close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

Патент USA US3048347

код для вставки
Aug. 7, 1962
R. T. BYERLY
3,048,337
ELECTRON MEANS FOR GENERATING TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS
Filed July 2, 1957
' 4 Sheets-Sheet 1
92
Voltage
Fig. 3.
Time
‘FEB
Time
LV-----_--
Fig.5. 50
>
Time
Aug. 7, 11962
'
R. T. BYERLY
3,048,337 _,
ELECTRON MEANS FOR GENERATING TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS
Filed July 2, 1957
Fig.6.
+Es
Fig.7.
Fig. 8.
Hg. 9.
4 Sheets-Sheet 2
Aug. 7, 1962
R‘ T. BYERLY
3,048,337
ELECTRON MEANS FOR GENERATING TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS
Filed July 2, 1957
4 Sheets-Sheet 5
Aug. 7, 1962
R. T. BYERLY
3,048,337
ELECTRON MEANS FOR GENERATING TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS
Filed July 2, 1957
4 Sheets-Sheet 4
Unite
ice
a'
3,048,337
Patented Aug. 7, 1952
2
FIG. 6 is a curve of still different magnitude voltages
3,048,337
ELECTRON MEANS FOR GENERATING
TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS
Richard T. Byerly, Wilkins Township, Allegheny County,
Pa., assignor to Westinghouse Electric Corporation,
East Pittsburgh, Pa., a corporation of Pennsylvania
Filed July 2, 1957, Ser. No. 669,549
3 Claims. (Cl. 235—186)
typical of those capable of being the input to the circuits
of FIGS. 1 and 2;
FIG. 7 is a curve representing an output voltage of
the ampli?er prior to ?ltering of FIG. 2;
FIG. 8 is a curve of the output voltage of the ?lter
of FIG. 2 resulting from the input voltages of FIG. 6;
FIG. 9 is a view of a circuit capable of developing
the sine function of an input control voltage;
This invention relates to an electronic means for gen 10
FIG. 10 is a view of a circuit capable of developing the
erating trigonometric functions and more particularly to
sine function of an input voltage over a greater range
a circuit arrangement of high gain ampli?ers capable of
than the circuit of FIG. 9;
producing an output, a magnitude of which varies as the
FIG. 11 is a view of a circuit capable of developing
trigonometric function of a control input.
the cosine function of an input voltage to the circuit;
Some previous methods for developing trigonometric
FIG. l2 is a graphical representation showing the
functions of dependent variables involved the positioning
points at which output switching will occur in the circuit
of a rotating shaft for varying the positions of a variable
of FIG. 1 when the input control voltage is positive in
ta-p along a potentiometer, the resistance of which is
polarity; and
constructed to have a trigonometric function such as sine
FIG. 13 is a graphical representation showing the
or cosine. The rotating shaft is usually operated by 20 points at which output switching will occur for the cir
servo~mechanisms of computing type. This method of
cuit of FIG. 1 when the input control voltage is nega
generating trigonometric functions is of fairly good static
quality but falls short of the dynamic desirabilities due to
the physical limitations of the positioning system. The
actual inertia of the mechanical components limits the
speed of response to an undesirable slow rate. In addi
tive in polarity.
In each of the several views, similar parts bear like
reference characters.
The circuit shown in FIG. 1 is a circuit capable of de
veloping an output voltage, the magnitude of which is vari~
tion, the potentiometer being generally a wire wound type
able as a function of an input reference voltage and an
of device provides a stepped output rather than a smooth
continuous output from minimum to maximum limits.
It is therefore an object of this invention to provide
an electronic circuit for generating trigonometric func
tions.
It is another object of this invention to provide an
input control voltage. The input reference voltage is pref
electronic circuit cap-able of developing trigonometric
functions that are free from minute voltage steps in
in amplitude but at a rate far less than the rate of varia
tion of the reference voltage 22. The direct current con
varying from maximum to minimum limits or vice versa.
