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Патент USA US3050007

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Aug. 21, 1962
R. H. DOWNIE
3,049,996
ROTARY PRINTING PRESS
Filed April 25, 1958
INVENTOR.
ROBERT H. DOWN/E
A To NEY
Mac’ a
AGENT
United States Patent 0' ice
3,049,996
Patented Aug. 21, 19624
1
2
3,049,996
free of slurring and spotting and by permitting economies
realized through the use of thin, wraparound printing
ROTARY PRINTING PRESS
plates of essentially unlimited area having a very shallow
Robert H. Downie, Menasha, Wis., assignor, by mesnc
assignments, to Harris-Intertype Corporation, Cleve
land, Ohio, a corporation of Delaware
Filed Apr. 25, 1958, Ser. No. 730,959
6 Claims. (Cl. 101-217)
etch.
These and other bene?ts which will be later described
are obtained by a unique inking system in a preferred em
bodiment of which there is interposed between the ink dis
tributing rollers and the plate cylinder an inking cylinder
This invention relates to relief or typographic printing in
which is maintained in precise relationship to the plate
which raised surfaces of the plates or other members mak 10 cylinder by bearers on the ends of the inking cylinder
ing up the printing form are inked and thereafter placed in
which contact similar bearers on the ends of the plate
contact with print receiving material to transfer an imprint
cylinder. The precise setting of these cylinders is accom-'
to the material in the form of an inked image.
plished by precision grinding of the cylinders and bearers
In the customary practice of relief printing, the printing
and, once mounted in position in the press, the subsequent
form is made up of What may be called image portions 15 contact between the inking cylinder and the relief surface
and non-image portions, i.e. printing areas and non-print
of the printing plate borne on the plate cylinder is con
ing areas, respectively. The image portions comprise all
trolled by the bearer relationship between the inking cylin
der bearers and the‘ plate cylinder bearers and. remains con
stant for the life of the inking cylinder. The inking cylin
those areas which are “type high,” that is, which are in the
image plane relative to the support member carrying the
der is preferably power driven at a peripheral speed equal
to that of the plate cylinder to further reduce slurring.
l have found that the advantages described above may
image portions of such a form comprise all those areas
which are below type-high, and these areas may be between
be realized with inking cylinders of various diameters, and
have determined that additional advantages ensue when
letters, the areas between dots of a half-tone plate, or
merely areas between plates or other members comprising 25 the inking cylinder and the plate cylinder are commen
the overall form.
surate in diameter so that each spot on the plate cylinder
is inked by the same spot on the commensurate inking cyl
When such a form is inked in the customary manner, ink
inder at each impression revolution of theplate cylinder.
is applied by a series of friction-driven rollers of relatively
small diameter which pass over the entire form and con
My invention may be most readily understood by read
tact only the areas thereof which are in the image plane, 30 ing the following descriptive speci?cation in connection
placing a deposit of ink on all such areas, all non-image
with the accompanying drawings in which ‘
areas having been cut away to a depth very substantially
FIGURE 1 is a schematic side view representation, par
below the image plane. Then when print-receiving ma
tially in cross-section, of the inking and printing portions
terial is pressed against the inked form, the material re
of a one-color rotary press, showing the arrangement of
ceives an imprint from all the image or type-high areas, l the rollers and cylinders involved in the present invention,
form, whether the support member be a ?at bed as in flat
bed presses or a cylinder as in rotary presses.
The non
which are only those areas intended to reproduce an image
FIGURE 2 is a schematic view from the end of _ the
press, showing the plate and inking cylinders and bearers
and, in cross-section, portions of the printing plate and ink
on the material.
Since the small diameter inking rollers are friction
driven and run on a relief surface of the plate which nor
mally presents irregularly spaced image producing areas
4.0
of varying size, the contact between the plate and the ink
ing blanket,
’
.
