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Патент USA US3046902

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July 31, 1962
c. cossE ETAL
Filed June l8,v 1959
3 Sheets-Sheet 1
CLAUDE sass:
July 31, 1962
Filed June 18, 1959
I5 Sheets-Sheet 2
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CLAUDE 60335
July 31, 1962
Filed June 18, 1959
3 Sheets-Sheet 3
FIG. 3
CLAUDE 60555
‘J United States Patent O?iice
Patented July 31, 1962
sunlight, clouds, rain and other targets which might be
present in the optical ?eld, is eliminated by the require
ment that the distance must be less than a predetermined
Detonation occurs if the conditions are ful?lled that
Claude Cosse, Paris, and Fernand Loy, Neuilly-snr=Seine,
France, assignors to Telecommunications Radioelec
triques et Telephoniques, T.R.T. (Societe Anonyme),
Paris, France
Filed June 18, 1959, Ser. No. 821,259
Claims priority, application France June 20, 1958
a target is present within an active zone and that the
distance is less than a predetermined critical distance.
The probability of the optical system being interfered,
although small, yet exists. .However, the chance of an
10 optical device and the radio-electric device being dis
turbed simultaneously is very small.
‘This invention relates to proximity fuses for detonating
In the device according to the invention, which will
the load of a projectile as soon as it has approached a
be described hereinafter, the optical device is of the
target up to a predetermined distance.
passive type, that is to say, a source of radiation is not
It has been found that not only the distance, but also
available. In the day-time the device is sensitive to the
the angular position of the target with respect to the ?ight
contrast between the sky ‘and the aircraft passing through
of the proximity fuse are important. In order to'obtain
the detection cone determined by the optical device. At
an optimum effect, the aim will be that the detonation
night and by day it is sensitive to the infrared radiation
does not take place until the target is in a zone which
of an aircraft passing through the said cone.
is described when av sector, with its apex approximately
In order that the invention may be readily carried into
at the area of the peak of the projectile, turns about the
effect, it will now be described in detail by way of ex
axis of the fuse. Usually the requirement is made that
ample with reference to the accompanying drawing.
this sector shall have a comparatively small angle of aper
' 3 Claims.
(Cl. 102-701)
ture of, for example, a few degrees.
In FIGS. 1a and lb, the optical part of a device ac
cording to the invention is shown in two sections. Refer
Even when use is
made of aerials having a sharp directional effect, it is
di?icult with radio systems to ful?l the said requirement.
~ ence numeral 1 indicates the outer wall of the proximity
The use of an aerial wherein the main loop of the
direction diagram is very narrow, does not prevent errors
still occurring as a result of detection on a secondary loop
fuse, 2 indicates a photo-electric detector and 3 indicates
an annular lens. By means of channels 8, 9, 10, 11 and
lens 3, the ‘beams of a conical space the axis of which
coincides with the axis of the proximity fuse, are pro
and it is usually difficult to adjust beforehand the angle
at which the projectile approaches its target.
jected onto detector 2. Each channel has two plane
mirrors positioned so that, for each window, the incident
beam corresponds to a quadrant of the space. Thus,
The present invention relates to a device of the kind
mentioned in the preamble, in which by means of radio
waves a signal is obtained if a target is at a distance
channel It) has two plane mirrors 10a and 1017 on two
which is less than a predetermined distance.
opposing lateral faces. FIGS. 1a and lb show the paths
of the light rays which pass through the channel 10 and
An object of the invention is to provide such a device
which permits of adjusting the position of the target
are convergent on detector 2.
with respect ‘to the axis of the fuse at the moment of
consideration, the detection cone has an apical angle of
In the embodiment under
about 40°, the beam having an angle of aperture of 4°.
detonation with high accuracy.
The invention consists in that, in combination with the
said radio-electric means, use is made of optical means
producing a signal at a given angular position, but only
with respect to the axis of the fuse, their cross-section
being 4X4 sq. cms. One embodiment of the device is
if a target is present in a portionof the space determined
' such that the inclination of the ‘beam with respect, to the
by an angle, provision being made of a coincidence device
axis of the fuse may be varied within comparatively wide
limits by displacing the detector 2 on the said axis along
line A—B. In order to obtain the optimum effect, it is‘
alternatively possible for the inclination of the beam to
The axis of the channels are inclined at an angle of 40°
so that detonation can occur only if both signals are pres
ent at the same time.