It is another object of this invention to provide an
trol voltage is ‘for the purpose of simpli?cation designated
electronic circuit for generating trigonometric functions
The circuit of FIG. 1 comprises an ampli?er which is
preferably of high gain characteristics and which may have
that is free from output delay that is caused by me
chanical inertia.
It is another object of this invention to provide an
electronic circuit for generating trigonometric functions
that is capable of providing in?nite output voltage values
between the maximum and minimum voltage limitations.
Other objects, purposes and characteristic features will
become apparent as a description of the invention pro
gresses.
In practicing this invention, there is provided high
gain ampli?ers having voltage limit means for regulating
the output of the ampli?er circuit to maximum values 50
of the voltage limit means above and below zero.
The
ampli?er for the circuit is provided with a plurality of
erably of a pure sine wave form which might be repre
sented as Em sin wt, where Em represents the maximum
peak voltage of the sine wave reference voltage. This
voltage will be designated as e2. The control voltage is
basically a direct current voltage. However, it may vary
e1. The range of e1 must be such that —Em§e1§Em.
a gain as high as one-hundred million.
The exact con
struction of FIG. 1 is not shown in this invention since any
suitable high gain type of ampli?er can be used.
Ampli?er 1 is provided with an input circuit 2 con
nected to the input voltage sources e1 and e2 through the
resistors 3 and 4 respectively. The resistors 3 and 4
generally are of approximately equal value, however
under certain circumstances, involving the use of this
circuit these resistors may be of unequal values as is
necessary.
Ampli?er 1 is provided with an output circuit 5 con
nected to the input circuit 6 of a suitable ?lter 7, the exact
structure of which is not shown since it is not essential to
inputs, one of which acts as a reference voltage and
this invention.
'
which is variable as a trigonometric function rate such
In order to provide both positive and negative voltage
as the sine. The two inputs, when combined at the 55 limits for ampli?er 1, a pair of feedback or limiting cir
ampli?er, cause the output voltage of the ampli?er to be
alternately positive and negative for periods established
cuits 8 and 9 connecting the output circuit 5 of ‘ampli?er
1 to the input circuit 2 of ampli?er 1 is provided. The
by a comparison of the two input voltages.
The out
feedback or limiting circuit 8 comprises a battery 10
put voltage of the ampli?ers is then ?ltered and appears
and recti?er 11 connected in series, with the negative
as a direct voltage, the amplitude of which varies as the 60 terminal of the battery 10 being connected to the input
trigonometric function of one of the input voltages.
FIGURE 1 is a view of a circuit capable of generat
vcircuit 2 of the ampli?er 1. Likewise, the feedback or
limiter circuit 9 comprises a battery 12 and recti?er 13
ing a trigonometric function.’
connected in series, with the positive terminal of the
battery connected to the input circuit 2 of ampli?er 1.
capable of developing trigonometric functions;
65
With the application of voltages el and 62 to the input
FIG. 3 is a curve representing typical input voltages
circuit 2 of ampli?er 1, the ampli?er will attempt to pro
for the circuits of FIGS. 1 and 2;
vide an output proportional to the combined input. When
'FIG. 4 is a curve representing the output voltages of
the output voltage, whether it be positive or negative,
the ampli?ers of FIGS. 1 and 2 prior to being ?ltered;
reaches the value of the voltage of one of the feedback
FIG. 2 is a view of circuit similar to FIG. 1 that is
FIG. 5 is a curve representing the output voltages that
could be found at the output terminals of ?lters of FIGS.
1 and 2;
‘
‘or limiting circuits 8 or 9, the feedback circuit then be
comes a feedback path which limits the output voltage to
3,043,337
3
4
the level of the battery Voltage found in the corresponding
assumed to lie in the ?rst or fourth quadrant, the scale
feedback path.
