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Патент USA US3048693

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Aug. 7, 1962
H. FORWALD
&048583
EXTINGUISHING CHAMBER FOR OIL CIRCUIT BREAKER
Filed Sept. 16, 1959
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
Fig
75
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INVENTOR.
Han/ron Torwa [d
BY ?
?fíorn ex.
Aug. 7, 1962
3,048,683
H. FORWALD
EXTINGUISHING CHAMBER FOR OIL CIRCUIT BREAKER
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
Filed Sept. 16, 1959
är
INVENTOR.
Haakon ?bum Id .
BY
?
~
?.
-?ííornef
United States Patent O
Ice
,i
3,048,683
Patented Aug. 7, 1962
2
1
chamber, which is fully closed, except for an opening
3,048,683
through which a movable contact may be passed in to the
Haakon Forwald, Grottvage?? 31, Ludvika, Sweden
Filed Sept. 16, 1959, Ser. No. %46,333
stationary contact. The invention is characterised in that
within the container above the pressure generating cham
ber a pressure accumulating chamber is arranged, in the
EXTINGUISHI'NG CHAMBER FOR OIL
CIRCUIT BREAKER
Claims priority, application Sweden Oct. 4, 1958
7 Claims. (CI. 200-150)
walls of which two openings for the movable contact are
made, so that this can -be passed straight through the
pressure accumulating chamber and through the opening
In extinguishing chambers for oil circuit breakers it
in the pressure generating chamber to the stationary con
is already known to conduct the breaking gases generated 10 tact. The pressure accumulating chamber is ?lled with
by an arc from a pressure generating chamber, which sur
oil to a certain level and above the oil surface in this a
rounds the said breaking gap, through separate metal pipe
space is ?formed, which during the ?rst part of a breaking
channels provided with back valves, to an annular closed
action communicates through a channel in the movable
space above the oil surface in the extinguishing chamber.
contact with the pressure generating chamber.
The oil below the annular space is in communication with 15
To make the oil in the pressure accumulating chamber
the -breaking gap through other channels which channels,
and the pressure generating chamber rise to the same level
however, during the ?rst part of the breaking action are
as before the breaking action, the pressure accumulating
closed by the movable contact and are not opened until
chamber communicates through a lower opening in its
this has been fully drawn out of the pressure generating
wall facing the pressure generating chamber and the pres
chamber, so that the oil is forced by the pressure in the 20 sure generating chamber through its opening 'with the re
annular space through the last mentioned channels against
maining spaces of the container by at least one connect
the arc.
By conducting the breaking gases through separate
channels from the breaking gap to the `annular space it is
desired to cause the Volume of this space to be held con
stant, and not upon breaking pressed together by the
rising of the oil surface due to the gas bubbles, which are
formed in the oil around the breaking gap and are not
ing channel, when these openings are not closed by the
movable contact. The walls of the connecting channel
suitably constitute the adjacent walls of the pressure gen
25 erating chamber and the pressure accmulating chamber,
so that an annular slot is formed by the last said walls
around the movable contact.
The extinguishing chamber can also be arranged to give
conducted away.
a ?ow of the extinguishing medium perpendicularly to the
In both cases the same pressure is -obtained in the an 30 arc, by providing the pressure .accumulating chamber, be
nular space but a different Volume, and as the energy which
sides the two openings 'for the movable contact, with one
is accumulated in the annular space, is proportional to
the product of Volume and pressure, it is easily seen that
more opening, through which the pressure accumulating
chamber through a cross channel, which during the ?rst
a larger Volume at one and the same pressure corresponds
part of the breaking action is closed by the movable con
to a larger accumulation of energy.
35 tact, communicates with the container. This latter em
In previously known devices, however, the chamber
bodíment of the invention gives a smaller width of the
which surrounds said breaking gap has never 'been fully
breaker pole.
closed during the ?rst part of a breaking action but has,
To make as much use as possible of the pressure in the
in addition to the mentioned metal pipe channels been
space above the oil surface in the pressure accumulating
provided with at least one opening, through which the 40 chamber, the channel in the movable contact leads from
oil in the pressure generating chamber is in permanent
the foot point of .the movable contact, said foot point
communication with the oil below the annular space. Due
facing the stationary contact, to an opening located in the
to this it has never been possible to completely avoid dur
wall of the movable contact at such a distance from the
ing a breaking action the rising of the oil surface adjacent
foot point, that the pressure generating chamber through
Further, the annular space, which is limited 45 said channel communicates with the space above the oil
by the outer, cylindrically formed walls of the extinguish
in the pressure accumulating chamber until the movable
to this space.
ing chamber and an inner cylinder, has an unsuitable form
contact has been drawn out of the 'opening in the wall
of the pressure generating chamber. About the same time
drically formed space arranged within the extinguishing
the channel in the movable contact is cut off from its
50
chamber, the Volume of which is only lessened by that
communication wtih -the pressure accumulating chamber.
