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Патент USA US3045766

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July m, W62
-Filed Aug. 2e. 1958
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
FIG." la
FIG. vlb
BY/í rá
“my m” w62
Filed Aug. 26. 1958
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
7NR p
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Patented July 24, i952
FIG. 4 is an enlarged vertical sectional view of the
pressure relief valve structure of the well tool.
Referring to the drawings, particularly to FIGS. vla
and lb thereof, the well tool shown is suspended in the
casing 10 by means of a conductor cable 1p1> lhaving an
George E. Briggs, Jr., Houston, Tex., assignor to Halli
burton Company, a corporation of Delaware
Filed Aug. 26, 1958, Ser. No. 757,338
10 Claims. (Cl. 16o-_162)
insulated electrically conductive wire lz'therein. The
This invention relates to well tools and more particu
larly to well tools that are lowered into and raised from a
well by means of a cable. The invention is especially
concerned with tools for applying tluids under pressure to
a well formation and specifically relates to a wire line
squeeze cementíng tool.
An object of the invention is to provide a well tool
that is lowered into the well on a cable to a predetermined
level and there operated to apply fluid, such as cement
slurry, under high pressure to the walls of thc Well, or
through casing perforations to the annulus between the
casing and the surrounding earth formation.
cable is anchored in a cable head 13 and from thek latter
depends a tiring unit and pressure relief valve assembly
14. A powder lchamber housing 15 is secured to the
bottom of the assembly 14. A powder chamber orifice
sub 16 is fitted to the bottom of the powderchamber
unit and this sub, in turn, supports a check valve sub 17.
Suspended from the bottom of the check `valve sub is a
hydraulic hold-down anchor 18 from which depends a
packer assembly 19. - A fill-port sub 20 is threaded to
the bottom of the packer assembly and a cement con
tainer 21 is suspended from the till-port sub. The well
tool is‘thus seen to provide an elongated hollow carrier.
The powder chamber unit 15 has a thick-walled cylin
>Another object of the invention is to provide a well 20 drical housing 22 capable of withstanding not only the
tool of the foregoing character wherein the tool is actua-ated by the pressure of powder gases generated within the
l external Vpressures to which it is subjected as the tool is
lowered in a well, but also the high internal pressures
created when the powder within the chamber is ignited.
The upper end of the housing is closed by the lower end
into the packed-off zone.
25 of the firing unit and pressure relief valve assembly 14
Another object is to provide, in such a tool, means
which is threaded into the upper end of the housing, the
whereby the pressure created in the packed-ofi zone is
joint being sealed by 0-rings 23. A plug '24 is threaded
relieved> and the packer and anchor are disengaged from
into the lower end of the housing 22, the plug being
the walls of the well in a reliable manner, in order that
axially bored to receive the powder gas outlet orifice ring
the tool may be readily withdrawn from the well after 30 25. The orifice sub 16 has a central bore 26 that is
a cementing operation has been performed.
closed by a plug 27 seated against a shoulder formed in
Another object is to provide a Well tool having packer
the bore. The shoulder prevents the plug 27 from be
means that will securely pack-oli~ a well zone under very
ing forced upwardly by external pressure and permits the
high pressure. v
plug to be blown down and out of the orifice sub when
The foregoing and other objects and advantages of the 35 the pressure in the powder chamber substantially exceeds
tool to anchor the tool in the well, to pack off a well zone
and to eject -a mass of cement slurry carried by the tool
invention are realized in a well tool including van elon
external pressure,
gated hollow carrier or body containing a fluid, means
for lowering and raising the carrier in a well, a longitudi
A screen 28 is positioned in the bottom of the powder
chamber and a number of propellant grains 29 which
nally extending packer sleeve surrounding a portion of the
may be made of powder. separated by perforated metal
exterior of the carrier, one end of the sleeve being seal 40 spacer rings 30, are stacked on the screen. Each grain
ingly secured to the carrier and the other end of the sleeve
29 may have a sleeve 3l of metal on its vertical cylindri
providing a skirt or cup laterally expandable into sealing
cal surface to inhibit burning at. this surface and to con~
v_ engagement with the wall of the well, a packer expander
fine burning to the ends of the powder grains.
member slidable into the skirt for expanding the same
The propellant grains 29 are ignited by an igniter unit
into such sealing engagement, a fluid motor having a
32 having a charge 33 of black powder that is initiated
fluid inlet port communicating with the fluid in the car
by an electric squib 34. The squib is ñrcd _by current
rier and a fluid outlet port communicating with the well
conducted from the surface of the well to the squib
ñuid surrounding the carrier, means drivingly connect
through the conductor wire l2, insulated circuit elements
ing the ñuid motor to the expander member to slide the
(not shown) in the cable hcad`13, and insulated con
' expander member into the skirt, means for increasing the 50 ductor 34a in the tiring unit and pressure relief valve
pressure of the ñuid lin the carrier to a pressure substan
assembly 14. The firing circuit is returned to the sur
face through ground.
