil discharge rings having knife edges,
means to `deliver oil from said main oil tube to the region
between the annular rings, means to deliver air from the
1l. An oil burner having a forward end and compris
air pipe to the inside of the inner ring, means to deliver
ing an air pipe for generaly constant pressure air, said
air from the air pipe to the region ybetween the rings,
pipe being open at its forward end from which pipe a 10 means to deliver air from the air pipe to the outside of
high velocity air stream may ilow, a main oil tube extend
the outer ring, a pilot oil tube having ya forward end, pilot
ing axially lthrough the air pipe and having a forward
nozzle tubes disposed radially at the forward end of the
end, an atomizing nozzle at the forward end of the oil
pilot oil tube, said pilot nozzle tubes having tips which
tube and burner, said nozzle comprising `annular oil dis
slope radially outward and forwardly at -a radius large
charge rings having knife edges, means to deliver oil from
enough to come outside of the high velocity air stream
said main Ioil tube to the annular rings, means to deliver
from the air pipe', whereby ignition is maintained even
air from the air pipe to both sides of said rings, said
after wide turndown of the main oil supply Without re
knife edges constituting the forward end of the burner,
ducing the air supply.
a pilot oil tube extending axially through the main oil
15. An oil yburner having a forward end and comprising
tube and having a forward end, a Valve controlling the 20 an air pipe for generally constant pressure air, said pipe
supply of oil to the main but not the pilot oil tube, a
being open at its forward end from which pipe a high
plurality of radial pilot nozzle tubes at the forward end
velocity air stream may flow, a main oil tube extending
of the pilot oil tube, said pilot nozzle tubes having tips
axially through the air pipe and having a forward end,
which slope radially outward and lforwardly `at a radius
an atomizing nozzle at the forward end of the oil tube
large enough to come near the periphery of the high ve 25 and burner, said nozzle comprising a plurality of concen
locity air stream from the >air pipe and adjustable to a
tric `annular oil dischargel rings having knife edges, means
position outside the air stream, said pilot nozzle tubes
to deliver oil from said main oil tube to the region be~
passing radially through said annular rings of said atomiz
tween the annular rings, means to deliver air from the air
ing nozzle to a radius larger than the radius of said rings.
pipe to the inside of the inner ring, means to deliver air
l2. An oil 4burner having a forward end and compris 30 from the air pipe to the region between the rings, means
ing an air pipe open at its forward end and from which a
to deliver air from the air pipe to the outside of the outer
high velocity air stream may flow, a main oil tube having
ring, said knife edges constituting the forward end of the
a forward end, la main oil `supply line for `said main oil
burner, a pilot oil tube extending axially through the main
tube, an atomizing nozzle at the forward end of the oil
oil tube and having a forward end, a valve controlling the
tube and burner, said nozzle comprising a plurality of 35 supply of oil to the main but not the pilot oil tube,
concentric annular oil discharge rings having knife edges,
a plurality of radial pilot nozzle tubes at the forward
means to deliver oil from `said main oil tube to the region
end of the pilot oil tube, said pilot nozzle tubes having
between the `annular rings, means to deliver air from the
tips `which slope outward in the direction of flow at a
air pipe to the inside of the inner ring, means to deliver
radius large enough to come outside of the high velocity
air from the air pipe to the region between the rings, 40 air stream from the air pipe, said pilot nozzle tubes passing
main oil supply without reducing the air supply.
means to deliver air from the air pipe to» the outside of the
outer ring, a pilot oil tube providing an oil supply which
radially through said `annular rings of said atomizing
nozzle to .a radius larger than the radius of said rings.
16. An oil burner, as defined in claim 1, in which the
is maintained independently of the control of the main oil
supply, pilot nozzle tubes disp-osed radially at the forward
pilot oil tube with its radial pilot nozzle tubes is adjust
end of the pilot oil tube and burner, said pilot nozzle 45 able in axial direction relative to the burner, and in which
tubes having oil discharge tips, the oil discharge tips of
the forward end of the ‘air pipe of the burner is so shaped,
said pilot nozzle tubes being located near the periphery
that the high velocity air stream is tapered, whereby said
of the high velocity air stream from the air pipe and ad
axial ‘adjustment has the effect of varying the effective
justable to ya position outside the air stream, whereby ig
radius of the pilot nozzle tubes relative to that 0f the
nition is maintained even after wide turndown of the main 50 stream.
oil supply without reducing the air supply.