of the voltage being such that
For example, if we assume that the
combined voltages e1 and e2 provides a positive input to
the ampli?er 1, the output voltage will rise negatively
until the voltage is equal to the voltage of the DC. source
or battery 12, since this is the only feedback path through
where 01 is measured in radians. This scale relationship
which current due to the output voltage can pass, due to
is indicated to be negative as a convenience to compensate
the recti?er 13 allowing passage and the recti?er 11 block
ing passage of this polarity voltage. When the output
for phase reversal in the ampli?er of FIGURE 1. Thus,
positive values of 21 correspond to fourth quadrant values
voltage equals the voltage of the battery 12, the battery 10 of 01, and negative values of e1 correspond to ?rst quad
then becomes a low resistance path between the output
rant values of 01.
circuit 5 of the ampli?er 1 and the input circuit 2, thus
Consider now only values of 01 in the ?rst quadrant
causing the ampli?er output voltage to be limited to the
for which e1 will be negative. The corresponding switch
value of the feedback battery voltage 12.
ing diagram for one cycle of the sinusoid is shown in
It should be pointed out, that in order for the feedback
FIGURE 12. The value of ex will be
voltage to be in a proper phase relationship to limit the
ex=+EB from 0 to <11
output voltage to the voltages EB of the battery voltages
6x‘: —'EB from L11 IO (12
10 and 12, it is necessary for the ampli?er 1 to also phase
ex=i+EB from 0:2 to 21r
shift its output 180°. Without the phase shift, the feed
back voltage merely tends to cause unstable characteristics
Thus the value of em will be
in the circuit shown.
The curve shown in FIG. 4 represents a typical output
curve of the voltage exl and exz due to the input voltages
el and e2 of FIG. 3 being applied to the circuits of FIGS.
1 and 2.
e01
277
Note that
It can be seen that if we combine the input
voltages e1 and e2 and apply them to the ampli?er 1 of
FIG. 1 that as long as the combined voltages result in a
value greater than zero and with a phase reversal taking
d1‘=1l"—-¢Xz
Then substituting for 112,
place in the ampli?er 1, the output voltage of em will main
tain a —-EB value of battery 12 until the reference voltage 30
2E’
e01=_l(¢1)
02 when combined with the control voltage e1 arrives at a
total input voltage to the ampli?er of slightly less than
T
zero. At this time, as the combined input voltages e1 and
22 start to go negative, the ampli?er 1 produces a positive
output voltage of EB value. As long as the combined volt
ages el and e2 produce a negative input voltage to the
But it is apparent that if e1 represents the sine of an angle
01 in the ?rst quadrant such that
ampli?er 1, the output voltages em will maintain the EB
when switching occurs, then with 21 negative (as assumed)
value. However, as soon as the reference voltage 22
starts to rise and rises to a point capable of producing a
01 is identically equal to al. Hence
e1== —Em sin 01
2E
resultant positive input voltage to the ampli?er 1, the out 40
put 3x1 of ampli?er 1 very rapidly moves from the positive
EB value to a negative EB value. This operation continues
8o1="7r—B(01)
or
as long as the two inputs el and e2 are applied to the
ampli?er 1.
It should be pointed out that although the wave form
Now consider the angle 01 to lie in the fourth quadrant,
specifying 01 numerically as
is true that the vertical lines between the +EB and —EB
values actually follow lines that are proportional to the
curve of the negative voltage 22. Since the ampli?er 1
is a high gain device, the EB values are generally very 50
with e1 positive. The switching diagram is as shown in
small in comparison to the input times the gain of the
FIGURE 13. The reference for angular measurement
ampli?er and thus for all practical purposes the time
has been shifted to avoid a more complicated notation.
period taken for the ampli?er to reverse its output from
The values of eX are given as
+EB to —EE or vice versa is of extremely small duration
in comparison to the time that the voltage is maintained 55
at the EB levels.
