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Патент USA US3046001

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July 24, 1962
v. w. LILLY
3,045,991
BORING TYPE CONTINUOUS MINING MACHINE
Filed May 6, 1958
2 Sheets~Sheet 1
athfuzi
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ATTORNEYS
July 24, 1962
v. w. LILLY
3,045,991
BORING TYPE CONTINUOUS MINING MACHINE
Filed ‘May 6, 1958
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
YW W,M
ATTORNEY-5
United States Patent @??ce
1
3,045,991
Patented July 24, 1962
2
tion consists of a carriage which can be moved in desired
3,045,991
directions and carries a boring head, which is pivotally
Virley W. Lilly, Box 93, Chapmanville, W. Va.
Filed May 6, 1938, Ser. No. 733,358
2 Claims. (Cl. 262—9)
mounted on the carriage for adjusting movement in a
BORING TYPE CONTINUOUS MINING MACHINE
This invention relates to mining machines, and par
ticularly to mining machines which are designed to cut
into the coal, break it down and convey it to the rear of
the machine while the machine is advancing, so as to
provide a continuous mining operation.
In conventional, so-called continuous mining machines
horizontal plane and capable of continuous cutting during
rotational adjustment of the head relative to the carriage.
The machine has top and bottom shearing assemblies to
de?ne the vertical ‘span of the cut, and the top shearing
assembly is adjustable to permit varying the ceiling level.
The bottom shearer serves also as a gatherer and operates
in conjunction with conveyors to move out material from
the mine face and move it to the rear of the machine for re
moval from the mine.
the cutters are carried on a carriage which can be moved
While the present machine may be usable for different
in the mine by means of cable drums mounted on the
types of mining, it is principally designed for coal mining
carriage, cables and jacks. These machines, for the most 15 and will be described in that connection.
part, have assumed two forms, either having one or more
Referring to the drawings in detail, there is shown a
cutters which are mounted on arms which oscillate through
continuous mining machine which incorporates the prin
a limited arc of movement as they cut into the mine face,
ciples of the present invention, and includes a carriage 1
or having cutters which are movable in a ?xed orbit and
which supports a forwardly projecting cutter head 2 com
cut into the face as the carriage is moved forward. With 20 prising a boring head 3, top shearing assembly 4 and
each type of machine a cut of predetermined depth can be
bottom shearing and gathering assembly 5.
made, and the carriage then had to be backed up, moved
The carriage may be of any desired form and contains
sideways, and then moved into the face again to make
a power source 6 for operating the various mechanisms
another cut adjacent the ?rst. This procedure had to be
of the machine. The carriage is provided with the usual
repeated across the full width of the tunnel. The carriage 25 jacks 7 at its four corners, and the usual cable drums 8
could be placed at any desired angle to the face of the
and pulleys 9. The only point of importance here is the
vein, but then had to be moved straight forward while
arrangement of the drums and pulleys so that the cable
making a cut.
lines will be approximately on the plane of the horizontal
The principal object of the present invention is to pro
center line of the boring head so that when the cables are
vide a mining machine which can be moved into the mine 30 properly fastened to the drums and jacked in the well
face to make a cut of predetermined depth, and have its
known manner, the machine will be practically suspended
boring head turned and the machine moved laterally to
and put little weight upon the mine ?oor. This greatly in
continue the cut across the full face. This will enable
creases the ease with which the machine may be moved
a cut being made in a continuous operation which ex
in the mine.
35
tends the full width of the mine face.
The cutter head 2 projects forwardly of the carriage
Another object is the provision of such a machine having
a boring head mounted for bodily rotational movement
in either direction in a horizontal plane to change the
angle of the head relative to the supporting carriage.
A further object is to provide such a machine having
means for adjusting the vertical spin which the cut will
embrace.
It is an object to provide a mining machine which will
leave the ?nished walls and pillars in the mine with a
rounded shape which greatly adds to their strength and
rigidity.
and is supported upon a central beam 10 extending from
the carriage. A substantially U-shaped frame 11 is
mounted upon the beam and has its legs projecting for
wardly to provide support surfaces for various pumps,
operating shafts, etc. as will be described. Cover plates
12 bridge the legs of the frame 11 and complete a hous
mg.