In order that the invention may be readily carried into
effect, it will now be described in detail, by way of ex
be adapted to the manner in which the projectile ap
proaches its target. The photo-electric detector is con
tituted by a lead-sulphide cell, the sensitive layer of which
ample with reference to the accompanying drawing, in
FIG. 1a shows a longitudinal section of the optical 50 is maintained at a temperature below 20° C. One thus
obtains, after ?ltration, a detection in the band between
part of a device according to the invention;
1 p and 2.7 ‘IL. The windows 4, ‘5, 6 and 7 are in this
FIG. 1b is a cross-sectional view‘ of this ‘device;
case of quartz.
FIG. 2 shows the diagram of a device according to the
An aircraft, the smallest lateral dimension of which is
FIG. 3 shows a projectile provided with a device ac
of the order of 2 metres, at its most unfavorable position
cording to the invention, and
occupies 6° of ?eld at a distance of 20 metres and hence,
FIG. 4 is a cross-sectional view of the peak of a pro
the sixtieth part of the total ?eld of the detector. It may
jectile having a device according to the invention, in
be assumed that, in the day-time, the brightness of the
which the relative positioning of the various elements is
aircraft differs not more than 10% from the brightness
In a device according to the invention, in order to be
struck with reasonable security, the target must be pres
ent in a zone determined by the optical device and, in
order to ensure safe operation there is also provided a
radio-electric device which permits detonation only- when
a target is present within a predetermined distance.
An exact active Zone independent of the surface of
the ‘target is de?ned by means of the optical device,'the
ofthe sky so that, when the aircraft passes through the
detection cone, there- occurs avariation of about %<j0 of
the total amount of light received. This variation can
readily be ‘observed if it is more than 10-3 watts. In fact,
use is made of a cell which in the dark can detect 10-11
At night, use ismade of the same photo-electric detect~
ing element. For a reactor of 50 cnis. in diameter, ‘the
temperature of which is 400° K.,, it may be calculated that
?eld of which may have a very ?at shape; The disad
' vantages of optical systems are largely eliminated due to 70 the aircraft sends an amount of energy of 5 X 10-10 watts
to the detector if it is at the most unfavorable angle and
their range of activity being limited by means of the '
at a distance of 20 metres from the optical system under
radio-electric device. Interference as a result of the
In the backward direction it sends an
amount of energy of l.3><l0-6 watts.
Consideration of the energetic brightness diagrams of
the actual aircraft con?rms, that, apart from a zone of 10°
of a target in the detection cone-and the output voltage of
the radio-electric device indicates the presence thereof at
a distance less than 20 metres.
Although the targets vbrought to light need, strictly
at’ the front of the aircraft, this energy may readily be
speaking, not be the same, it is highly improbable that
observed when using the lead sulphide cell. It is to be
several targets are indicated by the two detectors at the
noted that‘g‘if the projectile is directed directly towards
same time. This applies more particularly if the device
the aircraft, the device ‘becomes operative due to the
is not adjusted until it has left the earth or at least its
‘impact. At a reactor temperature of 600°‘ K., the energy
nose is directed upwards.
received at the most unfavorable position is 5><l0—g 10
In the electrical portion of the device, use may be ad
watts, which may readily be observed with the cell
vantageously made of transistors. The devices, except of
course, the aerial may then readily be arranged in a space
FIG. 2 shows a diagram of a device according to the
invention. A rectangle 20 represents the optical portion
and a rectangle 30- represents the radio-electric portion.
The former comprises an optical system 21 and the detec
tor 2 previously described, together with an ampli?er 23.
The latter comprises transistors of the type CC '70; the
ampli?cation is 10,000 with a band width of from 500 to
1000 c./s. The radio-electric portion includes a distance
meter ‘in which use is made of the Doppler effect and
having a volume of a cubic decimetre. The optical por
tion may readily be housed in a space which is smaller
than 4 cubic decimetres.
