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Патент USA US3048852

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Aug. 7, 1962
F. STEINER
3,048,843
CIRCULAR ANTENNA ARRAY SYSTEM SCANNING SWITCH
4 Sheets-Sheet 1
Filed Feb. 18, 1959
3%QW6Q.“Q
WildMm.
INVENTOR.
F.
BY
STEIN'ER
Aug. 7, 1962
F. STEINER
3,048,843
CIRCULAR ANTENNA ARRAY SYSTEM SCANNING SWITCH
4 Sheets-Sheet 2
Filed Feb' 18, 1959
INVENTOR.
F.
BY
STEINER
M’
,1
Aug. 7, 1962
F. STEINER
3,048,843
CIRCULAR ANTENNA ARRAY SYSTEM SCANNING SWITCH
Filed Feb. 18, 1959
4 Sheets-Sheet 3
360
270
180
90
tms
Fig.6
INVENTOR.
F.
BY
STEINER
Aug. 7, 1962
F. STEINER
3,048,843
CIRCULAR ANTENNA ARRAY SYSTEM SCANNING SWITCH
4 Sheets-Sheet 4
Filed Feb. 18, 1959
A
.mE
901
INVENTOR.
STE INER
United States Patent
??ce
3,948,843
Patented Aug. 7, 1962
2
1
can be operated either galvanically (with the aid of
collector brushes), capacitively, photoelectrically or in
3,048,843
CIRCULAR ANTENNA ARRAY SYSTEM
SCANNHNG SWITCH
Fritz Steiner, Pforzheim, Germany, assignor to Interna
tional Standard Electric Corporation, New York, N.Y.,
a corporation of Delaware
Filed Feb. 18, 1959, Ser. No. 794,014
Claims priority, application Germany Feb. 22, 1958
11 Claims. (Cl. 343-113)
ductively in such a way that a slow continuous effective
antenna rotation is combined with a rapid motion to and
fro in a small sector. Expressed in mathematical terms
the apparent antenna motion is characterized by the super
position of a linear function with any other suitable
periodical function.
The scanning switch according to this invent-ion is for
10 a circular antenna array which simulates the motion of
the cyclically sequential connection of ?xed antenna ele
an antenna element. In particular this scanning switch
is utilized from the simulation of pilgrim-step motions with
ments of a circular antenna array to a receiving device
the aid of a stator and a rotor in which the order of
for the purpose of determining the direction of incidence
of electromagnetic waves.
Various methods are known for directional receiving
systems, in which a circular antenna array is cyclically
with the numerals n in successive scanning steps and
with the numerals in corresponding to an assignment.
The present invention relates to a switching device for
succession of the scanning operations of N input lines
Mathematically this relation is expressed by rr==f (m)
and is formulated arbitrarily with respect to the ?rst p
scanning steps, and in which the further order of succes
modulation of the incoming wave a bearing signal is de
rived by means of a phase comparison with a reference 20 sion of the scanning operations with the oscillation period
scanned by electrical switching means. From the phase
p progresses in such a way that the numeral or number
signal effecting the scanning.
Furthermore a direction-?nding method has been pro
posed in which a circular antenna ‘array is scanned and
where the incoming wave is frequency modulated. The
scanning itself is effected in such a way that to a con
tinuously rotating simulated motion of a single antenna
element there is superimposed a motion rapidly moving
to and fro in a predetermined sector.
By means of this
of input lines which is scanned during the scanning step
m+p is greater by unity than the number of the lines
scanned during the scanning step In. This is characterized
in that on the stator there are arranged N switch segments
at an equally spaced relation d, and on the rotor p there
are arranged further switch segments at the space rela
tion
simulated rapid motion to and fro the frequency de
viation produced on the one hand is great enough to be
evaluated, and on the other hand the bearing errors
which are due to the group delay of the receiver, and
which correspond to a slow continuous simulated antenna
motion \are small.
m—1
am=d f(m)—1—-T
with m—_~2,3
.
.