tially in excess of the pressure of the well fluid surround
ing the carrier, and valve means operable from the sur
The check valve 35 in the sub 17 opens inwardly of
facerof the well for venting the pressure in the carrier to
the tool. Thus, as the tool is lowered in a well and the
55 pressure of the fluid surrounding the tool increases, the
the exterior thereof.
The well tool, described in general terms in the im
valve will open to admit well fluid into the interior of
mediately preceding paragraph, will' be described with
the tool below the plug 27 to equalize pressures inside
greater particularity and other advantages >of the inven
and outside of the tool. However, as will be seen as
,tion will be set forth in or apparent from the following
the description proceeds, the check valve closes when
detailed description of an exemplary embodiment of the 60 the pressure inside lthe tool exceeds ambient well pres
invention illustrated in the drawings wherein:
sure, thus preventing loss of ñuid pressure from the tool
FIG. la is a vertical cross-sectional view of the upper
through the check valve.
part of a well tool positioned in the casing of a well;
Details of the hydraulic hold-down anchor 18 are
FIG, lb is a cross~sectionalvicw of the lower portion
shown to yadvantage in FIG. 2. The anchor has a verti~
of the well tool shown in FIG. la, it being understood that 65 cally elongated, hollow, cylindrical body 36. Three
FIG. la and FIG. 1b_ are taken together to show the
vertical rows of pistons 37 are evenly spaced circumfer
entire tool;
FIG. 2 is an enlarged vertical elevational view of the
entially of the body. The pistons slide in radially recessed
cylinders 38 that communicate through openings 39 with
hold»down anchor of the well tool of FIGS. la and lb,
the hollow bore of the housing. The outer faces 40 of
parts being broken away to show interior construction; 70 the pistons are knurled or roughened to grip `securely the
FIG. 3 is an enlarged vertical sectional view of the
inner wallsvof the casing. Each piston has a pair of
packer mechanism of the well tool; and
diametrically opposed slots 41 into which the „retaining
fingers 42 extend, the fingers being mounted on the body
36 by means of screws 43. Compression springs 44 act
between the lingers 42 and the inner ends of the slots 41
to urge the pistons inwardly of their cylinders. Shoulders
45 at the inner ends of the cylinders limit inward move
ment of the pistons.
The packer assembly 19 appears in enlarged vertical
reduced upstandi'ng cylindrical portion 77, a further re
duced upstanding guide rod 78, and a collar 79 threaded
to the upper end of the guide`rod. The upper relief
valve member 74 has a cylinder 80 that slidingly receives
the cylindrical portion 77 of the lower member, a bore
81 in which slides the guide rod 78, and a cylinder 82
slidably receiving the collar 79.
sectional view in FIG. 3. It has an adapter 46 that is
A shear pin 83 is normally engaged under the collar
threaded to the bottom of the `anchor 18 and that forms
79 to hold the upper and lower relief valve members in
an upper cylinder head for the cylinder 47. Sliding with 10 the position shown in FIG. la. When the shear pin is
in the cylinder is a piston 48 having an upper piston
broken by pulling up on the cable 11, the upper and
guide 49 and a lower piston guide 50, the guides being
lower relief valve members assume the positions shown
slidable in the end walls of the cylinder. The piston and
in FIG. 4 and fluid pressure in the tool below the lower
the upper and lower guides are provided with an axial
relief valve member 73 is vented to the exterior of the
bore 51 extending therethrough. Radial bores 52 com 15 tool through the passages 84.
municate the axial bore 51 with the interior of the cyl
In operation, the ‘tool is assembled as shown in FIGS.
îndcr at the lower side of the piston. The cylinder cham
la and lb. A charge of cement slurry is introduced into
ber at the upper side of the piston is vented to the
the cement container 21 through the fill port 66. The
exterior of the tool through ports 52a in the walls of
tool is then lowered into the well to be cemented. As
the cylinder 47. As will be explained more fully here» 20 the `tool is lowered through the liquid in the well bore,
inafter, the piston 48 and cylinder 47 are the principal
the check valve 35 operates to equalize the pressure in
components of a fluid motor for actuating the packer ex
the tool below the powder chamber closing plug 27 with
the pressure of the well liquid.