FIG. 4 shows in what manner the optical portion and
the electrical portion may be positioned with respect to
each other. In this ?gure may be seen the channels 8'
and 10 of the optical detection device and also the photo;
sensitive detector 2 and the aerials 31 of the radio-elec
tric detector. Two aerials are present so that the desired
the microphony of oscillators is partly eliminated. An'
directional eifect in the forward direction is obtained.
aerial 31 serves both for transmission and reception. It is
The circuits associated with the radio-electric device are
directed forwards and the ampli?cation is 3 db. Reference
housed in a space 30’ Whereas the ampli?er 23 associated
numeral 32 indicates an oscillator. Any variation in the 25 with the optical detector and the coincidence device 40
impedance of the aerial or, which amounts to the same,
are arranged in a space 40'.‘
any energy absorbed by the aerial, results in a variation in
The optical device may be of the active type, that is
the output current of the oscillator. This variation con
to say, may contain a source of radiation, together with'a '
stitutes the useful signal. Along a conductor 33 connect
detector which is sensitive to the radiation re?ected by
ing oscillator 32 and aerial 31, there are arranged two
a target.
detectors‘ 34 and 35 at a mutual distance of a quarter of
a wave-length as measured along the‘connection 33. ' The
detectors are arranged at points which, in the absence of
a target in the ?eld of the distance meter, correspond to
a maximum and a minimum of the voltage of the standing
waves which occur as a result of the interference of the
What, is claimed is:
1. A proximity fuse for detonating the'vcharge' of a
projectile, comprising a source of radio signals, means
for transmitting said radio signals, means for receiving
‘ said radio signals to provide a ?rst output signal 'depen
dent upon the proximity of a target, optical means for
waves propagating from the oscillator towards the aerial
providing a second output signal dependent upon the
with the waves which are re?ected at the lower end of the
occurrence of a target at'a predetermined angular posi
aerial and travel from the aerial towards the oscillator.
tion with respect to the longitudinal axis of said projec-v
By means of a transformer 36, the primary winding of 40
which‘is powered via the oppositely-connected detectors
Hand 35 it is possible to setup a voltage at a secondary
winding of the transformer, which voltage is proportional
to the ‘variable part of the useful signal. The ratio of
transmission of the transformer is such that the voltage
of the said signal and the input voltage of ampli?er 37 are
matched with each other. In the embodiments under con
sideration, thetransformation ratio was 30, the oscillator
frequency was 240 mc./s., and the symmetrical mixing
system including the two detectors yielded an uncoupling
of 30 db;
The signals which, due to their presence, indicate a
target at a distance less than 20 metres, are given off by
the ampli?er 37 in the ‘form of rectangular voltages,
whereas‘the ampli?er 23 indicates the signals which, in
the presence of a target occur, in the optical detection
:one in the form of a direct voltage located above a given
‘.evel. These various signals are led to a coincidence
tile, a coincidence device, means applying said ?rst'and
second output signals to said'coincidence device whereby
a detonating signal is produced only when said ?rst ‘and
second signals both indicate the presence of a target.‘
2. The fuse of claim 1, wherein said optical ,means',
comprises photo-electric detector means, and means'fop
directing light rays upon said detector means which origi-‘v
nate from light sources located between two, concentric
cones of revolution whose axes coincide‘with ‘the longiP
tudinal axis of said'projectile.
3. A proximity fuse for detonating, the charge‘ ‘of a
projectile, comprising a source of radio signals, means
for transmitting said radio signals, means for receiving
said radio signals. to provide a ?rst output signal depend; ,
ent upon the proximity of a target, photosensitive means,
means for directing light from a predetermined angular
direction with respect to the ‘longitudinal ‘axis 'of'said
projectile on said photosensitive means to provide “a '
second output signal dependent upon the occurrence/of a
ievice 40, the output voltage of which controls the detona
ion of the projectile by means of a device 41. The coin 60 target, in the path of said light, a coincidence’device'
means applying said ?rst and second output signals‘ to
:idence’device '40 may contain a plurality of diodes. The
said coincidence device whereby a detonating, signal ,is
levice ‘41 contains 7a thyratron, the anode current of
vhich brings about the ignition.
FIG. ‘3 shows a device E, wherein H represents the
'adiation diagram of the aerial and-F indicates the detec 65
ion' cone for the optical device. It is to be noted that the
'adiation diagram of the aerial may be wider than in
:nown devices i'n-which‘the directional effect of the aerial 7'
mly is used for obtaining an accurate detection ofv angle.
The coincidence device controls the detonation if the 7 O
>utput voltage of the optical device indicates the presence
produced only when'said'?rst and second signal’s'lboth
indicate the presence of a target.
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
Vos' ________________ __ Nov.‘ 22, ‘1988f
2,856,852 '
Hinman et al. ________ __ on. 21, 1958,
Henderson __________ _'__ June 23, 1959
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