-
FIGURE 3 is a schematic view from the side‘ of the
press of a portion of the press showing the adjusting
ing rollers is irregular and of uneven pressure. The com
mechanism for bringing the inking and plate cylinders into
proper impression relationship, the press being on impres
bination of irregular contact, uneven pressure and friction
driven rollers tends to force ink down the sides of some
sion at this stage, and
_
v
‘
or all of the relief areas, resulting in a slurred or blurry 45
FIGURE 4 is a view similar to FIGURE 3} except that
image and in incomplete replenishment of ink. Further
the press is illustrated in the oif-impression state.
more, the uneven pressure tends to deposit too thin a ?lm
of ink on certain of the relief areas, even while applying so
much ink to other areas that the excess is squeezed over
FIGURE 1 illustrates the preferred form of relief
printing machine, suitable for imprinting of a single color
upon a print receiving material, adapted to incorporate
the edges and down the sides of the relief areas.
In order to prevent these small, friction-driven inking
rollers from applying ink to the non-image areas of the
plate, the degree of relief must be very substantial, be
tween 0.035 in. to 0.065 in. being customary. This de~
the present invention. For the imprinting of additional
gree of relief is obtained either by mechanicallyv routing 55
colors, duplicates of pertinent parts of the equipment
are conventionally grouped together with the single color
equipment illustrated.
The machine in p the preferred
embodiment includes a series of conventional inking roll‘
ers 10, particularly ‘adapted to receive the ink from'an
the non-image areas, or by an extra “deep etch” bath in
the shoulderless etching processes. It is obvious that both
of these expedients are expensive in labor and/ or etching
ink fountain (not shown), distribute the ink evenly across
the length of the rolls and apply it'to the inking cylinder,
generally indicated by the number 11. The inking ‘cyl
chemicals and, in addition, require that the original plate
inder of this invention comprises a conventional base cyl
be of a very substantial thickness in order that the non 60 inder 12 with bearers 13 (more clearly shown in FIG
image areas of the ?nished plate remain of 'suf?cient thick
mess to give strength to the plate after the relief depth re
URE 2). About the base cylinder 12. is wrapped a re
placeable blanket 14 of a resilient rubber or rubber-like
quirements have been met. As a result, thick, bulky plates
material.
gripped by The
conventional
ends of elements
the inking
15 blanket
a?ixed toare
the base
requiring an excessive amount of material are necessary.
The plates, which after formation of the image portions 65 cylinder 12. The ink fro-m rolls 10 is transferred to the
thereon are curved to conform to the curvature of the
exterior surface of the resilient blanket as will be described
plate-bearing cylinder upon which they are to be mounted,
in detail later herein.
’
'
'
Blanket 14 transfers the ink to a plate cylinder gen
erally indicated by 16, which includes a base cylinder 17
distortion of the image portion when the plates are curved.
The present invention provides for a substantial im 70 and a printing plate 18 which is fastened to cylinder‘ 17
must be fairly limited in area in order to avoid excessive
provement in the direct typographic printing art by provid
ing a method for obtaining cleaner, sharper printed images
by conventional gripping elements 19. The printing
plate 18 bears ‘on its surface raised images of the work to
3,049,996
3
4
be reproduced upon a print-receiving material. The plate
cylinder is also equipped with bearer 20 (more clearly
shown in FIGURE 2). In the preferred embodiment of
my invention'illustrated in the. ?gures, inking and plate
the ink impression from the image on plate 18. As the
sheets pass through this nip, they are conventionally fed
cylinders 11 and 16 are of the same diameter and are
concomitantly driven so that they run in a one-to-one
relationship and are positioned and maintained in a pre
further disposition. As previously suggested, additional
banks of printing equipment may be supplied in duplica
tion of that just described, through which the sheets may
be consecutively passed to receive further ink impres
to a conveyor such as indicated at 36, by which they may
be carried through a drying zone and/or for stacking or
cise relationship to each other by the bearers 13 and 20
on each end of the inking and plate cylinders, respectively.
a The inking and plate cylinders are journalled in a suit
sions.
10
able press frame (not shown) and the journals of at least
one of these cylinders should be adjustable so that the
It is to be understood that my invention is not to be
limited to the preferred embodiment illustrated in the
accompanying drawings, since various modi?cations
cylinders may be brought into the initial precise adjust
thereof may be made without departing from the spirit
ment which is subsequently maintained by the bearer re
of my invention. For example, the major advantages of
lationship. Referring to’FIGURES 3 and 4, a typical 15 my invention may be realized with inking cylinders or
embodiment is shown in which the main shaft 23‘ of the
rollers of various diameters maintained in precise re
plate cylinder 16 is carried in an eccentric bearing 24
lationship to the plate cylinder ‘by bearers such as those
secured 'in a yoke 26 pivotally attached to a connecting
previously described. The only limitation on inking cyl
rod 28. The connecting rod 28 is adjustable in its effective
inder size is that it be sufficiently large to have the neces
length by a conventional threaded arrangement for ob 20 sary strength and rigidity to maintain the precise bearer
taining the ?ne adjustment desired in the relationship
estahlished relationship along the entire line of contact
between the inking and plate cylinders. The connecting
between the inking cylinder and the printing plate With
rod 28, at its end remote from the yoke 26, is attached to
out bowing or distortion under operating conditions.
