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Патент USA US3049106

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Aug. 14, 1962
J. SEDLACSIK ETAL
3,049,092
APPARATUS FOR THE ELECTROSTATIC COATING OF ARTICLES
Filed July 24, 1959
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Aug- 14, 1962
J. SEDLACSIK ETAL
3,049,092
APPARATUS FOR THE ELECTROSTATIC COATING OF, ARTICLES
Filed July 24, 1959
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LIQUID COATING
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INVENTOR
4mm SEDLACSIK
JOHN SEDLAGSIK JR.
ilnited States Patent @fice
1
3,049,992
Patented Aug. 14, 1962
2
e?fecting substantial savings in labor and equipment while
simultaneously increasing the coverage of the coating ma
terial issuing from the spray device.
In prior art spraying devices utilizing air pressure to
atomize the coating material, the spray mixture issuing
3,049,092
APPARATUS FOR THE ELECTROSTATIC COATING
(PF ARTICLES
John Sedlacsilr and John Sedlacsik, Jr., Gar?eld, N.J.,
assignors to interplanetary Research & Development
Corp, Gar?eld, N.J., a corporation of New Jersey
Filed July 24, 1959, Ser. No. 829,373
5 Claims. (Cl. 118-629)
from the spray nozzle spreads outwardly or expands uni
formly taking the form of a generally conical mist-like
stream.
The sides of this stream travel outwardly in
diverging paths in the general direction of the surface to
Our invention relates to electrostatic coating and more 10 be coated. Upon impact therewith, considerable of the
particularly to coating apparatus and coating methods to
coating material, entrained with the air, is de?ected in a
be used in electrostatic coating systems. This application
swirling action away from this surface and is dispersed
is a continuation-in-part application of copending applica
into the atmosphere. A great deal of the coating mate
tion Serial Number 533,691, ?led September 12, 1955,
rial discharged from the nozzle is thereby lost and, there
now abandoned, for Apparatus for the Electrostatic Coat
fore, more material than actually needed is usually used
ing of Articles.
to produce the desired coating.
Generally speaking, in electrostatic coating systems of
To avoid some of this waste of material and also to
the present known types, a ?eld of electrostatic force is
created which includes the article being coated and the
atomized coating material particles in movement toward
such article. In normal commercial practice, it is desira
eliminate attendant ?re hazards, where in?ammable coat
ing materials are used, it has been the practice in some
industries to provide special spray booths or chambers in
which to conduct the spray operations. These booths are
often equipped with high powered suction or blower sys
tems to remove the waste material from the atmosphere.
ble to mount the article on a grounded conveyor and thus
to make the article itself (if it is of conducting material)
or an electrode adjacent the same, an electrode at ground
In some cases, special equipment is installed for salvaging
potential. Another electrode at high electrical potential
is provided, with this electrode normally being the spray
' ‘the material thus conveyed away as well as reclaiming
ing device. Sometimes a separate electrode near or past
which the spray passes in its movement toward the article
This invention has, for‘ its primary purpose, the pro
vision of an improved spray coating device which is capa
ble of reducing this loss and waste of coating materials,
increasing the amount of effective coverage which may
be obtained from a given quantity of coating material,
is employed.
The present invention contemplates the formation of a
paint or similar spray from a liquid material capable of
relatively rapid atomization by expelling same from the
device to which the material is introduced in the liquid
form. This is preferably done through the use of coating
wasted material deposited on the walls of the spray booths.
reducing the ?re hazards and generally improving the char
acter of the coating produced by the spray device by offer
ing uniform dispersion without objectionable ripples and
material and air in a spray gun, in conjunction with an 00 Cl concentrations.
electrostatic attraction of the atomized particles produced
therewith toward an oppositely charged article or target,
as Well as by the repulsion between the charged surface
portions of the liquid and other adjacent parts of the mass.
That is to say, the invention relates to improvements in 40
an apparatus for applying a liquid coating to an article by
electrostatically charging and depositing the comminuted
coated material upon the article within an electrostatic
?eld created ‘between the article to be coated and the
Another object of the invention is to provide means for
controlling the diverging column or stream of atomized
coating material after issuance from the spray nozzle so
that lateral de?ection and dispersion of the mixture along
the margin of impact of the stream with the coated sur
face is appreciably reduced and so that much of the mate
rial which would otherwise be dispersed into the atmos
phere is now directed on the article surface.