The square wave voltage exl is then passed into the
?lter 7' and results in an output voltage from the ?lter 7
of a value em represented by the output voltage am of
FIG. 5. The magnitude of am is established by the alge 60
braic sum of the positive and negative portions of the
wave form shown in FIG. 4. For example, the area of
of 0x1 shown in FIG. 4 is shown as a square wave, it
the square wave found above the zero line of FIG. 4 is
substantially less than the area of area found below the
zero line thus resulting in a negative e01 value for FIG. 65
1. The circuit of FIG. 1 is capable of producing an em
Substituting for 0a;
voltage equal to
61
70
Em
With the foregoing description of the device of FIGURE
1 and its operation, the relationship between em and e1
can be obtained by analysis. It is to be stated that the
voltage 21 represents the sine of an angle 01 which is 75
6o
(113)
As before, since switching occurs at a point
'-—B1l=Em sill 01
3,048,337
where 61 is positive and 01 is in the fourth quadrant, 01
is identical to (-12%). Therefore,
2E
901:
$(91)
Thus, the circuit of FIGURE 1 is established as being
an arcsin device operating in the ?rst and fourth quadrants.
In general, if e1+e2>O, then exl would be equal to —E;;,
if e1+e2<0, then exl would be equalto +EB. This rela
e02 can be obtained with a circuit of this nature without
the introduction of stepped voltages.
The circuit shown by FIG. 9 is one employing a closed
loop feedback circuit of high gain degenerative nature.
This circuit is capable of operation over a range merely
from
i
2
In this circuit the incoming control voltage e1 is applied
tionship holds true as long as there is a phase reversal in 10
to an ampli?er 14 provided with a resistance feedback
ampli?er 1 and an associated feedback path.
circuit 15 including the resistor 16. The value of the
The circuit of FIG. 2 is similar to that of FIG. 1 with
resistor 16 determines the amount of gain in the opera
the exception that the limiting voltage sources EB are now
tion of the ampli?er =14. This gain may be set at any
placed in the output circuit of the ampli?er 1 in such a
value desired or found necessary for the particular system
15
manner as to act as an output limiting device and not
in which this circuit may be used. For the sake ‘of clarity,
as a feedback limiter. With this arrangement, it is un
necessary to provide a phase reversal in ampli?er 1. As
we will assume that the resistor 16 allows a high gain
within the ampli?er 14. The input control voltage e1
pointed out previously, the phase reversal in the ampli?er
is therefore applied to the input of the ampli?er 14 in
of FIG. 1 was necessary to provide the proper phase rela
combination with a feedback voltage, the value of which
tionship between the input voltage and the feedback volt 20 will be explained hereinafter. If we assume that the
age. The limiting circuits 8 and 9 in FIG. 2 provide high
input voltage to ampli?er 14 is applied and results in an
resistance for any output voltage on output circuit 5 of
output voltage, this voltage is applied through -a resistor
ampli?er 1 until the battery voltage EB of the proper
17 to the input of an ampli?er 118. Ampli?er 18 is identi
limiting path 8 or 9 is exceeded. At this time, the
cal with the ampli?er 14 in that the ampli?er is provided
25
limiting path becomes a low resistance path to ground
with a suitable feedback circuit 19 provided with a re
for any attempted increase in voltage above the value of
sistor 20. The feedback circuit 20 also establishes the
the battery voltage EB.
If we again take a look at FIGS. 3, 4 and 5 while con
sidering the circuit arrangement of FIG. 2, we can see
output of ampli?er 18 in a manner similar to that de
scribed in connection with ampli?er 14.
Ampli?ers 14 and 18 when used with a feedback or
that FIG. 3 discloses the input voltages to the balancing 30 limiting circuit must also provide for a phase reversal in
resistors 3 and 4 ‘of FIG. 2 in a manner identical with
order to allow the feedback voltage to be in the proper
that of FIG. 1. The combined input voltages are then
phase relationship to act as an establishing voltage. It
applied to the input circuit 2 for the ampli?er 1 then
is pointed out that although the feedback circuit is shown
suitably ampli?ed and applied to the output circuit 5 as
as using a resistor, the circuit could utilize other imped
35
an ampli?ed signal. Since the ampli?er 1 is again a high
gain type of ampli?er, the output voltage exz can be as
sumed- to have risen positively to a value equal to the
voltage +EB of the proper limiting path. Since no phase
reversal has taken place in ampli?er 1, the output voltage
ance devices such as capacitors.