13. An oil «burner having a forward end and comprising
an air pipe open at its forward end `and from which a
high velocity air stream may flow, a main oil tube ex
17. An oil burner, as defined in claim 5, in which there
is a main fuel oil supply means for said main oil tube,
and in which the pilot oil tube with its radial pilot nozzle
tubes is adjustable in axial direction relative to the burner,
tending axially through the air pipe and having a »forward 55 and in which the forward end of the Iair pipe of the burner
end, an atomizing nozzle at the forward end of the oil
is so shaped that the high velocity air stream is tapered,
tube and burner, said nozzle comprising a plurality of
whereby said axial adjustment has the effect of varying the
concentric annular oil discharge rings having knife edges,
effective radius of the pilot nozzle tubes relative to that
means to deliver oil from said main oil -tube to the region
of the stream in order thereby to obtain la desired rela
between the annular rings, means to deliver air `from the 60 tionship such that pilot ignition is maintained without
air pipe to the inside of the inner ring, means to deliver
reduction in air supply regardless of change in the main
air from the air pipe to the region between the rings,
fuel oil supply rate.
means to deliver air from the `air pipe to the outside of
18. An oil burner, as defined in claim 9, in which
the outer ring, said knife edges constituting the forward
the pilot oil tube with its radial pilot nozzle tubes is
end of the burner, a pilot oil tube extending axially 65 adjustable in axial direction relative to the burner, and
through the main oil tube and having a forward end, a
in which the forward end of the air pipe of the burner
plurality of radial pilot nozzle tubes at the forward end
is So shaped, that the high velocity air stream is tapered,
of the pilot oil tube, said pilot nozzle tubes having tips
whereby said axial adjustment has the effect of varying
located near the periphery of the high velocity Iair stream
from the air pipe and adjustable to a position outside
the air stream, said pilot nozzle tubes passing radially
through said :annular rings of said atomizing nozzle to a
radius larger than the radius of said rings.
14. An oil burner having a forward end and comprising
an air pipe open at its forward end and from which a
the effective radius of the pilot nozzle tubes relative to
70 that of the stream.
19. An oil burner, as defined in claim 11, in lwhich
there is a main fuel oil supply means for said main oil
tube, and in which the pilot oil tube with its radial pilot
nozzle tubes is adjustable in axial direction relative to
75 the burner, and in which the forward end of the air pipe
3,045,745
11
12
of the burner is so shaped that the high velocity air stream
of the burner is frusto-conical and convergent so that the
is tapered, whereby said axial adjustment has the effect
of varying the effective radius of the pilot nozzle tubes
high velocity air stream is convergent, whereby said axial
adjustment has the effect of varying the effective radius
relative to that of the stream in order thereby to obtain
of the pilot nozzle tubes relative to that of the stream,
in order thereby to obtain a desired relationship such
a desired relationship such that pilot ignition is main
that pilot ignition is maintained without reduction in air
tained without reduction in lair supply regardless of change
supply regardless of change in the main fuel oil supply
in the main fuel oil supply rate.
rate.
20. An oil burner, as defined in claim 12, in which the
23. An yoil burner, as defined in claim l1, in which
pilot oil tube with its radial pilot nozzle tubes is adjust
able in axial direction relative to the burner, and in which 10 there is a main fuel oil supply means for said main oil
tube, and in which the pilot oil tube with its radial pilot
the forward end of the air pipe of the burner is so shaped,
nozzle tubes is adjustable in axial direction relative to
that the high velocity air stream is tapered, whereby said
the burner, and in which the forward end of the air pipe
axial adjustment has the effect of varying the effective
of the burner is frusto-conical and convergent so that
radius of the pilot nozzle tubes relative to that of the
15 the high velocity air stream is convergent, whereby said
stream.
axial adjustment has the effect of varying the effective
2l. An oil burner, as defined in claim 1S, in which
radius of the pilot nozzle tubes relative to that of the
there is a main fuel oil supply means for said main oil
stream, in order thereby to obtain a desired relationship
tube, and in which lthe pilot oil tube with its radial pilot
such that pilot ignition is maintained without reduction
nozzle tubes is adjustable in `axial direction relative to
the burner, and in which the forward end of the -air pipe 20 in air supply regardless of change in the main fuel oil
supply rate.
of the burner is so shaped that the high velocity air stream
is tapered, whereby said axial adjustment has the effect
References Cited in the file of this patent
of varying the effective radius of the pilot nozzle tubes
relative to that of the stream in order thereby to obtain
a desired relationship such that pilot ignition is main 25
tained Without reduction in air supply regardless of change
in the `main fuel oil lsupply rate.
22. An oil burner, as defined in claim 7, in which
there is a main fuel oil supply means for said main oil
UNITED STATES PATENTS
943,567
1,349,876
Rohrbach et al ________ __ Dec. 14, 1909
Doble ______________ __ Aug. 17, 1920
2,184,967
Winter ______________ _„ Dec. 26, 1939
2,351,421
Gibson ______________ _.- June 13, 1944
288,721
299,864
Great Britain _________ __ Apr. 13, 1928
Germany ____________ __ Aug. 14, 1917
FOREIGN PATENTS
tube, and in which the pilot oil tube with its radial pilot 30
nozzle tubes is ladjustable in axial direction relative to
the burner, and in which the' forward end of the air pipe
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