A packer sleeve or cup 53 of thick, Hexible rubber or
When the tool has reached the desired location in
neoprene or similar material is mounted on the bottom 25 the well, the firing circuit is energized from the surface
of the cylinder 47 by means of a mounting ring 54. The
of the earth. The igniter 32 is thus tired and the pow
mounting ring is fastened to the cylinder 47 by retainer
der grains 29 are ignited. Powder gases build up pres
screws 55 and the ring carries the packer sleeve which is
in the powder chamber 15 and, when the internal
supported thereon by vertical pins 56 bearing against a
exceeds the external pressure by a sufficient
metal reinforcing ring 57 molded into the sleeve. The 30 pressure
amount, the plug 27 is blown out of lthe orifice sub 16
upper edge of the sleeve is of reduced thickness and is
and down the interior of the tool. Powder gases rush
received in a recess of the mounting ring.
out of the powder chamber while the screen 28 retains
A vertically bored mandrel 58 is threadedly secured to
unburned powder particles within the powder chamber.
the bottom of the lower piston guide 50 and sealed there
to by an O-ring S9. The outer cylindrical surface 60 of 35 Fluid pressure increases in the tool. When the pres
sure in the anchor 18 exceeds »the external pressure by
the mandrel conforms to the inner wall of the packer
a small amount, the pistons 37 are forced out and into
sleeve 53 and slides therein.
engagement with the inner wall of the casing 10 to hold
To the bottom of the mandrel 58, an annular packer
the tool against vertical movement in the well.
expander member 61 is threaded. The expander has a
As the pressure in the tool increases still further, the
downwardly and outwardly ñaring conical surface 62. 40 resultant
force exerted on the lbottom of the piston 48
The diameter of the upper portion of the conical section
becomes great enough to move the piston upwardly in
is equal to the diameter of the mandrel 58 and the diam
the cylinder 47 to force the packer expander 61 into the
eter of the lower portion of the conical section is some
of the packer sleeve 53 to expand the sleeve into
what less than the inside diameter of the casing 10.
tight sealing engagement with the bore of the casing 10,
Vertical passages 63 extend through the expander 61
from the upper end of the conical surface 62 to the bot 45 as shown in FIG. 3. It will be observed that upward
movement of the piston 48 lifts the fill-port sub 20 and
tom face 64 of the expander. Eight or ten such passages
cement container 21 as well as the expander 61.
are circumferentially spaced around the expander and
A further increase -in fluid pressure within the tool
serve an important purpose which will be explained here
forces the disk 70 from the bottom of the cement con
As seen in FIG. 1b, the fill-port sub 20 is screwed 50 tainer 21 and ejects the cement slurry from the cement
container through its open bottom under high pressure.
into the bottom of the packer expander. The till-port
The cement is forced through the casing perforations 85
sub has an axial bore 65 therethrough. A port 66 is cut
and into the space around the casing to cement the latter
through the side wall of the sub 20 and the port is closed
to the surrounding earth formation. Pressure is held
by a. sliding sleeve 67 that may be raised to uncover the
port 66 for purposes of ñlling the tool with cement 55 on the cement until it has acquired an initial set.
After the cement has taken an initial set and it is de
slurry. The sleeve is retained in the illustrated closed
sired to withdraw the tool from the well bore, an up- .
position by a removable locking screw 68.
ward pull is applied to the cable 11 to shear the pin
The hollow cement container 21 is secured to the till
83 in the firing unit and pressure relief valve assembly
port sub 20, as seen in FIG. 1b. A closure is provided
for the bottom of the cement container. This closure in 60 14 and to open the pressure relief valve as illustrated in
FIG. 4. Fluid pressure within the tool and within the
cludes a ring 69 welded into the bottom of the cement
casing below the set packer sleeve 53 is equalized with
container. A metal disk 70, for example an aluminum
the well pressure above the set packer sleeve through
disk, is received in a recess in the bottom of the ring 69
and is retained in the recess by a sleeve 71 locked in the
the open relief valve passages 84. With the pressures
65 above and below ‘the packer thus equalized, gravity act
ring 69 by set screws 72.
In FIG. 4, the tiring unit and pressure relief valve as
ing on the tool components that are suspended from the
sembly 14 is shown with the relief valve in open position
piston 48 pulls these components down and effects with
`as distinguished from the closed position of the relief
drawal of the expander member 61 from the packer sleeve
valve illustrated in FIG. la. The assembly 14 has a lower
53 allowing the latter to contract. Also, since the pres
threaded member 73 that forms the upper closure of the 70 sures inside and outside of the tool are equalized, the
powder chamber and an upper member 74 slidable on
springs 44 effect retraction of the anchor pistons 37 thus
the lower member. The upper member 74 is coupled to
freeing fthe tool and allowing it to be withdrawn from the
the cable head 13 by the threaded sleeve 75.