‘It should also be pointed out that an ampli?er not
having a feedback circuit (such as shown in FIG. 2)
can be used. However, the feedback circuit is prefer
able due to the increased stability in the ampli?er out
put. The use of feedback controlled ampli?ers dictates
exz will appear at the maximum level of +EB with the
recti?er 11 and battery source 10 acting as a shunt path
the use of a series of two such ampli?ers since it is neces
of low resistance for any voltage above the battery 10
sary to cause two phase reversals between the input and
voltage +EB. In a manner similar to the circuit of FIG.
the output of the system for proper phase output.
'1, the output voltage exz remains at the +EB value until 45
The output of ampli?er 18 results in an output voltage
the reference voltage e2 goes su?iciently negative to make
23 which is applied through a feedback rmistor 3 to a
the resultant combined input voltages appear as a zero
feedback circuit that is identical in con?guration and func
or slightly negative input to the ampli?er 1. At this time,
tion with that described in connection with FIG. 1. vSince
the output of the ampli?er 1 moves rapidly to the —-EB
this circuit is identical with FIG. 1, it is also necessary
value to remain at this level through the action of the 50 to provide an input reference voltage ea in a manner sim
current limiting path 9 until the reference voltage e2
ilar to FIG. 1. The output voltage of this feedback circuit
again rises to a point capable of allowing a slightly posi
therefore can be designated as e01 since it is identical in
tive input voltage to ampli?er 1.
character with the output voltage previously described in
The output voltage e02 is as previously pointed out,
connection with FIG. 1. Since the output voltage 201 of
the average value of the +EB and -EB values described 55 the feedback circuit is a trigonometric function, as pre
by the output voltage curve exz. This value is shown in
viously described, of the control voltage e3 applied to
FIG. 5.
feedback ampli?er 1, through the feedback circuit 21 and
In order to show how the output voltage am can vary
since a phase reversal takes place in the ‘feedback am
as a function of the two input voltages 21 and e2, the
pli?er 1, the voltage e01 applied through the resistor 22
curves of FIGS. 6, 7 and 8 are shown. If we again as 60 acts as a degenerative voltage to the input voltage e1.
sume that the reference voltage e2 is again applied to
the input circuit 2 of the ‘ampli?er 1, and that the con
trol voltage 21 of far less value is applied to the input
This closed loop circuit then ‘becomes stable when the
feedback voltage e01 matches the input control voltage e;
as modi?ed by the resistors 3 and 22 before appliciation
circuit 2 of the ampli?er 1, the output voltage exz again
to the ampli?er 14. Under normal conditions, the resis
being limited to maximum values of r-I-EB and --EB Would 65 tors 3 and 22 would probably be of similar resistance
be represented by the voltage curve egg shown in FIG. 7.
value, however, depending upon the circuit application in
It is pointed out, however, that the length of time that
a system, the resistance values may be varied to suit the
the output voltage of the ampli?er 1 remains positive
particular application.
'
is much shorter, and the length of time that the voltage
In FIGURE 9, the voltage e3 is the same in nature as the
remains negative is much longer, than the voltage curve 70 voltage e1 in FIGURE 1, that is, it is proportional to the
shown in FIG. 4. For this reason, when the output volt
age 632 is passed through the ?lter 7, a ?lter output voltage
e02 is greatly reduced as a function of the input control
sine of an angle in the ?rst or fourth quadrant. Since e2
is an appropriate sinusoid, 201 is’ an angle 0 in the ?rst or
fourth quadrant. But the nature of the degenerative
feedback causes el and cm of FIGURE 9 to be in very
voltage e1.
It should be clear that an in?nite number of values for 75 close agreement. Therefore, e1 may be interpreted as an
3,048,337
7
8
angle 0 and e3 as the sine of that angle, the angle being
plied to the input of the ampli?er 14, it is necessary to
provide a second reference voltage to the input of ampli
?er 14. This input reference voltage is a positive volt
retricted to the range —-'n'/ 2 to +1r/2.