and is actuated by any suitable pressure applying means
If inking cylinder diameter is appreciably smaller than
(not shown) such as a mechanical linkage, an air cylin 25 the plate cylinder diameter, a series of two or more bearer
der, a solenoid or the like, which may shift the various
equipped cylinders may be used rather than a single
elements from the on-impression position of FIGURE 3
inking cylinder as illustrated. If more than one inking
to the off-impression position of FIGURE 4 and vice
cylinder is used, each such cylinder must be maintained
versa.
in precise relationship to the plate cylinder ‘by bearers, as
The pressure applied in the on-impression position
should be suf?cient to maintain positive bearer contact
under all normal press operating conditions but safety
features are normally incorporated for release of such
previously described.
If the diameter of the inking cylinder is such that it
does not revolve commensurate with the plate cylinder, the
resilient surface of the inking cylinder should be con
pressure in case of accidental ball-up so that press dam
tinuous rather than in the form of a removable blanket
age may be avoided. The bearers 13 and 20 are so 35 as previously described.
dimensioned that when the inking and plate cylinders
are brought into bearer contact by the aforementioned
applied pressure, the resilient inking blanket is held under
very slight compression at the line of contact with the
Since the contact between the inking cylinder and the
plate cylinder is very precisely adjusted and maintained
in perfect adjustment by the bearer relationship, the pres
sure of contact between these cylinders is constant
printing plates. The plate and/or inking cylinder may 40 throughout the life of the inking cylinder. No individual
be constructed to accommodate whatever packing may be
necessary to compensate for irregularities in plate thick~
ness or cylinder diameter, although such packing is gen
erally unnecessary if the thin, shallow-etched wraparound
printing plates hereinafter described are utilized and if
the bearer relationship is precisely maintained.
The bearers are preferably mounted as close as pos
sible to the printing area without actually encroaching
thereon. In a suitable embodiment, the bearers com
prise hardened steel collars sweated on the ends of the
inking and plate cylinders, precision ground and ad
justed so that when pressure is applied to attain and
maintain bearer contact, the resilient inking blanket 14
is compressed by no more than a few thousandths of an
vinch at the time of contact with the printing plate. That
is, the blanket 14, under no compression load, presents a
surface very slightly higher than the inking cylinder bear
ers 13, as shown in FIGURE 2 at point A. Under im
pression, with bearer contact, the blanket surface is com~
adjustments are necessary to compensate for different
printing plates and plates may therefore be changed with
no necessity for individual press cylinder adjustments.
The precise control of contact and contact pressure also
permit the use of plates having an extremely shallow re
lief, an etch depth of from 0.002 inch to 0.010‘ inch being
quite satisfactory, and the term “extremely shallow re
lief” as used herein is to be understood as referring to
relief of the order of this range. Such shallow etchings
are possible because my invention results in such excellent
rebalancing of ink on the inking cylinder and such precise
control of ink placement that the pressure on the inking
cylinder need not be so great as to force ink down the
sides of even such a shallow relief as 0.002 inch. Even
with such a very shallow relief, there is no slurring or
spotting due to ink being forced down into non-image
areas of the plate. Printing is therefore cleaner and
sharper.
Since by the use of my invention, a very shallow etch
pressed to ‘be ?ush with bearers 13. In the printing 60 may be used, the plates may be made much thinner than
.press herein described, the amount of compression is nor
those conventionally in use, with proportionately reduced
.mally about 0.001 inch to 0.002 inch, and preferably
expense. The shallow-etched plates require no mechan
should not exceed 0.003 inch to 0.005 inch if the thin,
shallow-etched, wraparound printing plates previously
mentioned are employed.