.
p
where (2m is equal to the spacing between adjacent rotor
segments.
The following invention will now be described in par
A ‘direction ?nder operating on this principle is pref 35 ticular with reference to FIGS. 1-7 of the accompanying
erably designed in the conventional manner as a wide
drawings, in which:
aperture direction ?nder to keep the bearing errors to
a minimum. Technically this proposed direction—?nding
FIG. 1 shows a Doppler-type direction ?nder system
employing a capacitive scanning switch according to the
method has formerly been carried out in such a way that
invention for simulating a simple pilgrim-step motion.
individual antennas ‘are connected sequentially to the 40
FIG. 2 shows another embodiment of the scanning
receiver by means of switching diodes. In the switching
switch according to the idea of the invent-ion, which op
of these diodes there are used two trains of pulses, of
which one train simulates a rapid forward and backward
motion, while the other one simulates a slow and con
erates on an inductive coupling principle,
FIG. 3a schematically shows part of the stator arrange
ment,
tinuously progressive motion of an antenna element. The
FIG. 3b schematically shows a rotor and stator arrange
connection of the antenna element which is carried out
ment for effecting a “forward” pilgrim-step motion of the
in this case electronically, is performed by means of pulse
antenna,
generators of a different repetition rate in combination
FIG. 3c schematically shows a rotor and stator arrange
with delay lines and voltage-dependent resistors, such as
ment for effecting a “backward” pilgrim-step motion of
the aforementioned diodes arranged in the antenna lead 50 the antenna,
ins. In this case, however, the investment in switching
FIG. 4 shows the electrical equivalent circuit diagram
equipment is a considerable one.
A direction ?nder of the Doppler type has been known
in which a circular antenna array is scanned by means
of the scanning switch extending from the connecting
point of the antennas to the receiver inlet,
FIG. 5 shows one kind of the apparent antenna motion
of a capacitively coupled switch and in which the fre— 55 (sinusoidal) as plotted on a time base (milliseconds).
quency deviation resulting therefrom is utilized for deter
FIG. 6 shows the amplitude modulation resulting on
mining the direction. (This system has been described
account of the scanning of the antenna array according
in an article by Fantoni and Benoit, which was published
to FIG. 5 at the output of the receiver 17 in FIG. 1, and
in the IRE Convention Record, part 8, March 19‘~22,
FIG. 7 shows a general shape of the antenna motion in
1956.) This system, however, bears the disadvantage
a
graphical
representation.
which is already well known in direction ?nding systems
The direction ?nder as shown in principle in FIG. 1 of
of the Doppler type, where slow scanning of the antenna
the accompanying drawings is equipped with a capacitive
system is used, namely, the frequency ‘deviation or low
scanning switch which according to the invention allows
frequency bearing voltage obtained therefrom is very small
a very simple pilgrim-step scanning motion which for
and, therefore, incapable of being utilized for the direc 65 purposes of explanation is in this particular instance three
tion determination purpose. Furthermore if a rapid
steps in the forward direction and two steps in the back
scanning of the antenna is used the group delay produced
ward direction. The example of this simple type of pil
by the receiver is within the range of the frequency vari
grim-step scanning motion is illustrated graphically in
ation and therefore causes considerable bearing errors.
FIG. 7. But it should he understood that any sequential
According to this invention it is now proposed to 70 pilgrim-step scanning motion can be used consisting of a
carry out ‘a scanning of a circular antenna array by means
?xed number of integral steps in ‘one direction followed
of a correspondingly designed rotating commutator which
3,048,848
3
4
by a ?xed number of steps in the opposite direction other
than the number of steps used in the ?rst direction.
oscillating motion with a frequency of 1:700 cycles in a
sector of about :45 degrees. This kind of simulated
antenna motion on the whole is graphically shown in
FIG. 5 which illustrates one complete rotation of 360°
over the time base t (milliseconds). The amplitude
modulation resulting therefrom is plotted in PEG. 6 over
the same time base. In this example, the envelope corre
Furthermore, referring to FIG. 1, the capacitive switch
segments of the stator 2 and rotor 7 may also be adapted
to a photoelectric arrangement where the correspond
ing segments would then be holes through which a light
ray may pass for controlling a photelectric cell.