The lower relief valve member 73 has a flange 76, a 75 The tool is readily prepared for another cementing op
eration in a manner that will be yapparent from the fore
going description.
rection in response to movement of said member therein.
4. The combination of claim 3 wherein said member
The vertical passages 63 in thc packer expander 611 have
is provided with n fluid passageway adapted to vent the
been found to increase the ability of thc packer assem
interior of said packing to the exterior thereof whereby
bly to pack-oft' high pressure zones. Without »the pas
movement of said member within said packing is facili~
sages 63, the packer assembly may hold a pressure difl’er
ential of about 2,000 pounds per square inch across the
5. The combination of claim 1 wherein said tiuid motor
flexible sleeve. In contrast, when the passages 63 are
means comprises a cylinder and a piston disposed for
provided, the packer assembly will effectively hold a
movement therein responsive to fìuid pressure application
pressure differential of 6,000 pounds per square inch 10 therein from said delivery means.
across the flexible sleeve. Moreover, the passages 63
6. The combination of claim 1 wherein the first-men
make for easier withdrawal of the packer expander from
tioned means comprises initiator means and valve means,
the packer sleeve after the cement has been expelled
said initiator means being adapted in response to an
from the tool and pressures have been equalized prepara
electrical current to institute delivery of pressure from
tory to withdrawal of the tool from the well.
said delivery means of said apparatus, and said valve
From the foregoing description, various modifications
means being adapted in response to wireline tension to vent
of the invention will occur to those skilled in the art
without departing from the spirit of the invention.
said apparatus, to the end that said first-mentioned means
is adapted to control the operation of the apparatus by
I claim:
controlling the presence or absence of pressure there~
1. An apparatus for treating well formations while 20 across.
suspended from a wireline, the combination of means for
7. The combination of claim 6 wherein said delivery
controlling said apparatus, fluid pressure delivery means
means comprises a charge adapted to react in response to
responsive to and associated with said control means, re
said initiator means to provide high fluid pressure within
tractable anchor means connected in fluid communica
said delivery means.
tion with said delivery means for expanding into gripping 25
8. The combination of claim 7 wherein said charge
Contact with a well bore wall in response to pressure
comprises a gas-producing combustible.
applied from said delivery means, retractable fluid mo~
9. The combination of claim 1 wherein said apparatus
tor means connected in fluid communication with said
delivery means for actuating in response to pressure ap
includes first uni-directional flow valve means in said ap
paratus for admitting fluids external to said apparatus into
plied from said delivery means, retractable packer means 30 said anchor, motor and container means whenever such
`in connection with said motor means for expanding into
external fluid pressure exceeds pressure within said an
sealing Contact with said well bore responsive to actua
Chor, motor and container means, and second uni-direc
tion of said motor means. walled container means con
tionai fiow valve means associated with said delivery
nected in fluid communication with said delivery means
means for preventing any external fluids admitted by said
for storing material for treating said Well bore, and pres
first valve means from entering said delivery means prior
sure responsive closure means in a wall portion of said
to delivery of fluid by said delivery means.
container means for releasing the contents of said con
10. The combination of claim 9 wherein said closure
tainer means responsive to pressure applied fronnrsaid de
means is a disk adapted to blow outwardly of said con~
livery means, said control means being adapted to vent
tainer means in response to predetermined ñuid pressure
any pressure across said apparatus in response to prede 40 therein.
termined -tension exerted between said wireline and an
chor means, thereby permitting retraction of said anchor
means, motor means and packer means.
2. The combination of claim 1 wherein said packer
means comprises a packing and a packing expanding
member connected to said motor means, said member
being adapted to move relative to and expand said pack
ing responsive to actuation'of said motor means.
3. The combination of claim 2 wherein said packer
expanding member has a tapered configuration and is 50
disposed for movement within said packing `whereby said
packing is reponsively adapted to expand in a radial di~
References Cited in the file of this patent
Collingwood __________ __ Apr. 28, 1908
Ferris ________________ __ July 4, 1944
Greene ______________ .__ Dec. 7, 1954
True _____ ___ ________ __ Apr. 23, 1955
Kline et al. -__- ________ __ Apr. 28, 1956
Newlin _____________ __ Sept. 11, 1956
Jones _______________ __ May 14, 1957
Webb ______________ .._ Sept~ 24, 1957
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