part of the movable contact it surrounds. This latter
The axial ?ow of extinguishing oil, however, does not
space has at the same Volume as the annular space a
begin until the movable contact has been drawn out of
smaller limiting surface, on which thus the total pressure
the lower opening of the pressure accumulating chamber,
Will be smaller than on the limiting surface of the annu
upon which the oil in the chamber is forced by the pres
lar space, for the same inner pressure. From -a Construc 55 sure above the oil surface in said chamber against the arc
tive point of view this is an indisputable advantage. Last
and out through said opening. Due to the -fact that the
ly, to use as above separate metal pipe channels for the
pressure accumulating chamber, when the movable contact
communication between the pressure generating chamber
has been drawn out of its lower opening, communicates
and the pressure accumulating chamber must involve con
with the container through this opening as well as through
60
siderable disadvantages. To obtain the same insulating
the channel in the movable contact, an additional ?ow is
as a pressure accumulating chamber compared to a cylin
resistance between the opened contacts of the breaker it
is thus necessary to make the breaking gap between them
larger, as a part of this breaking gap is bridged by said
obtained out through the movable contact during the
breaking action.
The accompanying drawings show two different ern
channels, and this, moreover, complicates the construction
bodiments of the invention. FIGURE 1 shows an ex
65
of the extinguishing chamber.
ting'uishing chamber for axial ?ow of the extinguishing
The present invention relates to an oil circuit breaker
With the advantages of the said devíce but without its dis
advantages. The extingushing chamber of the oil circuit
breaker constitutes a container, which has been ?lled With
medium !along the ane and FIGURE 2 an extinguishing
chamber for a ?ow of extinguishing medium perpendicu
lar ?to the arc.
FIGURE 3 shows a section on the line
A-_A of FIGURE 2.
70 In FIGURE l, 1 designates a container of insulating
oil to a suitable level. In the lower part of the container
a stationary contact is arranged in a pressure generating
material„ in the lower part of which a stationary contact
3
ber 6 _is arranged above the pressure generating chamber
3.
4
.
2 is arranged- in a pressure generating chamber 3 which is
closed except 'for an opening 4 for the movable contact
5Â Inside the container 1 ta pressure accu'mulating cham
The chamber 6 is provided With two openings, a lower
opening 7 and tan upper opening 8, which lie in alignment
with the opening 4 in the pressure generating chamber 3.
The container wat its top is provided with a cover 9 of
metal and `an opening 10. Through this opening 10 and
the openings 3, 7 and 4 the movable contact 5 is passed
in to the -stationary contact 2. The pressure accumulat
ing chamber 6 ?is centrally ?arranged in the container 1 and
at the same distance from the pressure generating cham
ber 3 with the help of supports 11 so that an annular
slot is formed between the chambers around the movable
flow of oil is forced by the gas pressure in the space 24
out of the chamber 25 through the opening 20 and the
cross channel 21 against the arc which is thus extin
guished.
Thus the arc in this chamber is exposed to` a
?ow :of oil which is directedrn-ainly perpendicularly against
the arc. The advantage with this Construction is that as
FIGURE 3 shows, it gives a smaller width of the breaker
pole than a Construction according to FIGURE 1.
I claim:
l. Oil circuit breaker comprising a container, a body
10
of oil partially ?lling the container, means forming a
pressure generating chamber having a ?xed upper wall in
the bottom of the container, said wall having a single
opening therethrough, a stationary contact within said
generating chamber spaced from the ?xed upper wall,
_contact 5, which slot 12 communicates with the remain
ing space of the container. The movable contact 5 is
means forming :a constant-Volume pressure accumulating
chamber in the container above and having a bottom
provided With `a central channel 13, which extends from
the foot 'point of the movable contact 5 to the opening
wall spaced from the upper wall of the generating cham
Min its wall.
ber, said accumulating chamber forming means having
20 openíngs in its top and bottom walls aligned with the
The cover 9 is provided with ta vent 15 for the break
ing gases. The upper opening 8 in the pressure accumu
opening in the upper wall of the generating chamber, said
lating chamber 6 is provided with scaling rings 16 to
ber, and a movable contact slidable through wall said open
ings to engage the stationary contact, said movable con
tact having :a passage leading from the lower end there
of to .an opening on the side thereof, the distance from
the lower end of the movable contact to the lowest point
of the opening therein being less than the 'distance be
tighten around the movable contact 5, so that a closed
space 17 is formed above the oil surface in the chamber
6. The pressure generating chamber can :be suitably in
communication with the container 1 through a safety
valve 18 and a channel 19.