One part of the direction ?nder in FIG. 1 is the circular
antenna-array system 1 comprising e.g. l2 antenna ele
ments, each of which is connected via cable with one seg
ment 3 of the stator 2.
On the stator 22 there are also
provided just as many aligned collector segments 4, all of
which are conduetively connected with each other at the
sponds to the slow, continuous scanning motion and the
voltage which is modulated in a carrierless manner with
this voltage corresponds to the rapid, oscillating motion.
As has been previously stated, the envelope is used for
the direction-determination purpose.
The scanning effected in accordance with the showing
of FIG. 5 (3 steps in the forward direction and 2 steps
in the backward direction) of the individual antennas is
accomplished with the aid of a capacitive switch consist
point P. To the point P there is also connected a cable 5
leading to the input of a receiver 17. The rotor a driven
by motor 14- is mounted a slight distance from the stator
2 and comprises the segments 7 consisting of two parts
ing of stator 2 and a rotor 7, whose schematic representa~
illustrated in FIG. 1 and which are connected with each
tion with respect to the stator is given in FIGS. 3a . . . c.
other by means of small inductances.
In the described
The drawing of FIGS. 3a to 312 may also be understood
example, the stator segments, as well as the collector and
rotor segments, are all of the same width. The function
to be e.g. a cylindrical arrangement developed on a plane,
in which case the stator and collector segments 3, 4 are
arranged on an outer cylinder, and the rotor segments 7
(see FIG. 1) may be arranged on an internal second
of the inductances 22 will be described hereinafter.
Hence, if the stator and collector segments 3, 4 are
bridged by one rotor segment 7, there will exist a capaci
tive coupling between the respective antenna which is
coupled to the stator segment 3 and to the input of the
receiver 17. On account of the successive, periodical cou
pling of the antenna elements there is produced at the
collecting point P or at the input of the receiver 17, a fre
quency-modulated high-frequency voltage. Thereupon,
cylinder.
The stator of the scanning switch is provided with
stator segments 3 corresponding to the number of an
tennas to be commutated. Each of these stator segments
3 is connected with its associated antenna by means of a
concentric cable. Assigned to these stator segments, but
insulated therefrom are the collector segments 4 which
at the output of this frequency dcmodulating receiver 17,
are equal in number and which are provided on the same
there exists a low~frequency voltage as indicated in the
curve of FIG. 6. On the axis of rotation to of the motor
14 there is also provided a phonic wheel 8 of the conven
tional type comprising a number of teeth corresponding to 35
carrier component. Collector segments 4 are intercon
nected at point P and lead to the input of receiver 17.
At a small distance opposite this stationary stator com
the number of antennas. An alternating-current voltage
will be produced in winding 9 corresponding to the rapid
scanning of the antenna array. This AC. voltage is used
as the phase-locked reference signal. For the purpose of
effecting an adjustment with respect to the toothed-wheel
rim, the winding 9 of the phonic wheel 8 is angularly dis~
placeable by a small amount, so that the phase of this
reference signal is adjustable by a desired amount. By
ponent 2 there is arranged a rotating component compris
ing a small number of segments 7, of which each consists
of two parts as is shown in FIG. 1. One part bridges or
overlaps the stator segment 3, while the other part over
laps the corresponding collector segment 4. The spaces
between the stator and the collector segments are ?lled
with metal coatings, as is indicated by the shaded portions
in FIG. 3a. For the purpose of achieving a better electri
cal separation of the individual segments, as well as for
means of this arrangement it is rendered possible to com
the purpose of providing the necessary shielding, these
pensate for the group delay of the receiver 17, which
metal coatings are connected to a ground conductor.
occurs as a result of the slow scanning frequency.