The modi?cation shown in FIG. 10 is similar to the
circuit shown in FIG. 9, with the exception that the input
circuit to the ampli?er 14 is provided with circuitry capa
ble of allowing operation over‘a greater range. The range
in the case of the circuit shown in FIG. 10 can be rep
age and in this instance preferably of EB value. For
this reason when the applied voltage e1 is zero the output
voltage 64 is at a maximum positive value. As the ap
plied voltage e1 rises positively or negatively the output
resented as
voltage e4 reduces as a cosine function of the applied
- 31r
+ 31:-
voltage.
.
T1 0, T radians
10
In other words, the range of this circuit is three times that
of the circuit shown in FIG. 9. The greater range can
As previously pointed out in connection with FIGS. 9
and 10, the input voltage to the ampli?er 14 is ampli?ed
by the ampli?ers 14 and 18 and appears as voltage e;
which in turn is fed back as an input into the feedback
best he explained by taking an input control voltage of
circuit through the ampli?er 1 to modify the input con
different levels assuming that the input control voltage 15 trol voltage in a degenerative manner to establish the
starts at zero. In the range from zero to the value plus
desired output level of the cosine voltage a; of the input
or minus EB established by the batteries 23 and 24 de
control voltage e1.
pending upon the polarity of the applied 21 voltage, the
It is again emphasized that in order for the output
voltage is applied directly through the conductor 25 and
voltage of the ampli?er 33 of FIG. 11 to be the same
resistor 26 to the input of ampli?er 14. The input voltage
whether the input voltage e1 is positive or negative the
is also applied through the resistors 23a and 24a to the
gain of ampli?ers 33 and 38 must be one.
recti?ers 23b and 24b one of which allows passage of the
input voltage to the battery 23 or 24 depending upon the
input voltage polarity. Since the input voltage magnitude
is less than EB battery voltage this input path is blocked.
As the value of 21 is raised, however, to a point above
the EB level, an input appears on the ampli?er 27 to be
ampli?ed and applied to the ampli?er 14 through the re
sistor 28. In this case, the ampli?er 27 is provided with
Since numerous changes may be made in the above
described construction and different embodiments of the
invention may be made without departing from the spirit
and scope thereof, it'is intended that all the matter con
tained in the foregoing description or shown in the accom
panying drawings shall be interpreted as illustrative and
not in a limiting sense.
I claim as my invention:
of adjusting the gain in the ampli?er 27. The value of
a feedback loop 29 provided with a resistor 39 capable 30
1. An electronic circuit for generating trigonometric
functions comprising ampli?er means having an input
this resistor is established to provide a dsirable gain of 2.
circuit and an output circuit; means for connecting a
This ampli?cation of the incoming signal is then applied
control voltage to said input circuit; and feedback means
in parallel with the incoming signal through the resistors
connecting said output circuit to said ampli?er means to
28 and 26 respectively to the input of the ampli?er 14. 35 limit any output of said ampli?er means to a value es
The remainder of the circuit of FIG. 10 is identical with
tablished by said feedback means; said feedback means
that of FIG. 9 and the respective parts bear identical
comprising a feedback ampli?er operably connected to
reference numerals. It should be pointed out however,
amplify the output from said output circuit and reverse
that the feedback voltage e01 applied through the resistor
the phase thereof, means for connecting a varying ref
22 to the input of the ampli?er 14 again adjusts the output L10 erence voltage to said feedback ampli?er, and ?lter means
voltage 23 to a value established when the feedack volt
for connecting the output from said feedback ampli?er
age matches the input control voltages received from the
to said ampli?er means; said input circuit including circuit
resistors 26 and 28.
means for feeding the control voltage directly to said
The circuit of FIG. 11 is used to generate the cosine
ampli?er means, and input ampli?er means in parallel
of an input voltage rather than the sine as previously
circuit relationship with said circuit means for amplify
shown in the previous modi?cations. In this circuit, the
ing the control voltage twice upon said control voltage
exceeding a predetermined value and reversing the phase
basic control circuit starting with ampli?er 14 is identical
of said ampli?ed control voltage to oppose the applica~
with that described in connection with FIGS. 9 and 10.
tion of the control voltage to said ampli?er means.
