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Патент USA US3050009

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Aug. 21, 1962
D. J. KATSANIS
3,050,000
HYPERVELOCITY FLUID FLOW TEMPERATURE LIMITER
Filed Dec. 23, 1958
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United States Patent 0 ’"1C6
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2
assumes an aerodynamic shape conforming to the condi
tions of the ?uid ?ow. This shape is achieved sponta
neously as the rod melts or vaporizes in the ?ow. The
heat transferred to the rod material as it changes phase
s a 50 000
HYPERvELocrrv riilm’ FLow TEMPERATURE
'
LIMITER
3,0503%
Patented Aug. 21, 1962
~
David J. Katsanis, Philadelphia, Pa, assignor to the
reduces the stagnation temperature, and provides addi
United States of America as represented by the Secre
- tary of the Army
Filed Dec. 23, 1958, Ser. No. 782,608
4 Claims. (Cl. 102-925)
(Granted under Title 35, US. Code (1952), see. 266)
tional cooling as it ?ows rearwardly over the cone 12.
The relay switch initially closed by the temperature re
sponsive means 26 should stay closed to keep the motor
23 running after the circuit from such means has been
10 opened by the outer end of the rod 16 having melted,
The invention described herein may be manufactured
as is . understood by those, familiar with the art of
and used by or for the Government for governmental
thermostats, and relays.
purposes without the payment to me of any royalty
The modi?cation of FIG. 2 is similar to that of FIG.
thereon.
1 in most respect-s but differs therefrom in that the ther
This invention relates to the temperature control of 15 mostat 26 is located near the surface of the nose cone.
bodies moving at hypervelocities, and has for its principal
When the forward end of the rod exceeds a predetermined
object the provision of an improved apparatus and method
temperature the thermostat is adjusted so that it closes
of operation whereby the danger of overheating of such
the relay 25 and energizes the motor 23 to feed the rod
bodies by atmospheric friction is greatly reduced.
'16 as before. However if the missile should slow down
‘It has been proposed to coat the nose cone of a missile 20 or leave the atmosphere again and cause the tempera
' with a material which is liqui?ed or vaporizedby atmos
ture to drop so that the rod would not melt in the air
~ pheric friction and functions to prevent overheating of
the cone upon its return from space. The use of this
coating has not been altogether satisfactory largely for
flow the thermostat would open the relay causing the
motor to stop. This cycle could be repeated until the en
tire rod is melted.
’
the reason that it is likely to be exhausted before the 25
The invention has utility in connection with projectiles,
danger of overheating is past. In accordance with the
missiles, satellites and other objects which move through
present invention, this dil?culty is avoided by feeding to
the atmosphere at supersonic or hypervelocities. In
the forward surface of the cone a material whiclrl is
such cases, it operates to preserve aerodynamic shape, re
liqui?ed or vaporized by atmospheric friction and flows
rearwardly over the cone’s exterior surface. As herein
after explained, the feeding of this cooling material to
duce drag and protect delicate instruments and other
parts from ~the deleterious effects of high temperatures.
the forward surface of the cone is initiated by the heat
As will be apparent to those skilled in the art, it also
has application in other situations where the'limitation
incident to the cone’s return from outer space to the
of a local temperature is required.
atmosphere.
Of the materials mentioned above, copper is preferred
The invention will be better understood from the fol 35 because the sum of its latent heats of fusion and vaporiza- '
lowing description when considered in connection with
tion is higher than that of the other metals mentioned.
the accompanying drawings and its scope is indicated
The rate of feed is at a rate of about 10 feet per second
by the appended claims.
~
and upwardly, but needs to be continued for only a very
Referring to the drawings:
few seconds. Where a lower melting temperature is de
FIG. 1 is a partial section view of a preferred form of
sired lead is preferred.
the invention, and
I claim:
FIG. 2 illustrates a modi?cation.
1. In a missile adapted to travel in space and having a
The missile includes a casing 10 which has at one end
tubular body with a cone truncated to provide an opening
?ns 11 and at the other end ‘a cone 12 which may be
at its forward end, the combination therewith of means
provided with a ceramic coating 13. Enclosed in the 45 for dissipating the heat generated by atmospheric friction
casing 10 are a tank 14 to contain one type of fuel, and
upon the return of said missile to the ‘atmosphere, said
a tank 15 to contain another type ‘of fuel; The tanks 14
heat dissipating means including a rod movably sup
and 15 have a central aperture adapted to receive a
rod 516.
The rod 16 consists of a material such as copper, silver,
ported in said-body and extending outwardly through
and substantially ?lling said opening, said rod consisting
gold or lead, which melts at a relatively low temperature.
It has an external thread 17 which engages an internal
vaporization with the sum of the latent heats of fusion
thread of a collar 18.
This collar is rotatable in a bear
of a material having low temperatures of fusion and
and vaporization being high, means for feeding said rod
outwardly through said ‘opening, and temperature re
ing 19 which is ?xed to the cone '12 by a spider 20. A
sponsive means mounted adjacent a forward portion of
gear 21 keyed to the collar 18 meshes with a gear v22 55 said cone for actuating said rod feeding means.
keyed to the shaft of a motor 23 which is supported on
2. A missile according to claim 1 wherein said cone
the spider 20 or in any other suitable manner.
has a ceramic coating and said temperature responsive
Power for operating the motor 23 is derived from a
means is located in said coating.
'\
source 24 through a relay 25. This relay'is controlled
3. A missile according to claim 1 in which said tem
by a thermostat 26 located at the forward end of the 60 perature responsive means is mounted on said rod.
rod 16. So long as the forward end of this rod does
4. A missile according to claim 1 in which said tem
not exceed a’ predetermined temperature the output of
perature responsive means is mounted on said cone.
the thermostat is insufdcient to close the relay 25. When
this temperature is exceeded, however, the relay is closed,
the motor is energized and the collar is rotated in a 65
direction to feed the rod 16 outwardly toward the cone
12 at a controlled rate.
As a result of this feeding of the rod 16 into the region
of high temperature ?uid flow, the material of the rod
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
1,306,664
1,823,022
2,440,282
Hawken ____________ .. June 10, 1919
Blechta _____________ _.. Sept. 15, 1931
Leghorn ____________ __ Apr. 27, 1948
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