These ground conductors accompanying both the stator
and collector segments (and which are indicated by the
shaded portions in FIG. 3a) are arranged at such a dis
tance from the respective segments that they have the
same characteristic impedance, as that of the coaxial cable
leading to the antenna, namely, 60 ohms. In particular
The
voltage produced by means of the phonic wheel 8 is fed
via slip-rings or collector rings 31 to the rotor winding 13
of a ring-type goniorneter. The stator Winding 12 of the
goniometer is closed in itself and has four tappings which
are staggered by 90° From two opposing tappings there
the continuously extending ground conductors also allow
are respectively taken off two voltages of the shape as
the energy received by the antenna to be only transferred
shown in FIG. 6. The envelopes of these voltages are
to the collector segments 4, whenever a rotor segment
phase-shifted with respect to each other by 90°. The
envelope of the output voltage of the receiver 17 likewise 55 bridges or overlaps both a stator segment 3 and a collec~
tor segment 4. Furthermore, the rotor segments 7 are
has the shape, as indicated in FIG. 6. But this voltage is
phase-shifted with respect to the other envelopes by the
corresponding direction of incidence of the received elec
tromagnetic waves. Each of the two reference signals
which are phase-shifted by 96° is now fed in the conven
tional manner via conductor leads l5 and 16 together
with the signal containing the bearing information from
receiver 17, via line 18 to a network enabling a product
formation and comprising a conventional type of phase
comparator indicator 19. As is well-known, the DC.
component of each of these products is then in proportion
to the sine or the cosine respectively of the angle of in
cidence of the wave front.
In order to explain the idea of this invention, and for
providing a numerical reference value it is assumed that
the illustrated pilgrim-step motion, which produces a slow,
continuous scanning is e?ected with a frequency of 50
c.p.s., which corresponds to the number of rotations of the
rotor 7.
To this slow motion which progresses con
capacitively grounded when not positioned opposite to
a stator and collector segment.
On account of the fact
that the characteristic impedance of the scanning switch
is approximately equal to that of the cable leading to
the antenna, the currents can be transferred in a continu
ous line from the antenna via the stator segment 3, the
rotor segment 7 and the collector segment 4 to the input
of the receiver 17.
In accordance with a further embodiment of this in
vention the aforementioned two parts of each rotor seg
-ment 7 are respectively connected with each other by
means of a small inductance 22 constituting, together with
the transmission capacitance of the two movable parts
of the rotor-segments with respect to the stationary seg
ments, at series-resonant circuit having its resonant fre
quency near the middle of the frequency range to be
transmitted.
‘
Furthermore, the collector segments 4 connected to each
tinuously in one direction there is combined a rapidly 75 other and leading to the receiver 17 are connected to
3,048,843
5
ground by a small inductance 24 which, together with the
switch capacitances (segments 4, FIG. 3a, to ground)
form a parallel-resonant circuit having its resonant fre
quency near the middle of the frequency range to be
transmitted. On account of the two resonant circuits it is
now possible to achieve a wideband impedance matching
in a conventional manner, and the attenuation from the
point P to the input of the receiver ‘17 may be kept neg
ligibly small within a predetermined frequency range.
The equivalent diagram of the circuit arrangement is
shown in FIG. 4. In this arrangement the capacitor 21
corresponds to the capacitance of stator segment 3 (FIG.
3a) with respect to rotor segment 7, see FIG. 1, part A
(FIG. 31)), while the capacitor 23 corresponds to the ca
pacitance of collector segment 4 (FIG. 3a) with respect
to segment 7, see FIG. 1, part B (FIG. 31)). These two
series-arranged capacitors, together with inductance 22,
form the above-mentioned series-resonant circuit, whereas
the capacitor 25, which is formed by the switch capaci
tance of the collector segments 4 (FIG. 3a) to ground
together with inductance 24 represent the parallel-reso
6
segment 7 will become zero, in other words, its ‘width
will be double its size.