, The image is reproduced by passing a sheet such as
ical routing or chemical deepening, thus effecting further
economies. Plate thicknesses ranging from 0.010 inch to
0.025 inch are quite satisfactory and due to their light
ness, ?exibility and low image distortion on bending, such
indicated at 30 between the nip of cylinder 16 and impres
plates may be made of an area su?iciently large to cover
sion or back-up cylinder 31. The sheet material may be
the largest commercially available printing press roller.
conventionally fed in timed relationship from a stack 32
thereof by such as feeding rolls 33, which carry the 70 These large, light, thin, one piece, wraparound, shallow
etched printing plates are very rapidly mounted and ex
sheets individually from the stack onto a conveyor sup
port 34, from which they are grasped by conventional
gripping ?ngers 35 mounted on impression cylinder 31.
The sheets are then carried through the nip of counter
rotating cylinders 16 and 31, at which point they receive 75
changed and, of course, perfect relative register is main
tained between the various printing areas since the plate
is an integral unit with no possible movement between
the relative sections of the plate. This integral register
3,049,996
5
to prevent transfer of ink to such relieved non-image
areas, means operative to drive each of said cylinders in
counter-rotation to the other and at essentially equal pe
ripheral speeds preventing relative movement between
contacting portions of said inking member and the plate,
and means including an impression member operable to
bring print receiving material into contact with the inked
plate to transfer an ink image directly from the plate to the
material.
of various portions of the plate further ‘reduces make
ready time and labor.
The combination of large, thin, shallow-etched plates
having perfect integral register together with the freedom
from the individual inking roller pressure adjustments
previously necessary to compensate for individual plate
variations are made possible only by the precise inking
cylinder to plate cylinder contact maintained by the
bearer relationship previously discussed. These char
acteristics resulting from the practice of my invention
2. A printing press comprising the combination of an
inking cylinder having a resilient inking member extend
result in sharp, clean printing with less plate Wear since
the plate is held under constant, optimum, even pressure
ing over at ‘least a predetermined fraction of the total
surface of said cylinder, means operative to apply print
ing ink to said inking member, a plate cylinder extending
tional friction-driven inking rollers. They also give to
typographic or relief printing the historically rapid make 15 parallel to and adjacent said inking cylinder, means. on
said plate cylinder for mounting a relief printing plate,
ready of the offset press.
a flexible shallow-relief printing plate of material essen
Recovering of the single inking cylinder is more practi
tially incompressible relative to said inking member
cal and economical than with the orthodox multiplicity
mounted on said plate :cylinder and maintained in posi
of friction-driven inking rollers.
and is not subject to the wear resulting from the conven
I have found that the above advantages are obtained 20 tion thereon by said mounting means, bearers on the ends
of each of said cylinders aligned to run in continuous
through a range of bearer-equipped inking cylinder di
contact under pressure during normal printing operation
ameters. However, a commensurate relationship between
of said press to control the contact pressure between said
the plate cylinder diameter and the inking cylinder di
inking member and said plate, said plate and/or said
ameter has been found to offer certain additional ad
vantages.
25 inking member being so mounted that its surface ex
tends outwardly beyond the periphery of the bearers on
its associated cylinder causing a predetermined interfer
ence of said plate and said inking member and causing
The use of an inking cylinder equal in diameter to the
plate cylinder eliminates “ghosting.” Ghosting results
from incomplete replenishment of ink on an inking roller
and subsequent placement of the incompletely replen
compression said inking member against said plate with
Ghosting is impossible with the commensurate inking
cylinder and plate ‘cylinder each having sufficient strength
ished area design on another portion of the design. 30 in -a maximum of approximately 0.005 inch, said inking
system as shown in the preferred embodiment of my in
vention since each spot on the plate cylinder is always
inked by the same spot on the inking cylinder. The
synchronous nature of commensurate inking also assists 35
in the elimination of slurn'ng normally experienced by
orthodox friction-driven inking rollers, resulting in a
cleaner impression.