The boring head 3 is carried at the front of a gear case
13 which is pivotally mounted in the U-shaped frame
11 for swinging movement in a horizontal plane. The
gear case has an upwardly extending boss 14 which is
Other objjects of the invention will become apparent
journalled in the top leg of the U-frame, and a down
from the following description of a practical embodiment
wardly extending boss 15 which is journalled in the lower
thereof, when taken in conjunction with the drawings 50 leg of the U~frame. These bosses form the trunnions
which accompany, and form part of, this speci?cation.
on which the gear case pivots. A drive shaft 16 extends
In the drawings:
vertically through the gear case and is coaxial with the
FIGURE 1 is a perspective view of a mining machine
bosses 14 and 15. The shaft projects beyond each of the
embodying the principles of the present invention;
FIGURE 2 is a side elevation of the machine shown
bosses, and carries a sprocket 17 at its lower end and a
spur gear 18 at its upper end. Sprocket 17 carries a
chain 19 which also passes around a sprocket 20 on a
in FIGURE 1, parts being broken away to show the path
shaft 21 projecting from the power source 6. Thus,
of movement of mined coal through the machine;
shaft 16 may be driven whenever the power source is
FIGURE 3 is a vertical longitudinal section through
active, and will not be affected by horizontal swinging
the forward portion of the machine;
FIGURE 4 is a transverse section through the machine, 60 movement of the boring head and gear case. The cutters
of the boring head are carried on a shaft 22 which is
taken on the line 4-4 of FIGURE 3, illustrating the
mounted at right angles to the shaft 16 and journalled
means for adjusting the upper shearing head assembly;
for rotation in a hub 23, projecting forwardly from the
FIGURE 5 is a horizontal section take on the line 5——5
gear casing 13. Shaft 22 carries .a bevel gear 24 mesh
of FIGURE 3, showing part of the drive mechanism for
ing with a bevel gear 25 on the shaft 16 so that a con
the upper shearing head assembly;
65
stant drive is provided for the boring head shaft when
FIGURE 6 is a horizontal section taken on the line
the drive shaft 16 is in motion.
6-—6 of FIGURE 3, showing the means for changing the
The spur gear 18 lies within a housing 26 on top of
angle of the boring head relative to the carriage; and
the
gear case 13 and the top leg of the U-frame 11.
FIGURE 7 is a diagrammatic view of the mine face
Gear 18 is in mesh with an idler gear 27 mounted on a
after boring by the head, and showing the action of a 70 stub shaft 28 ?xed to the U-frame 11, gear 27 is in mesh
breaker member.
with a second idler 29 mounted on shaft 30, and gear
In general, the mining machine of the present inven
29 is in mesh with a gear 31 splined onto shaft 32 which
3,045,991
3
‘carries the top shearing cutters 4. All of these gears are
enclosed within the housing 26. By this arrangement,
the top cutters are also operated whenever the drive shaft
16 is in motion.
It will be evident from the above that whenever power
is applied to shaft 21 chain 19, shaft 16, boring head 3
and top cutters 4 will all be put into operation. As
chain 19 forms the bottom cutter, as will be described,
d.
cone to be rotated about its pivot pin 64. The cone is
provided with an eccentric crowder 65 which will strike
hammer blows against the coal cylinder as the cone is
rotated. Here again, the coal cylinder will be caused to
break into rather large size lumps.
In order to prevent the gear case 13, and other parts
of the machinery, from being damaged, a barrier plate
66 is provided at the front of the gear case just in back of
all cutting elements will operate simultaneously.
the boring head assembly.
The barrier plate will be
is free to rotate within its journals and about shaft 16
having a plurality of drill bits 67 mounted therealong.
The fact that the mounting hubs, or bosses, 14 and 15 10 su?iciently large to protect the front end of the machine
but, at the same time, will enter into the opening made
of the gear case 13 and the shaft 16 are concentrically
by the boring head.
mounted, and shaft 16 forms the principal drive element
The upper shearing assembly consists of cross-arm 66
from which the various cutters are driven, the gear case
without interrupting, or interfering with, the drive to
the various cutting elements. In order to rotate the gear
case, a gear segment 33 of at least 180° extent is ?xed
to the rear of the gear case to mesh with an‘ operating
gear 34, ?xed to shaft 35 mounted in journals 36 carried
by a bridge plate 3'7 that spans the space between the
legs of the U-frame 11. Plate 37 has an opening 38
through which the gear segment 33 projects. Shaft 35
is rotated by means of a chain 39 which passes around
a sprocket 40 at the bottom of shaft 35 and a sprocket
41 on shaft 42 of hydraulic motor 43. Fluid for operat
ing motor 43 may be supplied from a pump 44 mounted
on, and powered by, the power source 6, through lines
45 and 46. Pump 44 may be connected with a ?uid
tank 47 by lines 48 and 49. When ?uid motor 43 is
operated, the gear 34 will be rotated, causing the gear
case 13 to rotate about its hubs, carrying the boring head
The cross arm 66 is ?xedly mounted upon shaft 32 for
rotation with that shaft. At the outer ends of the cross
arm 66, kerf cutters 68 are provided. These may be at
tached to the ends of the cross arm in any suitable man
ner, preferably by means which will allow them to be
rotated to either position above the cross arm or below
the cross arm. This will provide some means of adjust
ment, and regulate the position at which the top kerf will
be cut.