In the assumed and most simple example with the three
scanning steps in the forward direction and two scanning
steps in the backward direction the stator segments have
a width of 1/5 (one-?fth) of the spacing (d), and a mu
tual spacing of 4/5 between adjacent segments. The rotor
segments as illustrated in FIG. 3b likewise has a width
of 1/5 and, in accordance with the formula of proportion
has a spacing between adjacent rotor segments of %.
In order to clearly illustrate the “forward” pilgrim
step scanning motion of this invention, let us refer spe
ci?cally to the schematic representation of FIG. 3b where
the rotor segments are aligned in such a manner that
rotor segment A is positioned one step to the left’ of the
?rst stator segment M. As the rotor is advanced clock
wise or from left to right in the direction of the arrow
the rotor segment A in its ?rst step will be directly be
neath stator segment M. As the rotor is advanced step
be better understood with respect to the pilgrim-step
scanning motion of this invention. The distance d shown
by-step the rotor segments A, B and C will be positioned
in succession directly beneath a succession of stator seg
ments MNO etc. The following table will illustrate which
of the stator and rotor segments will be capacitively cou
pled as the rotor 7 progresses clockwise in a stepeby-step
motion.
Table I
on FIG. 3a corresponds to the mutual spacing between
Step positions:
nant circuit.
Referring now speci?cally to FIGS. 3a to 30, the ar
rangement of the segments on stator 3 and rotor 4 will
the central line of adjacent stator segments.
As was previously stated diiferent combinations of
pilgrim-step antenna scanning may be used. For instance,
there may be chosen a motion consisting of four steps
in the forward direction and three steps in the back
Ward direction or even 3 steps in the forward direction
and 2 steps in the backward direction. The number of
1
3 __
4
___
N
___*
___
9
__
O
____ __
_
____
6 _
resented graphically in a more general manner in FIG. 7.
_
___
__
N
O
8
10 ___
__
___ M
___
5
7
scanning steps at have a period p and the order of suc 110
a-
2 ___
rotor segments and the spaced relation resulting from the
given general formula which is hereinafter stated is rep
The spaced relation of the stator segments is assumed to
be d as shown in FIG. 3a. The number of individual
Coupled stator segments
0 ______________________________________ __
P
_
___
_
11
12
-—
_____
_
O
P
13
___
___ Q
cession of the scanning operation of the input lines (an
tennas) with the numerals n is assumed to be given by
15
_
the function n=f(m), as is represented by way of example
in the curve of FIG. 7. The scanning of the individual
antenna elements is now supposed to proceed in such 45 As can be noted from the above table, stator segment M
is coincident with rotor segment A in the ?rst step and
a way that upon completion of one period p there is
14
coupled the next antenna element so that the number of
input lines or antennas, scanned during the scanning step
m-l-p, is by unity greater than the number of the lines
scanned during the scanning step m. It should be under
stood that this condition applies to each arbitrary point
of the curve or to each arbitrary number n of the input
lines respectively. In order to indicate this there are in
serted at arbitrary points, shaded triangles, and it will be
seen that the value of the ‘function n:f(m) in the next
successive period is always greater by unity than the one
in the preceding period. In other words, upon completion
_
_
_
-—
stator segment N Will be coincident with rotor segment
B in the second step. Thus as viewed from FIG. 1 the
rotor 6 is continuously moving in a clockwise direction.
The segments of the rotor are so spaced that the result
ant effect of the scanning motion is to connect each an
tenna element to the receiver in a pilgrim-step order. For
example, in the system as described above which has 12
antenna elements, the motion of the capacitive scanning
switch is such that initially antenna elements 1, 2 and 3
are successively scanned, and then followed by a second
scan of antenna elements 2, 3 and 4-, which is further
followed by a third scan of antenna elements 3, 4 and 5
etc., until the entire antenna array has been scanned.
of one period p there is always coupled the next succes
sive input line of the circuit antenna array.
Under these conditions there results a number of p 60 Thus, this type of pilgrim-step scanning motion produces
a slow continuous scanning which corresponds to the num
rotor segments and the mutual spacing between the cen
ber of rotations or the frequency of the rotor 7 which
tral lines of adjacent rotor segments is given by the for
was previously stated to be 50 c.p.s., having superimposed
mula
thereon a rapid oscillating motion of a frequency of about
65 1500 c.p.s. in a sector of about i45°.