Diiferential inking, as described in my co-pending ap
and rigidity to maintain their positional relationship as
determined by said bearers ‘along the entire line of con
tact ‘between said inking member and said plate, means op
erative to drive each of said cylinders in counter-rotation
to the other and at essentially equal peripheral speeds
preventing relative movement between the surface of said
inking member and said plate at the instantaneous line
of contact ‘therebetween, said plate and said inking mem
ber being of such related peripheral dimensions that the
same areas of said plate and said inking member always
plication, Serial No. 700,877 ?led December 5, 1957, of
which the present application is a continuation in part, is
meet at said line of contact, and impression means ar
possible using the commensurate inking system of the
ranged to transfer an ink image directly from said plate
present invention. Speci?c spot inking is also made prac
to print receiving material.
ticable by a commensurate inking system.
3. A printing press as defined in claim 2 wherein said
In view of the many other variations possible without 45
resilient inking member is a removable resilient blanket,
departing from the spirit of my invention, it is to be under
and means on said inking cylinder providing for mount
stood that no limitations thereon are intended except as
ing of said blanket thereon.
speci?cally set forth in the following claims.
4. A rotary relief-(type printing press comprising the
I claim:
combination of a rigid inking cylinder having a relatively
1. A rotary relief type printing press comprising the
thin resilient inking member extending over at least a
combination of a rigid inking cylinder having a relatively
predetermined fraction of the total surface of said cylin
thin resilient inking member extending over at least a
der, means operative to apply a coating of printing ink
predetermined fraction of the total surface of said cyl
over substantially the entire said inking surface, a plate
inder, means operative to apply a coat of printing ink to
cylinder extending parallel to- ‘and adjacent said inking
the surface of said inking member, a plate cylinder ex 55 cylinder and having means for mounting a ?exible shal
tending parallel to and adjacent said inking cylinder,
lowrelief printing plate on a predetermined portion of
means on said plate cylinder for mounting an extremely
shallow relief printing plate on a predetermined portion
the surface thereof, said cylinders being of essentially
the same diameter, bearers ‘on the ends of each of said
of the surface thereof, said plate cylinder and said inking
60 cylinders adapted to run in continuous contact under
cylinder being of such related diameters and said inking
pressure during normal printing operation of said press
member and said plate mounting means being so di
to control ‘the contact pressure between said inking mem
mensionally related that the same areas of the plate are
ber and the plate, said inking cylinder and plate cylinder
always linked by the same areas of said inking member,
bearers on the ends of each said cylinders adapted to run
in contact under pressure during normal printing opera
tion of said press to control the contact pressure between
said inking member and the plate, said inking cylinder
and plate cylinder each having sufficient strength and
each having su?icient strength and rigidity to maintain
65 the precise relationship along the entire line of contact
between said inking member and the plate as established
by said bearers maintaining compression of said inking
member within a maximum of approximately 0.005 inch,
means operative to drive each of said cylinders in counter
rigidity to maintain their positional relationship as deter 70 rotation to the other and at essentially equal peripheral
mined by said bearers along the entire line of contact
speeds preventing relative movement between said inking
between said inking member and the plate maintaining
member and the plate at ‘the instantaneous line of con
compression of said inking member within a maximum
tact thereb-etween, an impression cylinder mounted to
extend adjacent said plate cylinder and adapted to de
of approximately 0.005 inch and thus sut?ciently less than
the relief of the plate in larger non-image areas thereof 75 ?ne therewith a ‘nip through which print receiving mate
3,049,996
.
.
'Y
,
_
.
8
7
rial is carriedvon said impression cylinder in contacting
cent said printing member and having a relatively thin
and ink transferring relation to the inked plate, and means
driving said impression cylinder at a peripheral speed es
sentially equal to the peripheral speed of said plate
resilient inking member extending over at least a prede
termined fraction of the total surface of said cylinder
corresponding to the maximum size plate mountable on
cylinder.