Under the in?uence of the electrostatic charging, in
issuing source of the coating material. The coating mate 45 combination with the air, a spray of uniform dispersion
rial is issued from a spray gun or similar suitable atomiz
of particles can be attained. Further, the spray may be
ing device preferably utilizing air under pressure as a vehi
directed forwardly in a straight manner toward the article
cle to convey the ?nely divided or atomizedvv particles onto
the surface of the article to be coated.
In the use of spray guns or the like of the known prior
art types, many disadvantages develop in that the gun is
usually limited to a comparatively small ?eld of disper
sion. It carries the coating material to be discharged in
to be coated or it may be made irregular so as to have
more or less conical contour by subjecting it during its
expulsion from the liquid ‘mass ‘and before its complete
atomization, to an intermittent or pulsating force acting
in lines concomitant with its direction of travel.
The atomizing element of my apparatus consists essen
non-uniform sized particles and in variable patterns.
tially
of a small head or nozzle having a sharply de?ned
Thus, there is an uneven dispersion of the coating particles 55
distributing or atomizing point or tip from which the coat
over the surface to be coated due to the inertia generated
ing material is directed at a predetermined rate in the form
in the discharge, causing the larger particles to travel fur
of atomized particles.
ther in the ?eld than the more ?nely divided particles.
In this invention, a source of electrostatic high poten
Sometimes a variable pattern of spray is created and re
tial, having one terminal grounded and its opposite termi'
produced on the surface to be coated, the heavier coating
nal connected to the atomizing head, creates a strong
particles being caused to impinge over one area and the
electrostatic ?eld between the head and ‘the article to be
more ?nely divided particles over another area. By rea
coated, which article is also grounded. The force of this
son of such variance, it has been found necessary in prac—
?eld transmits the pre-atomized coating material as a ?ne
tice under certain conditions of coating to arrange a size
able battery of spray guns with particular regard to their 6 01 spray of charged particles and creates an attraction which
pulls the spray to the grounded article. The coating ma
variable patterns of coating application so that the several
guns complement each other to even out the pattern as a
terial is normally supplied to the discharge edge or lip and
battery.
One object of the invention is to provide means for con
-
its region of corona discharge at a rate at which it can
be pneumatically atomized most e?iciently and effectively,
trolling the deposit of the sprayed material on the surface 70 after which the charged particles are projected in spray
to be coated, thereby reducing and minimizing the waste
form and deposited upon the oppositely charged article.
material due to loss ‘by dispersion into the atmosphere, and
Other objects of this invention will ‘appear in the follow—
3,049,092
4
ing description and appended claims, reference being had
to the accompanying drawings wherein:
head of the above patent or of any other of the well
known commercial types of atornizing spray guns using
air for the atomizing medium.
FIG. 1 is a sectional elevational view of the device of
the invention;
The conventional spray gun includes an inner liquid or
FIG. 2 is a sectional view on the line 2—2 of FIG. 1;
?uid transmitting member 20, formed with a forwardly
FIG. 3 is a partial sectional view of the plug member
or cap of the invention;
FIG. 4 is a partial vertical view showing the nozzle
and horizontally disposed tip having a central ori?ce there
through which the coating material is emitted into the
employed for spraying articles carried on opposed sides
of a conveyor;
nozzle of this invention.
The member 20‘ abuts against the outer surface of a
10 washer 2.2 and the tip extends into, if not through, a cen
FIG. 5 is a top view of the 360° nozzle of the invention
trally disposed opening in the washer, which member is
used in the center of an arcuate conveyor; and
FIG. 6 is a further modi?cation showing the nozzle
seated Within the nozzle as will presently be appreciated.
Forwardly of the member 20‘, an elongated connecting
member 30‘ is provided having a central bore or ori?ce 32
having its axis disposed at right angles to the path of the
conveyor.
Before explaining the present invention, in detail, it is
to be understood that same is not limited in its application
to the details of construction and arrangement of parts
illustrated in the accompanying drawings, since the in
vention is capable of other embodiments. It is also to be
understood that the phraseology or terminology employed
herein is for the purpose of description only and not of
limitation. It is further to be understood that forms of
15
extending therethrough throughout the longitudinal length
thereof. The bore 32 communicates with the opening in
the tip of the member 20‘.
Member 30 has an enlarged end portion 31 which is ex
ternally threaded for purposes shortly to be observed.