The entire shearing assembly is vertically movable for
major adjustment for ceilings of different height. As men
tioned above, shaft 32 is splined to the gear 31 and is free
to move through the gear and yet maintain rotative con
nection to the gear. The splines 69 extend part-way down
the shaft, and the lower end of the shaft is smooth and
?ts within a socket 70 in the supporting tongue 10‘. The
shaft is connected by means of a cross head 71 to nuts 72
with it to change the angle of the boring head relative
threaded onto shafts 73.
to the carriage. Reverse ?ow of the ?uid through the
on either side of the shaft 32 and are journaled in the
arms of the U-frame 11. It will be obvious that rotation
of the shafts 73 will cause the nuts 72 to move longitu
dinally for the shafts and thus raise or lower the shaft 32
and the upper shearing assembly 4. Shafts 73 are caused
to rotate by means of a chain 74, which passes around
sprockets 75 on the shaft 73 and a sprocket 76 mounted
lines Y45 and 46 will reverse the motor and reverse the
direction of swinging movement of the gear case and
boring head.
The boring head consists of a central rotary cutter 50
and a cross-arm 51 mounted on shaft 22 and having the
cutters 52 and 53 mounted at spaced points thereon. The
cutters 52 are at equal distances from the center of the
cross arm, and the shaft 22, and the cutters 53 are equally
spaced from the center of rotation of the head. Due to
this arrangement, the boring head will drill a center tap
hole, and the cutters 52 and 53 will cut annular channels
into the coal face concentric to the tap hole. This is 45
These shafts extend vertically
on shaft 77 extending from a ?uid motor 78. The motor
78 is powered by ?uid supplied through the lines 79 from
the fluid pump 44. It will be obvious that when the hy
draulic motor 78 is operated, the chain 74 will cause
shafts 73 to rotate, raising or lowering the cross head 71
and the shaft 32. This will permit the operator to con
trol the point at which the top, or roof, kerf is made so
shown diagrammatically in FIGURE 7, where the tap
as to control the over-all height of the cut made into the
hole is shown at 54, and the annular channels at 55 and
coal face.
56. Cutting in this manner leaves two concentric cyl
The bottom kerf is made by means of bits 80 ?xed to
inders 57 and 58 of unbroken coal after the cut is made.
The side cutters 53 have a plurality of cutter bits 53’ ar 50 the chain 19. Chain 19 is also provided with gathering
plates 81 staggered with respect to the bits and adapted to
ranged in a row along their outer side faces parallel to
sweep the broken down coal from in front of the machine
the axis of the boring head.
and carry it rearwardly along the chain track. Chain 19
In order to remove the uncut cylinders of coal, the
passes through a chamber 82 in the carriage, which cham
cross-arm 51 is offset near its central hub to provide a
pair of inclined cam faces 59. These faces converge to 55 ber forms a passageway through the carriage to permit
the gathering plates to draw the coal backward through
ward the center of rotation of the unit and will enter the
the machine over the ?oor 83 to the rear. The coal will
central tap hole and exert outward pressure against the
be caused to move up the incline 84 at the back end of the
inner surface of the inner cylinder 57 of coal. The out
machine where it will be lifted by the conveyor 8'5 and
ward pressure will be increased as the boring head ad
carried to a point where it can be dumped into a mine car.
vances into the coal face and when sufficient pressure has
Conveyor 85 is driven through a chain 86 by a motor 87.
been exerted the coal will break up into relatively large
Thus, as the machine cuts into the coal face the coal will
lumps. The breaking action is enhanced by the fact that
be carried rearwardly and dumped into mine cars for trans
the cam faces 59 are rotating as the cross arm rotates and
portation from the mine. Thus, not only the cutting
will exert pressure progressively around the coal cyl
action, but the clearing action as well, will be continuous.
inder.