10
Now let us refer to FIG. 3c which illustrates the “back
am=d[f(m) —1——-WL—1
wherein m=2, 3 . . . p is to be inserted.
ward” pilgrim-step scanning motion. Here the mutual
spacing between adjacent rotor segments 7 is ‘75 of the
The width of the individual rotor segments ‘7 likewise
mutual spacing of the stator and the width of each rotor
results from this formula, in that in the most simple 70 segment is 1/5. The rotor segments are shown initially
case it is equal to that of the stator segments. Thus,
aligned in such a manner that rotor segment A is posi
whenever there is a scanning-step m there is also sup
tioned two steps to the left of the ?rst stator segment M,
posed to correspond a different value m=f(m). How
and as can be seen from this ?gure rotor segment C is
ever if the same input line with the same number as
coincident with a stator segment. As the rotor is again
before is connected upon the stepping of one scanning step
advanced one step in the clockwise direction or in the
it can be seen that the distance or spacing am of the rotor 75
guesses
7
8
direction of the arrow, rotor segment B will now be
relating to the proportion and arrangement given in the
coincident with stator segment N, and as the rotor is ad
exampie relating to the capacitive scanning switch de
vanced an additional step rotor segment A will be coin
scribed hereinbefore.
cident with stator segment M. The following table will
Analogously, the whole arrangement is also suitable
illustrate which of the stator and rotor segments will be 5 for use with transmitters, when the reference signal is
capacitively coupled as rotor 7 progresses clockwise suc
transmitted as well, eg via an auxiliary carrier or in an
cessively, in a step-by-step motion.
amplitude-modulated fashion.
While ‘I have described above the principles of my in
Table II
vention in connection with speci?c apparatus, it is to be
Step positions:
Coupled stator segments
0 _______________________________________ __
1 ______________________________________ __
2 ___
3
____ __
_____
clearly understood that this description is made only
O
by way of example and not as a limitation to the scope
of my invention as set forth in the objects thereof and
N
in the accompanying claims.
What is claimed is:
M
______________________________________ __
_
4 ______________________________________ __
__
5 ______________________________________ __
P
outer portion and an inner portion, a ?rst group of seg
6 ______________________________________ __
O
ments radially positioned about said outer portion and
7 ______________________________________ __
N
spaced from each other, a second group of segments cor
responding in number to the segments of said ?rst group
20 and aligned therewith, one of said group of segments
8
__
__
_________ __
__
9 ______________________________________ __
__
1O _____________________________________ __
Q
15
1. A scanning switch comprising a stator having an
having their segments interconnected, said second group
of segments radially positioned about said inner portion
11 _____________________________________ __
P
12 _____________________________________ __
O
and spaced from said ?rst group of segments and from
13 _____________________________________ __
-
each other, a plurality of input lines equal in number
14 _____________________________________ __
_
to the number of segments in a group, means to connect
15 ______________________________________ ~_
R
16 _____________________________________ __
Q
17
P
put line with all of the segments of the other group, a
18 _____________________________________ __
-
19 _____________________________________ __
_
rotor having a radially positioned rotor segment adapted
to be aligned progressively with said segments of said
__
___...
_______ __
Thus with the particular spacing of 93 between ad
jacent rotor segments as illustrated in this ?gure a “back
said input lines with the corresponding segment of one
of said groups, an output line, means to connect an out
?rst and second groups as the rotor is rotated and posi
tioned in a coupling relation thereto, said rotor segment
ward” pilgrim-step scanning motion can be achieved.