said printing member, said inking cylinder being of such
'
5. A rotary printing press adapted particularly ‘for print—
ing from relief printing surfaces upon sheets of print
receiving material, comprising ‘the combination of three
diameter with respect to such maximum size plate that
the same areas of the plate ‘are always inked by the same
areas of said inking member, means operative to apply
cylinders mounted in adjacent relation with their respec
a coating of printing ink to the surface of said inking
tive axes of rotation parallel, drive means for each of said 10 member for transfer to the plate, bearer means on said
cylinders cooperating ‘to rotate said cylinders in counter
rotation with respect to- the adjacent cylinder and at es
sentially equal peripheral speeds, a relatively thin resilient
inking cylinder and said printing member cooperating to
run in contact under pressure during normal printing
operation of said press controlling the contact pressure
between said inking member and the plate, said inking
inking member on the surface of the ?rst of said cylin
ders providing a compressible inking surface, means opera 15 cylinder having su?‘icient strength and rigidity to main
tive to apply a coating of printing ink to the entire surface
tain a relatively slight compression of said inking mem
of said inking member, means on the second of said
ber at the instantaneous line of contact between the
cylinders for mounting a ?exible essentially incompressi
plate and said inking member within a maximum of
ble shallow-relief printing plate on at least a portion of
‘approximately 0.005 inch for transfer of ink only to
the surface thereof, bearer means maintaining the co 20 the non~relieved image areas of the plate, and means
operating surfaces of said ?rst and second cylinders in
operative to drive said printing member and said inking
precisely spaced and parallel relation during normal
cylinder at essentially equal surface speeds preventing
printing operation of said press, said ?rst cylinder and
said second cylinder each having su?icient strength and
rigidity to control the compression of said inking member
uniformly along the entire line of contact thereof with
relative movement between contacting portions of said
inking member and the plate at the instantaneous line
the plate as established by said bearer means within a
of approximately 0.005 inch, means on said
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
third cylinder rfor carrying sheets of print receiving ma
teri-al ‘through a printing nip between said second and 30
third cylinders to press the material into contact with
the inked surface ‘of a plate mounted on said second cylin
der to transfer an ink image directly from the plate to
the material, ‘said ?rst and second cylinders being of
such relative diameters and said plate mounting means 35
being so dimensionally related With respect to said ink
ing member that the same areas of said inking member
always come into contact with the same corresponding
‘areas of the plate, means for feeding ‘sheets of print
of contact therebetween.
160,947
654,268
935,907
978,839
1,095,833
2,294,879
2,362,069
Palmer et a1 ___________ __ Mar. 16,
Millison _____________ __ July 24,
Harris ______________ __ Oct. 5,
Bremer et al __________ __ Dec. 20,
Fenner ______________ .._ May 5,
Affelder ______________ __ Sept. 8,
Huck ________________ .__ Nov. 7,
2,447,991
2,778,305
2,853,003
Stempel _____________ __ Aug. 24, 1948
Gottscho et al _________ __ Jan. 22, 1957'
Kaldschmidt et al _______ __ Sept. 23, 1958
305,216
720,964
Great Britain ________ __ Apr. 24, 1930
Germany ____________ __ Mar. 20, 1942
receiving material into contact with said sheet carrying 40
FOREIGN PATENTS
means at a ?xed location about the periphery of said
third cylinder, and delivery means adapted to receive the
printed material ‘from said third cylinder .and to carry
said printed material to a delivery station.
6. A printing press adapted ‘for letterpress printing from 45
plates having shallow relief, comprising a printing mem
1875
1900
1909
1910
1914
1942
1944
OTHER REFERENCES
ber having means ‘for mounting thereon a shallow relief
“Commercial Engraving and Printing” (Hackleman),
published by Commercial Engraving Publishing Co. (In
printing plate, impression means cooperating with said
printing member to bring print receiving material into
dianapolis, 192, page 338 relied on.
found in ‘Div. 17.)
contact vwith a plate mounted on said printing member 50
Thiokol Facts, volume 1, Number 2, published by
Thiokol Corp, Aug. 8, 1936, copy to be found in Div.
for transfer of an inked image directly from the plate
to such material, a rigid inking cylinder mounted adja
v17.
(Copy to be
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION
Patent No“
39049396
August 21q 1962
Robert H. Downie
It is hereby certified that error appears in the above numbered pat
ent requiring correction and that the said Letters Patent should read as
corrected below.
Column 3“ line 2, for "bearer" read —— bearers ——; line
55” for “time" read —— line ——3 column 5, line 17, for
"Recovering" read —- Re-covering ——; line 64v for "linked"
read —- inked ——; column 6v line 29i after "compression"
insert —— of ——;
column 8,
line 48,
for "192" read —e 1921 ——.
_ Signed and sealed this 11th day of December 19629
(SEAL)
Attest:
ERNEST w. SWIDER
DAVID L- LADD
Attesting Officer
Commissioner of Patents
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