body of oil only pantia?lly ?lling the accu?nulating cham
Upon a breaking action, gases of high pressure are
tween the uppermost contact ?area of the stationary con
generated around the are, which gases through the chan 30 tact and the top Wall of the accumuwlating chamber, where
nel 13 and the ?openings 14 are led straight from the pres
by said passage connects said chambers during the ?rst
sure generating chamber 3 to the space 17 above the oil
part of the movement of the movable contact as it breaks
surface in the chamber 6. This gas movement is con
contact with the stationary contact said container includ
tinued until the movable contact 5 has been drawn out of
ing a space on the outside of the accumulating chamber,
the opening 4. [For this purpose the lower edge of the 35 oil only partly ?ling said space, said space comm-un-icating
openings 14 should lie at such !a distance (a) from the
foot point of the movable contact, that, at about the
with the space between the upper wall of the generating
chamber and the bottom wall of the taccumulating cham
same time as the foot point ís drawn out of the opening
=ber.
4, the openings are cut off from their communication with
2. A circuit breaker `as claimed in claim 1 in which the
the space 17, due to the fact that they are drawn into the 40 distance from the top of the upper wall of the generating
wall of the chamber 6. Furthermore, the channel 13 in
chamber to the top Wall of the `accumulating chamber is
the movable contact 5 should be so arranged that when
?at least as great as the distance from' the bottom of the
the movable contact 5 has ?been drawn out of the lower
movable contact 'to the lowest point of the opening there
opening 7 of the chamber 6, the chamber 6 will com
in, whereby the generating chamber communicates
municate with the container 1› :through the opening 7
through said passage with the space above the oil in the
as well as through the channel 13. The oil surface in the
?accumulating chamber until the movable contact has been
chamber 6 is held at the same level as ?long as the `lower
drawn out of the opening in the wall of the pressure cham
opening 7 of the chamber 6 is closed by the movable
ber.
contact 5. Because of this the pressure in the space 17
3. A circuit breaker as claimed in claim 1 in which the
Will rise to the same value as the pressure of the break
distance from the top of the upper wall of the generating
ing gases generated by the arc. When the movable con
chamber to the top wall of the accumulating chamber is
tact during the 'breaking action is drawn out of the open
equal to the distance from the bottom of the movable con
ing 7, the oil zin the pressure accumulating chamber is set
free wand is forced by the pressure in space 17 against the
arc ?and out to the container 1, partly through the open
ing 7 and the slct 12 and partly through the channel .13
tact to the lowest point of the opening therein, whereby
`at the same time that the movable contact leaves the gen
55 erating chamber the passage in the movable contact is cut
off from its communication with the accumulating cham
and the openings 14 in the movable contact 5 so that the
ber.
arc is extinguished. After `a breaking action the oil in
4. In -a circuit breaker as claimed in claim 1, the pres
the chamber 6 rises to the same level „as the oil in the
sure waccumulating chamber having a third opening, a
container 1 due to the chamber 6 communicating with the 60 channel connecting said opening with the interior of the
container 1 through the opening 7 :and the ?slot 12, at the
same time as the space 17 communicates with the space
above the oil surface in the container 1 thnough the chan
container outside the pressure accumulating cham-ber, the
movable contact closing said opening during the ?rst part
of the breaking action.
nel 13 in the movable contact S.
5. An oil circuit breaker as claimed in claim 4, in`
FIGURE 2 shows an extinguishing chamber, which 65 which the genenating chamber communieates through said
functions in principle the same way as in FIGURE 1
passage "with the space above the oil in the accumulating
with the difference, that the pressure accumulating cham
chamber until the movable contact has been drawn out of
ber 25 is provided with an extra opening Zt), which is in
the opening in the wall of the pressure chamber.
communication with a cross channel 21.
This communi
6-. An oil circuit breaker as claimed in claim l in
cates with the container 23 but is closed during the ?rst 70 which at the same time that the movable contact leaves
part of a breaking action by the movable contact 22. Up
the generating chamber the passage in the movable con
`on breaking action the pressure in space 24 is raised
tact is cut off from its communication with the `accumu
in the same way `as described 'for the space 17 in FIG
URE l, and when the movable contact 22 during its 'up
lating chamber.
7. An oil circuit breaker as claimed in claim 1 in which
ward movement opens the cross channel 21 a. powerful 75 the generating chamber communicates through said pas
5
sage with the space above the oil in the accufnulating
chamber until the movable contact has been draWn out
of the opening in the Wall of the pressure chamber.
References cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
2,010,714
2,036,800
Davies ______________ __ Aug. 6, 1935
Ehrenberg et al. ______ __ Apr. 7, 1936
FOREIGN PATENTS
467,746
47?1,300
7`17,107
5812115
Great Britain ________ __ June 23,
Great Britain ________ __ Sept. 1,
Germany ____________ __ Feb. 6-,
Great Britain __________ __ Oct. 4,
1937
1937
1942
1946
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