Since the capacitive switchover ‘from one antenna to
bridging the space between said segments of said ?rst and
the next one is not effected suddenly, but rather con
means for rotating said rotor to provide successive and
tinuously or gradually, which is mainly due to the fact
retrogressive coupling of said input lines to said output
second groups to provide coupling therebetween, and
line.
that the capacitance of the stator, collector and rotor
2. A scanning switch as de?ned in claim 1 further com
segments with respect to each other gradually assume
prising means connected to the rotor for producing a
the maximum value, there is achieved a better simula
tion of an antenna motion than would be possible by 40 variable reference voltage, and means for comparing said
reference voltage with the signal produced on said out
means of a spasmodic switchover which occurs when
put line for producing an indication.
switching or gating diodes are used instead of the capaci
3. in a direction ?nding system having a scanning
tive switching as illustrated in the above invention.
switch as de?ned in claim 1 comprising an antenna array
In the described particular example of a pilgrim-step
motion with three steps in the forward direction and two
steps in the backward direction there has been described
raving elements circularly spaced a predetermined dis
tance from each other corresponding to the number of
segments in a group, and means for connecting said plu
a linear motion in either direction. However, by means
rality of input lines to said antenna elements.
of a suf?ciently greater number of antenna elements, as
well as by a ?ne subdivision of the switching elements or
4. A scanning switch as de?ned in claim 1, wherein
the coupling between said rotor segment and said seg
scanning steps and by a corresponding selection of the
ments of said ?rst and second group is capactive.
width and the distances of the rotor segments in ac
5. A scanning switch as de?ned in claim 1 further com
cordance with the general idea of the invention, it is pos
sible to approximate a sinusoidal scanning.
prising means for providing a plurality of input line scans
In FIG. 2 there is shown another embodiment relating
for each rotation of the rotor, the cycles of each scan
to the scanning switch according to the idea of the in
having a ?xed number of steps, said rotor comprising a
plurality of segments said rotor segments having a differ
vention, which is based on the inductive coupling prin
ciple.
ent mutual spacing than the mutual spacing of the stator
The individual antennas are applied by means of ca
segments, the mutual spacing of the rotor segments dif
fering from that of the mutual spacing of the stator seg
pacitors 281—28p to coupling coils 261—261,, the other
winding ends of which are connected to ground. Be 60 ments by an amount equal to the distance traversed by
said rotor segment in one step.
tween the individual coils there are provided shielding
walls 31, and each coupling circuit consisting of the ca
6. A scanning switch as de?ned in claim 5, wherein the
pacitor 28 and the inductance 26 is balanced to series
number of rotor segments is equal to the number of input
lines scanned in a cycle.
resonance for the medium frequency range to be trans
mitted. On the same base there are mounted additional
7. A scanning switch comprising a stator having an
coupling coils 271-271,, which are connected in parallel
outer portion and an inner portion, a ?rst group of seg
and are tuned by means of capacitor 29 for impedance
ments radially positioned about said outer portion and
matching at the medium operating frequency range. One
spaced from each other, a second group of segments cor
end of the coupling coil is applied to the ground while
responding in number to the segments of said ?rst group
the other end is connected to the point P and to the 70 and aligned therewith, one of said group of segments hav
receiver 17 (FIG. 1). A strong or intensive coupling
of the coils 26 and 27 and, consequently, a transfer of
the antenna energy to the receiver is accomplished with
the aid of ferro-magnetic elements 301—3€i5 which are
mounted to a rotor in accordance with the points of view 75
ing their segments interconnected, said second group of
segments radially positioned about said inner portion and
spaced from said ?rst group of segments and from each
other, a plurality of input lines equal in number to the
number of segments in a group, means to connect said
3,048,843
1%
input lines with the corresponding segment of one of said
and spaced from said ?rst group of segments and trom
groups, an output line, means to connect an input line
with all of the segments of the other group, a shielding
each other, a plurality of input lines equal in number to
the number of segments in a group, means to connect said
input lines with the corresponding segment of one of said
metallic member positioned between a pair of aligned
groups, an output line, means to connect an output line
segments of the ?rst and second groups and the next adja
with all of the segments of the other group, a rotor hav
cent pair of segments, said member being connected to
ing a radially positioned rotor segment adapted to be
ground and spaced a predetermined distance from said
aligned progressively with said segments of said ?rst and
pairs of segments so that the characteristic impedance
second groups as the rotor is rotated and positioned in
from the segments to the shielding member is approxi
mately equal to the impedance of the input lines, an in 10 a coupling relation thereto, said rotor segment bridging
the space between said segments of said ?rst and second
ductance connected between output line and the segments
groups to provide coupling therebet'ween, the coupling
connected thereto to form a parallel resonant circuit, a
between said rotor segment and said segments of said ?rst
rotor having a radially positioned rotor segment adapted
and second group being inductive, and means for rotat
to be aligned progressively with said segments of said ?rst
and second groups as the rotor is rotated and positioned 15 ing said rotor to provide successive coupling of said input
lines to said output line.
in a coupling relation thereto, said rotor segment bridg
10. A scanning switch ‘for a circular ‘antenna array hav
ing the space between said segments of said ?rst and sec
ond groups to provide coupling therebetween, and means
ing a plurality of antennas for simulating antenna ele
ment motion, comprising a stator and a rotor, said stator
for rotating said rotor to provide successive coupling of
said input lines to said output line.
8. A scanning switch comprising a stator having an
having a ?rst group of segments equal in number to said
plurality of antennas and spaced equidistant about a com
mon point, a second group of segments corresponding in
number to the segments or" said ?rst group and disposed
outer portion and an inner portion, a ?rst group of seg
ments radially positioned about said outer portion and
in spaced alignment therewith, means coupling together
spaced ‘from each other, a second group of segments cor
responding in number to the segments of said ?rst group 25 the segments of said second group, means coupling each
of said antenna elements to a segment of said ?rst group,
and aligned therewith, one of said group of segments hav
said rotor comprising a plurality of segments disposed
ing their segments interconnected, said second group of
thereon and adapted for alignment with said aligned seg
segments radially positioned about said inner portion and
ments of said ?rst and second groups in bridging relation
spaced from said ?rst group of segments and from each
ship thereto, means for rotating said rotor relative to said
other, a plurality of input lines equal in number to the
stator to provide successive and retrogressive coupling of
said segments of said ?rst and second groups whereby sig
number of segments in a group, means to connect said
input lines with the corresponding segment of one of said
nals received at said antenna array are coupled from the
segments of said ?rst group to the segments of said sec
ing a radially positioned rotor segment adapted to be 35 ond group in said successive and retrogressive manner.
groups, an output line, means to connect an output line
with all of the segments of the other group, a rotor hav
11. A scanning switch according to claim 10 wherein
the switch segments of said ?rst group carried by said
stator are spaced apart a distance d and the switch seg
aligned progressively with said segments of said ?rst and
second groups as the rotor is rotated and positioned in a
coupling relation thereto, said rotor segment bridging the
ments disposed on said rotor are spaced apart a distance
space between said segments of said ?rst and second
groups to provide coupling therebetween, said rotor seg 40
ment further comprising two conductive parts Which are
connected by means of an inductance, said conductive
where ]‘(m) equals the number of antennas, m equals the
parts forming a series resonant circuit with said induct
number of individual scanning steps and p equals the pe
ance, and means for rotating said rotor to provide suc
am=d[f(m) -1—mT1
cessive coupling of said input lines to said output line.
45 riod of scan of in steps.
9. A scanning switch comprising a stator having an
outer portion and an inner portion, a ?rst group of seg
ments radially positioned about said outer portion and
spaced from each other, a second group of segments cor
responding in number to the segments of said ?rst group 50
and aligned therewith, one of said group of segments hav
ing their segments interconnected, said second group of
segments radially positioned about said inner portion
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
2,457,127
2,769,159
2,902,673
2,953,782
2,961,655
Chesus et a1 ___________ __ Dec. 28,
Moore _______________ __ Oct. 30,
Hare _________________ __ Sept. 1,
Byatt ________________ __ Sept. 20,
Magnuson ____________ __ Nov. 22,
1948
1956
1959
1960
1960
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