The member 30 also has an outwardly extending annular
skirt portion 34 which is adapted to be engaged along its
outer peripheral edge by a union nut 36 so as to hold
member ‘30 in extended coaxial relation with member 20
spraying devices other than the particular ato-mizing de
with the top thereof extending into the opening 32 and
vice shown may be utilized and that other apparatus may
be employed for accomplishing the purposes and practic
affording the direct communication therebetween as afore
said.
ing the methods of the invention without departing from
the contemplated scope of the present invention. No limi
end portion 31 in a direction parallel to the plane of the
tations are to be implied from the speci?c description now
bore 32, at a distance away therefrom, as shown.
A sleeve or barrel-like outer shell member 40 is pro
provided.
In the practice of this invention, there is provided a dis
charge member or atomizing head, a spray gun mecha
nism with which said discharge member is associated, a
source of liquid supply, a source of air supply, and distrib
One or more air openings ‘38 extend through the outer
vided having a central opening 42 extending therethrough.
The rearmost portion of the inside wall of the member
40 is threadedly engaged with the member ‘31, as shown,
whereby member 40 may be held so as to surround and
uting means for transferring the liquid and air from their 35 enclose member 30'.
An insert member 50 is insertable into the member 40
at the open forward end thereof, as shown.
A rearmost stem-like portion 52 of the member 50‘ has
For purposes of simpli?cation, all of these members are
an enlarged outer end portion 53 which may be threadedly
not shown, they being more or less conventional in paint
spraying apparatus and not forming a part of this speci?c 40 engaged at 54 with the forward free end of the member
30. A centrally-located longitudinally~disposed opening
invention.
56 is provided through the insert member 50, which open
Referring to the drawing more in detail, and more par~
ing is in communication with the opening 32 of the mem
ticularly to the preferred form of my invention selected
ber 30.
for illustrative purposes, I have shown an arrangement of
A T-sha-ped annular plug member or cap 69 has a stem
apparatus which is suitable for coating articles which are 45
respective sources of supply to the spray gun and thence
to the discharge member for atomization and dispersion.
preferably moved along a path of article movement
portion 62 which extends rearwardly into the outer end
through a coating zone in which the device of the inven
of the opening 56 so as to seal the same, the stem portion
tion, normally ?xed in location, projects.
Disposed at one side of the path of article-movement is
a horizontally positioned atomizing head, generally desig
nated by the numeral 16, by means of which head the
liquid coating material is atomized.
62 being press~?tted into the opening. A shoulder on the
stem 62 serves to prevent the plug from being positioned
relative to the member 50 beyond a certain predetermined
limit.
An annular ring of openings 64 lead obliquely from the
opening 56 to the outer wall of the member 50‘ and termi
The liquid spray material is led from a source (not
nate at their outer ends adjacent an annular shoulder 66
shown) to a spray gun (not shown) and thence to the
nozzle or head end of the structure which incorporates the 55 of the member 50.
An offset Wall portion ‘68 of the member 50 extends out
features of this speci?c invention. Likewise air is led
wardly away from the shoulder 66 whereby the coating
from its source (not shown) to the spray gun and thence
material passing through the bores 32 and 56 and the
to the nozzle or head end of the structure.
openings 64 passes outwardly between the wall portion 68
The spray gun contemplated for use in this invention
and the outer end portion of the member 40.
consists of a conventional main body portion which is dis
Air passes through openings 38 in member 31 and
posed rearwardly of the apparatus of this invention. Same
thence into the area 42 within the barrel 40. A plurality
does not form a part of this invention and accordingly
of openings 70 extend from the area 42 through the mem
is not shown. It also includes a spray head similar to the
ber 50. Air may thus be conducted forwardly from the
type disclosed in US. Letters Patent #2,0‘70,696, dated
65 chamber 42 to the head end of the device.
February 16, 1937.
The air passes outwardly through the openings 70 into
At ‘the head or nozzle end of the spray gun structure, a
nose piece is provided and the liquid and gas conducting
the area 72 at the head end of the structure beneath or to
the rear of the plug member 60 which is spaced away from
the forward edge portion of the member 50 so as to permit
tubes with appropriate means at the forward face of the 70 the escape of air around the peripheral edge thereof.
An 0 ring 80 is seated in an annular groove around the
nose piece whereby the liquid and air may pass there
body of the member 50 and functions to seal the connec
through to the forwardly disposed elements of the nozzle,
tion between members 50 and 40 whereby the escape of
about to be described.
air therepast is obviated.
The nose piece is of such con?guration as to be adapted
to receive, in threaded engagement therewith, the spray 5 The shell 401 and insert member 50 terminate at their
members may be connected thereto. Interior passageways
within the nose piece (not shown) connect the respective
3,049,092
5
outer ends in thin edges. The ratio of discharge area to
the area of the article being coated is reduced to a mini
mum; the leakage of electrical charges from the forward
end of the high potential nozzle electrode is increased,
thereby more et?ciently charging the liquid spray particles.
By judicious experimentation, We have determined that
the size of the formed cone of coating material and thus
the pattern may be variably controlled by increasing or
6
_
articles are also shown connected to ground. The high
voltage, which normally is of direct current type, may be
any suitable voltage in a range from 40,000 to 300,000
volts D.C. and creates or establishes an electrostatic ?eld
between the nozzle, or the area of a nozzle, and the articles
to be coated 206. While the spray gun is shown electrical
ly charged by having a metallic outer shell connected to a
voltage source, an electrode 210 which may be of the an
decreasing the amount of air discharged through the ap
nular type, having needles 211 equally spaced thereabout,
paratus. Compressed air issues from the air chamber 42 10 may be connected with the high voltage source as shown,
through the recess 72, and expands radially outwardly
if this is desired, so that the spray may be charged direct
within the column of coating issuing from the narrow
ly by contact with the charged nozzle as shown by connect
radially outward ori?ce at the forward end of the nozzle.
ing the nozzle 10 directly to the high voltage source, or by
That is, where the amount of air employed is increased,
employing the annular discharge ring 210 which is con
the sheath of particles of coating material is caused to 15 nected to the high voltage source by conductor such as
expand outwardly in more or less an umbrella-shaped pat
tern whereas when the amount of air employed is de
creased, the sheath of particles of coating material is
caused to be directed forwardly in more or less of a bul
let-shaped pattern.
If desired the inner peripheral edge or skirt of the plug
member 60 may be chamfered as shown at 61 in FIG. 3
so as to facilitate the passage of air therepast.
212 and wherein the conductor such as 214 connected from
the terminal 215 to the atomizer 10 may be disconnected,
thus indirectly charging the paint by spraying same into
the electrostatic ?eld.
The dash lines ‘216 show repre
20 sentative con?nes of a spray which may be obtained by
adjusting the nozzle shell for creating a penetrating spray
under the in?uence of the air pressure.
The con?nes of the spray pattern de?ned by the dotted
Also if desired plugs of varying diameters may be em
lines 218‘ show another spray pattern which may be ob
ployed so as to aid in the dispersal of air therepast.
25 tained by moving the shell of the nozzle outwardly in a
If desired, means may be provided whereby the air pass
direction away from the gun, so that the air pressure may
ing through the device may be pulsated so as to distinguish
throw the paint particles radially into a spray of 360'
it from the normal situation where it passes through all
which may be substantially transversely or at right angles
openings evenly. By passing the air intermittently
to the axis of the nozzle 10 as shown in FIG. 4 and de
through the device, the air issuing therefrom has a pulsat 30 ?ned by the dash lines 220. The upper and lower dash
ing action causing the air to de?ect the liquid material
lines 220 show a general height of a spray pattern which
?rst in one direction and then in another. This resultant
increases by electrostatic particle repulsion as the spray
effect is known as a pulsating eifect.
gets further from the source of the nozzle though the
The nose piece and the other elements at the forward
spray emitted is substantially radially from the nozzle.
end of the gun are preferably made from electrical con 35
In ‘FIG. 5, it will be seen that the nozzle is positioned
ducting material, the nose piece being connected to the un
like that shown in FIG. 4 between opposed sides of a con
grounded terminal of a high voltage source (not shown).
veyor, which conveyor may embrace a portion de?ning a
As the streams of liquid and gas pass outwardly through
circular con?guration. The atomizer 10 of FIG. 4 would,
the member 10, the same are subjected to the charging
therefore, spray all of the articles within the general area
effect of the corona discharge from the electrode whereby
de?ned by the arcuate con?guration of the conveyor. The
the ?nely divided particles comprising the spray have each
nozzle may be of any suitable size and have dimensions
imparted thereto electrical charges of like polarity. A
halo effect is attained thereby.
With voltage applied directly to the spray head structure,
anywhere from one-half inch in diameter to approximately
ten or more inches in diameter depending upon the partic
ular operation to be performed.
Consequently, the noz
as shown at 23, a ‘corona discharge is formed in the region 45 zle set forth in the system is shown in FIG. 5 and an an
around the edge or lip of the cap 60 adjacent the outermost
nular spray pattern may be utilized under the in?uence of
periphery which is of an intensity su?icient to transmit
air pressure to project the particles in an annular pattern.
the coating material being discharged from the nozzle and
The articles carried by the conveyor may be rotated not
to project the coating material in spray form toward the
only about the axis of the nozzle but also on their respec
surface of the article being coated,
In actual operation, the electrical energy is maintained
at the high potential nozzle assembly. The material be
ing atomized and the gas are delivered through the respec
tive delivery tubes and connections to the head assembly.
tive axes in a conventional manner such as by a conven
tional roller 226 engaging a rub-board 223.
In normal operation, the nozzle may be adjusted to spray
generally forwardly as shown in FIG. 6, or transversely as
shown in FIG. 4. When the coating material is charged
The material and gas are released in the form of high
velocity streams where they meet and mix with each other
under pressure, are atomized and electrically charged and
nozzle connected to the voltage source, or indirectly as
pass outwardly with high turbulence.
coating material is electrostatically charged and deposited
either directly as by paint being emitted from the metallic
by the annular discharge electrode or its equivalent, the
FIGS. 4, 5 and 6 show the system employing a nozzle
at least in part by electrostatic means in a “wrap around”
10 of the invention connected to a spray gun 200 which is 60 action while the atomization from the nozzles is by pres
a representative form shown in United States Patent No.
sure. While air pressure is referred to herein, it will be
2,710,773.
understood that the nozzle is such that hydraulic pressure
In FIG. 4, the nozzle 10 is connected to the gun 200
may be used on the paint, or with the source of coating
which is mounted on a reciprocator 202. The conveyor
material, for spraying the material outwardly from the noz
204 is of conventional type used for carrying the articles
zle to be electrostatically charged for ultimate deposition
206 to be coated on opposite sides of the conveyor, which
conveyor may be of any desired con?guration.
The conveyor 204 shown, may be of the circular type as
shown in FIG. 5 and wherein the cross-sectional portion
207 of the nozzle 10 is a view taken along lines 5A-5A
of FIG. 4.
In FIGS. 4, 5 and 6, it will be noted that the spray noz
zle 10 is connected to a high voltage source 208 and to
upon the articles to be coated.
With this arrangement shown in FIG. 4, instead of
spraying the liquid coating material transversely from the
axis of the vertical nozzle, the nozzle may be angled so
that the spray will be generally directed in a plane inclined
to the general surfaces of the work pieces to be coated.
In this way, instead of having a very narrow horizontal
pattern, the effective spray, which is in a 360° spray from
ground shown by symbol, while the conveyor and the 75 the nozzle, will have the upper portion coating the upper
part of the work pieces and with the lower portion of the
aoaaoez
7
8
spray for coating the lower portion of the work pieces.
Since the spray is projected completely around the nozzle
material to provide an enlarged controlled area of the
or at 360 degrees, the effective height of the annular spray
will depend, in large part, on the angle of the nozzle 10
atomized coating material spray pattern, and electrostatic
means for altering the path of the particles radially pro
jected by said air under pressure.
in relation to the axes of the spray gun 200. With this Ur
arrangement, the nozzle may have a greater vertical
4. An electrostatic spraying system employing a con
veyor for carrying articles to be coated along a pre
height of coverage in a stationary condition, and will, in
effect, cause the spray to be projected higher and lower
determined path, a stationary atomizer disposed relative
to said conveyor and having a peripheral discharge edge
positioned for projecting a spray substantially radially
of the axis of said discharge edge, said stationary atom
than would normally be the case if the nozzle were
mounted aligned as shown in FIG. 4. Accordingly, even 10
when the nozzle is employed with a reciprocator, the
izer having surfaces de?ning means for controlling move
angular displacement of the spray nozzle will permit a
ment of a curtain of liquid coating material axially of
vertical coverage of the pain greater than the vertical
the stationary atomizer, surfaces carried by said atom
range of the reciprocator movement since the spray paints
izer de?ning a 360° baiiie about the axis of said atom
on one side of the conveyor higher than the opposite
izer, and surfaces carried by said atomizer to provide
side, which is sprayed lower on the articles on the oppo
controi of a curtain of air under pressure within the
site side of the conveyor.