In operating the machine, the machine is brought into
‘In order to break up the outer cylinder 58, an eccentric
substantial contact with the face of the coal to be cut.
type crowder unit 60 is provided. This unit comprises an
The cables will be ?xed about the pulleys 9 and to the
arm 61 ?xed to the hub of the cross arm 51 and having an
‘drums 8 and properly secured to conventional jacking
oifset 62, similar to those provided on the cross arm, which
will coact with the faces 59 to break up the inner coal 70 devices for movement in a desired direction. Assuming,
for the moment, that the cut is to be made straight into
cylinder. The outer end of the arm carries a serrated cone
63 rotatably mounted on a pin 64 ?xed to the arm. The
arm 61 will rotate with the cross-arm and bring the coni
cal surface of the cone 63 into contact with the inner
surface of the outer coal cylinder 58. This will cause the 75
the coal face, the machine will be adjusted for straight
forward operation. Due to the mounting of the pulleys
and cable drums substantially at the center line of the
boring head as previously described, the greater portion of
3,045,991
to
the weight will be lifted and the machine may be removed
without much force. The entire boring head assembly
will be arranged in alignment with the machine as shown
in FIGURE 1. The power source 6 will be energized
which will cause chain 19, boring head 3, and the upper
shearing assembly 4 to begin their respective rotative
U
tions to obtain travel in any required direction, control
the position of the cars immediately back of the machine
and at least assist in the procedure of shoring the mine
roof. Thus, labor costs ‘will be reduced. The particular
manner of cutting the coal and breaking it into lumps will
result in maximum lump production with a minimum of
shaving or rubbing action on the coal.
While in the above one practical embodiment of the
invention has been disclosed, it will be understood that
movements. As the machine moves forward, the cutters
of the boring head will cut into the face forming the center
tap hole and the concentric channels. The wedging cams
and the eccentric crowder will come into operation to 10 the precise details of structure shown and described are
break the remaining cylinders of coal so that the lumps
merely by way of illustration and the invention may take
will drop down. The coal will be picked up as it falls and
other forms within the scope of the appended claims.
carried rearwardly by the chain 19 as just described.
What is claimed is:
When a cut has been made to at least the center line of
i. A continuous mining machine comprising, a car
the shaft 16, hydraulic motor 43 will be energized to cause
riage, a boring head having cutters thereon mounted for
the boring head to rotate about its tnmnions to assume a
position substantially at right angles to the center line of
the carriage. The cutting operation Will be continued
rotation about a horizontal axis, means to rotate the
as this rotative movement is made so that the boring head
will in elfect cut its way around to its new position. The
cables and jacks will then be arranged so that the ma
chine will be drawn laterally of the mine tunnel and the
boring head will cut across the face of the coal. Thus a
complete cut can be made from one side of the tunnel
the boring head about its pivotal mounting to adjust the
angle of the boring head relative to the carriage, a top
to the other as a continuous operation.
All of the cutting elements are arranged for operation
in either direction, and the direction in which the ele
ments are moved will depend upon the direction of move
ment of the carriage. The cutting direction can be
changed at will in accordance with the desired direction
of movement of the machine. While a right angular turn
ing of the boring head has been described, it will be under
stood that the machine may be made to approach the coal
face at any angle and, after a su?ciently deep penetration
has been made, the boring head can be rotated the re
cutters, the boring head pivotally mounted on the car
riage for movement in a horizontal plane, means to move
shearing cutter mounted upon a vertical shaft, a vertical
drive shaft concentric to the pivotal mounting head of the
boring head, means drivingly interconnecting the drive
shaft and boring head cutters to rotate the boring head
cutters, a bottom kerf cutter mounted upon the drive
shaft below the boring head, means to drive the bottom
kerf cutter, and means drivingly interconnecting the drive
shaft and the top shearing cutter shaft.
2. In a continuous mining machine as claimed in
claim 1, means to ‘adjust the top shearing cutter vertical
shaft in an axial direction to change the cutting position
of the top shearing cutter relative to the boring head.
References (Iited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
quired amount to bring it parallel to the coal face and the
cut can be continued across the face.
Whenever it is de
sired to change the height of the cut, the ?uid motor 78
will be energized, causing the shafts 73 to rotate the lift
or lower the shaft 32 and the shearing assembly carried 40
thereby.
With a machine of this type it is possible to maintain
a continuous operation with but two operators who can
actually handle the controls of the unit itself, set the
cable jacks in well known manner in their proper posi 45
1in“
1,674,870
Morgan ____________ __ June 26, 1928'
2,695,790
2,734,731
2,745,648
2,783,038
Lindgren et al _________ __ Nov. 30,
Cartlidge et al. ______ __ Feb. 14,
Robbins ____________ __ May 15,
Tracy _______________ __ Feb. 26,
1954
1956
1956
1957
FOREIGN PATENTS
324,561
Germany ___________ __ Aug. 20, 1920
165,890
Great Britain ________ __ June 3, 1921
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