However, the input control voltage e1 is applied to the
input of ampli?er 14 through additional circuitry capable
2. An electronic circuit for generating trigonometric
of effectively multiplying the positive input control voltage
e1 by —-1. For example, if we assume that the input con
trol voltage e1 is a positive voltage, it can be seen that
recti?er 31 would allow conduction of the input voltage
through the resistor 32 to the input of an ampli?er 33
capable of phase reversal as well as ampli?cation. The
ampli?er 33 is provided with feedback loop path 34 in
cluding a gain resistor 35 adjusted to a gain ?gure in this
functions comprising ampli?er means having an input
circuit and an output circuit; means for connecting a
control voltage to said input circuit; and feedback means,
including means for connecting a varying reference volt
age to said feedback means, connecting said output circuit
to said ampli?er means to limit any output from said
ampli?er means to a value established by said feedback
means; said input circuit including circuit means for
feeding the control voltage directly to said ampli?er
case necessarily a gain of one. Since a phase reversal
takes place in the ampli?er 33, the output voltage of the 60 means, and input ampli?er means connected in parallel
circuit relationship to said circuit means, said input
ampli?er is negative and applied through the matching re
ampli?er means comprising an input ampli?er having a
sistor 36 to the input circuit of the ampli?er 14.
gainof two for amplifying the control voltage, polarized
If the input control voltage e1 had been of negative
voltage means connected in series circuit relationship
polarity, then conduction would occur through the recti
?er 37 allowing an input to the ampli?er 38 also capable 65 with said input ampli?er for blocking the application of
the control voltage to said input ampli?er until said con
of phase reversal action. The ampli?er 38 is also pro
trol voltage exceeds a predetermined value; said input
vided with a feedback loop 39 provided with a gain
ampli?er including phase shifting means for reversing
resistor 40 again adjusted to a gain of one. The ampli?er
output voltage of the ampli?er 38 is a positive output
the phase of said ampli?ed control voltage to oppose
voltage, due to the phase reversal in ampli?er 38, which 70 the application of the control voltage to said ampli?er
is then fed through a limiting resistor 41 to the input
means.
terminal of the ampli?er 33. Ampli?er 33 again ampli
3.An electronic circuit for generating trigonometric
?es the signal and provides another phase reversal and
functions comprising ampli?er means having an input
applies it to the ampli?er 14. Since the control voltage
circuit and an output circuit; means for connecting a
e1 always results in a negative voltage before being ap 75 control voltage to said input circuit; and feedback means,
3,048,337
including means ‘for connecting a varying reference volt
age of the form Emax sin wt‘ to said ‘feedback means, con
necting said output circuit to said ampli?er means to
limit any output from said ampli?er means to a value
established 1by said ‘feedback means; said input circuit
including circuit means for feeding the control voltage
directly to said ampli?er means, and input ampli?er
means connected in parallel circuit relationship to said
circuit means, said input ampli?er means comprising an
10
control voltage to oppose the application of the control
voltage to said ampli?er means.
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
2,652,194
2,710,348
2,748,278
2,849,181
Hirsch ______________ __ Sept. 15,
Baum et a1. __________ __ June 7,
Smith ______________ __ May 29,
Lehmann ____________ __ Aug. 26,
1953
1955
1956
1958
input ampli?er‘ having a gain of two for amplifying the 10
OTHER REFERENCES
control voltage, polarized voltage means connected in
A
Palimpsest
on the Electronic Analog Art (Paynter),
series circuit relationship with said input ampli?er for
1955, page 107.
blocking the application of the control voltage to said
Diode Limiters Simulate Mechanical Phenomena by
input ampli?er until said control voltage exceeds a pre
determined value; said input ampli?er including phase 15 Merrill and Baum, pp. 122 to 126, Electronics. November
1952.
shifting means for reversing the phase of said ampli?ed
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
0
Размер файла
834 Кб
Теги
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа