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Патент USA US3049947

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Aug. 21, 1962
J. D. LINDSAY
3,049,937
TRANSMISSION
19 Sheets-Sheet l
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TRANSMISSION
Filed Nov. 28, 1958
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United States Patent O ”
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3,049,937
Patented Aug. 21, 1962
2
‘by the engine shaft 1t), a first turbine T1 and a second
3,049,937
turbine T2, through which the torque transfer tluid is
TRANSMISSION
John D. Lindsay, Birmingham, Mich., assigner to Gen
eral Motors Corporation, Detroit, Mich., a corporation
successively circulated, and a reaction element, stator or
guide Wheel 22, the blade angles of which may be ad
justed by any suitable mechanism 24, and which is con
nected to the frame of the transmission Iby a one-way
brake 26 which permits the stator to rotate forward but
prevents it rotating backward as is known in the art.
The iirst turbine drives the input or ring gear 28 of a
planetary Igear set having planet gears 30 mounted on a
of Delaware
Filed Nov. 28, 1958, Ser. No. 777,112
18 Claims. (Cl. 74-472)
This invention relates to transmissions of the type in
which a hydraulic torque transmitting device drives
change-speed gearing which drives an -output shaft at Ia
plurality of forward speed ratios, and in reverse. It
relates to novel features of construction and arrangement
of the change-speed gear; to novel features of the con
nection between the change-speed gear and the hydro
carrier 32, and having a reaction sun gear 34 which is
connected to the frame of -a transmission by a one-way
brake 36 which permits the sun gear to rotate forward
but prevents i-t rotating backward as is known. The sec
ond turbine T2 is connected through the carrier 32 to
the torque converter output shaft 38 which forms the
input o-r driving shaft for the gearing 14. The arrange
ment is such that the torque converter 12 transmits
dynamic -torque transmitting device; and to novel fea
ltures of the hydraulic system for controlling the trans
mission.
In the drawings:
torque lto the converter output shaft 38 -a-t a ratio in
FIG. l is one-half of a schematic, substantially sym 20 respect to the torque on the input shaft 10, which ratio
metrical longitudinal section showing the functional re
varies with the load on the output shaft 38. That is,
lationship of the elements of a transmission embodying
when the shaft 38 is stationary or rotating at low speed
one form of the invention,
which indicates `high load, the torque ratio between shaft
FIG. 2 is a diagram corresponding to FIG. 1 showing
38 and shaft 10 is high and may be of the order of tive
the change-speed which forms part of the transmission " to-one, whereas when the speed of the shaft 3-3 approaches
in first gear or low speed drive. In this and in FIGS.
the speed of the shaft 10` due to a decrease in load on
3, 4 and 5, dotted lines indicate parts which are not
the shaft 38, the torque ratio is near unity.
active in «the transmission of torque from the hydro
Shaft 38 is connected to a housing 40 which contains
dynamic torque transmitting device to the output shaft;
Ia ilu-id coupling including ia turbine 44 connected to the
FIG. 3 is a diagram corresponding to FIG. 2 of the 30 output shaft 16 and an impeller 42 connected ‘by a Ihol
change-speed gearing in second gear or intermediate
low shaft 52 to »a sun gear 54. The `housing and the
speed;
FIG. 4 `shows the gearing in third speed or direct
drive; and
FIG. 5 shows the gearing in reverse,
FIGS. 6, 6a and `6b collectively form one-half of a
coupling may be `selectively filled with oil or emptied
to make the coupling effective or ineffective as will be
_ explained. The housing 40 is connected to the sun gear
«by :a one-way clutch 46 to drive the sun gear forward,
»but permit the sun gear to overrun or rotate forward
substantially symmetrical longitudinal section of the
faster than the housing 40.
actual construction of one form of transmission embody~
The housing 40 may be
`also connected to the sun gear by an anti-overrun clutch
ing the invention;
48 -which may be engaged by a hydraulic cylinder 50 to
FIG. 6c is a diagram of how FIGS. =6, 6a and 6b ygo 40 prevent the sun gear from overrunning. The .purpose of
together to make a complete drawing of the transmis
this :arrangement is to use the one-way clutch V46 to
sion;
Itransmit the heavy driving torque from the torque con
FIG. 7 is a section on the line 7-7 of FIG. 6b show
verter to the sunI gear 'and use rthe flight clutch 48 to
ing the construction of a parking brake or lock;
prevent free wheeling when the input to the gearing is
FIG. `8 is a section on the line 8~8 of FIG. 7;
through the sun gear, as it is in low forward speed and
FIGS. 9, 9a, 9b and 9c, when put together in nu
in reverse, and to let -the sun `gear 54 rotate forward
merical order from left to right, collectively form a
faster 'than the housing 40 when the input to the gearing
functional diagram of one form of hydraulic system for
is not through the sun. gear 54. Preferably the clutch
controlling the transmission shown in FIGS. l to 8, with
48 is small and cap-able of transmitting only -a light
the control set for low range, with the engine idling and 50 torque, much less than the torque required to drive the
the car parked;
FIGS. l0, 10a, 10b and 10c similarly show the con
trol set yfor second speed at `about 1A »throttle opening in
second or intermediate range, in which the gearing can
' car through the one-Way clutch 46.
The input sun gear 54 is part of a front planetary
gear set which includes a ring >gear 56 connected by a
flange 58 to the output shaft '16, and includes planet
automatically shift between- tirst and second speeds; and 55 gears `60 meshing with the sun gear 54 yand ring ygear 56
FIGS. 11, 11a, 11b, and llc` similarly show the con
and mounted on a carrier 62 which is connected by a
trols `set for third speed at above three-quarters throttle
drum `66 to the ring gear 68 of a second or rear planetary
opening in the direct drive range in which the gearing
can shift automatically among first, second ‘and third
speeds.
gear set.
60
The rear gear set includes a reaction sun »gear
70 and planet gears 72 meshing with the ring gear 68
and sun `gear 70 and mounted on a carrier 74 which> is
Referring to FIG. l the transmission input or driving
connected to the flange 58 attached to the output shaft
shaft 10, which may be the crankshaft of the usual in
16. The drum <66, front carrier ‘62 and the rear ring
ternal combustion engine, drives ya hydrodynamic torque
gear `68 may be held fast to establish reverse ydrive by
transmitting device 12 which in tur-n drives change-speed
friction member 76 which can be grounded Í‘by a cylinder
gearing 14 which `drives an output shaft 1‘6 which may 65 78. I use the generic term torque-establishing device to
be the propeller shaft of a conventional automobile. The
hydrodynamic `torque transmitting device may be, for
example, a torque converte? as disclosed in British
Patent 770,599, published March 20, 1957, the disclosure
of which is incorporated herein by reference.
refer Iboth to clutches and to brakes.
.
_
Alternatively, Ithe drum 66, carrier `62 and ring gear
`68 may be connected to the iiuid coupling housing 40 and
to the input shaft 38 by a direct drive clutch 80 which
In this 70 may be set by a hydraulic cylinder l82. The rear re
example the torque converter has an impeller 20 driven
action sun gear 70 Iis connected by a hollow shaft 84
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