con?nes of said curtain of liquid coating material and
With the arrangement shown in FIGS. 4, 5, and 6,
with said curtain of air directed to impinge said baf?e
inclusive, a nozzle may be made to spray 360° or annular
for directing said curtain of air substantially radially
spray pattern internally or within the con?nes of a loop 20 from said ba?ie to facilitate atomization of said curtain
type conveyor of any particular con?guration.
of liquid coating material to provide an enlarged con
The foregoing reveals the gist of our invention whereby
trolled area of the atomized coating material spray pat
others can, by applying current knowledge, readily adapt
tern, electrostatic means for altering the path of the
it for various applications without omitting features which,
particles radially projected by said air under pressure,
from the standpoint of prior art, fairly constitute essen 25 and means for altering the axial position of the pressure
tial characteristics of the generic or speci?c aspects of this
operated stationary nozzle to vary the vertical extent
invention.
of the spray coverage as the articles to be coated move
What is claimed as new and desired to be secured by
along said predetermined path.
Letters Patent of the United States is:
5. As electrostatic spraying system employing a con
1. An electrostatic spraying system employing a con 30 veyor for carrying articles to be coated along a prede
veyor for carrying articles to be coated along a prede
termined path, a stationary atomizer disposed relative
termined path having at least a portion thereof de?ning
to said conveyor and having a peripherai discharge edge
an arcuate con?guration, a pressure operated atomizer
portioned for projecting a spray substantially radially of
having a peripheral discharge edge and disposed relative
the axis of said discharge edge, said stationary atomizer
to said conveyor adjacent the arcuate con?guration path
having an internal element and a cap being spaced from
one another in part and having surfaces de?ning means
for controlled movement of a curtain of liquid coating
for projecting a 360° spray pattern radially from said
atomizer by pneumatic force, means for adjustably posi~
tioning the atomizer so that the plane of the atomizing
edge may be set adjustably at different relative angles for
establishing the vertical height of the spray pattern on the
article carried along the arcuate con?guration of the pre
determined path, and means for establishing an electro
material axially of the stationary atomizer, said cap hav
ing surfaces de?ning a 360° ba?ie about the axis of said
atomizer, and an outer shell of said atomizer and said
internal element being spaced from one another in part
static ?eld between the atomizer and the articles to be
coated to electrostatically charge particles of coating ma
terial to be sprayed from the pressure operated atomizer .1
onto said articles.
2. An electrostatic spraying system employing a con
veyor for carrying articles to be coated along a prede
termined path as set forth in claim 1, and wherein said
path of the conveyor is normal to the axis of the periph
eral discharge edge of the atomizer.
for altering the path of the particles radially projected
UNITED STATES PATENTS
of a curtain of liquid coating material axially of the sta
facilitate atomization of said curtain of liquid coating
provide an enlarged controlled area of the atomized
coating material spray pattern, and electrostatic means
References Qited in the ?le of this patent
positioned for projecting a spray substantially radially of
the axis of said discharge edge, said stationary atomizer
having surfaces de?ning means for controlled movement
tionary atomizer, surfaces carried by said atomizer de?n
of liquid coating material and with said curtain of air
directed to impinge said bathe for directing said curtain
of air substantialiy radially from said baffle to facilitate
atomization of said curtain of liquid coating material to
by said air under pressure.
3. An electrostatic spraying system employing a con
veyor for carrying articles to be coated along a prede
termined path, a stationary atomizer disposed relative to
said conveyor and having a peripheral discharge edge
ing a 360° ba?ie about the axis of said atomizer, and
surfaces carried by said atomizer to provide control of a
curtain of air under pressure within the con?nes of said
curtain of liquid coating material and with said curtain
of air directed to impinge said battle for directing said
curtain of air substantially radially from said bathe to
and each having surfaces to provide control of a curtain
of air under pressure within the con?nes of said curtain
00
1,855,869
2,090,150
2,275,691
2,442,986
2,710,773
2,884,204
2,894,691
Pugh _______________ __ Apr. 26,
Pontius _____________ __ Aug. 17,
Simanton ___________ __ Mar. 10,
Ransburg _____________ __ June 8,
Sedlacsik ___________ a- June 14,
Feis ________________ __ Apr. 28,
Sedlacsik ____________ __ July 14,
1932
1937
1942
1948
1955
1959
1959
FOREIGN PATENTS
1,040,961
1,094,132
France ______________ __ May 27, 1953
France _______________ __ Dec. 1, 1954
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