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Патент USA US3050043

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Aug. 21, 1962
P. P. CAREY
3,050,033
PERCUSSION MECHANISM AND ROTARY DRILLING APPARATUS
Filed Oct. 6, 1959
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INVENTOR
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P. CAIZET
ATTORNEY
Aug. 21, 1962
P. P. CAREY
3,050,033
PERCUSSION MECHANISM AND ROTARY DRILLING APPARATUS
Filed Oct. 6, 1959
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PAUL i3. CNZET
BY 604M MIAQMZ? ‘6W
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ATTORNEYS
Aug. 21, 1962
3,050,033
P. P. CAREY
PERCUSSION MECHANISM AND ROTARY DRILLING APPARATUS
Filed 001;. 6, 1959
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PAUL D CNAET
ATTORNEYS
United States Patent 0 f ice
3,®5ll,033
Patented‘ Aug. 21, 1 962
2
1
indicated at 18, could be employed therein. As shown
3,050,033 >
PERCUSSION MECHANISM AND ROTARY
DRILLING APPARATUS
Paul P. Carey, R0. Box 63, Houston, Tex.
in FIGURES 1 and 2 the drilling installation includes a
rotary type drilling bit, designated generally by reference
character 10, connected to a device usually termed a rotary
table, designated generally by reference character 12‘, for
Filed Oct. 6, 1959, Ser. No. 844,751
7 Claims. (Cl. 121-28)
imparting rotary motion to the drag bit for drilling hole
on the lower end of a rotary drilling string, such means
18 may be different from one installation to another.
14 in the formation. intervening between the bit 10 and
This ‘application relates to drilling and more particularly
the rotary table 12 is a length of conventional structure,
to an improved percussion hammer mechanism for use
usually in hollow or tubular form, sometimes referred
in the apparatus and method disclosed in co-pending ap 10 to in the trade as drill string or drill rod. In FIGURE 1,
this structure is designated by reference character 16 In
plication Serial No. 840,068 ?led September 14, 1959.
In the above-mentioned co-pending application there is
FIGURE 2, the equivalent member appears in two- sec
disclosed a method of ‘drilling earth formation which
tions designated ‘16A and 16B
utilizes apparatus of the type ‘conventionally employed in
One manner in which the percussion hammer mecha
rotary drilling. The novelty of the above-mentioned ap 15 nism 18 of the present invention may be employed in a
plication resides in the realization that the drilling opera
drilling installation of the type disclosed in the above
mentioned co-pending ‘application is shown in FIGURE
tion can be greatly improved by superimposing upon the
conventional rotary drilling forces a series of downward
1, wherein the percussion hammer mechanism .18 is used
above the surface 20 of the formation The rotary table
percussion blows.
An object of the present invention is vto provide a 20 12 may be above or below the hammer mechanism 18,
percussion hammer mechanism for performing the func
being shown below the hammer mechanism in FIGURE 1.
A different manner of employing the percussion hammer
tion noted above, such mechanism being ?uid operated,
preferably by ?uid utilized to clean the cuttings from
mechanism 18 of the present invention is shown in
FIGURE 2. In this case, the hammer mechanism 18 is
the formation being drilled.
Another object of the present invention is the provision 25 used down in the hole intermediate the bit 10* and the
of a percussion hammer mechanism of the type described
formation surface 20. The dimension L shown in FIG
having improved means for effecting a series of rapid
URE 2 is used for the purpose of explaining that the dis
percussion blows for transmittal to a rotary drilling bit
tance from the bit to the percussion hammer mechanism
being operable by ?uid energy, preferably the energy of 30 The hammer mechanism may be located immediately on
the ?uid utilized in the drilling installation to clean the
cuttings from the formation being drilled.
Still another object of the present invention is the provi
sion of a percussion ‘hammer mechanism of the type de
the bit 10 or a considerable distance up the drill string.
The latter case of course merges with the case shown in
FIGURE 1 where the hammer mechanism is above the
surface of the formation.
In any of :these cases the
scribed which is simple in construction and operation and 35 compressional waves generated by the percussion hammer
which is economical to manufacture and maintain.
mechanismpare transmitted through the medium of the
I These and other objects of ‘the present invention will
drill string to the cutting edges of the rotary bit 10. In
become more apparent during the ‘course of the following
the operation of the installation shown in FIGURES 1
and 2, the rotary table is actuated in any of the usual
The invention may best be understood with reference 40 ways so that continuing rotation is imparted to the rotary
to the accompanying drawings wherein an illustrative em
drag bit 10.
bodiment is shown.
The bit 19 will be caused to exert a downward force
In the drawings:
on the bottom of the hole being drilled in the formation
FIGURE 1 is ‘a fragmentary cross-sectional view of
due to the natural weight of the bit 161 and the drill
an oil well installation showing one manner in which a 45 string attached to and bearing down on the bit. As is
percussion hammer mechanism embodying the principles
well-known practice, particularly where the hole is shal
detailed description and appended claims.
of the present invention is employed therein;
low, if the natural weight of the bit, the drill string and
FIGURE 2 is a view similar to FIGURE 1 showing
another manner in which the percussion hammer mecha
associated parts is not heavy enough to exert su?icient
rotary drilling force, a downward force may be created
nism of the present invention is employed therein;
FIGURE 3 is a vertical sectional view of the percussion
hammer mechanism of the present invention showing the
parts in the position they assume just ‘after the percussion
blow stroke;
. upon the rotary table so as to add to the force of the bit
against the formation. One well-known way of increas
ing the drilling force is to have the rotary table mounted
for example as on a truck, with provision for jacking the
truck up on the rotary table so as to add the Weight of
FIGURE 4 is a view similar to FIGURE 3 showing 55 the truck to the forces of the bit against the formation.
the pants in the position they assume just prior to the
However, there are cases where the hole becomes so
percussion blow stroke;
deep that natural weight of the bit and drill string creates
FIGURE 5 is a fragmentary cross-sectional view taken
forces of the bit against the formation in excess of those
along line 5-5 of FIGURE 3;
which can be tolerated. In this type of situation, it is
FIGURE 6 is a fragmentary cross-sectional view taken 60 known to actually exert an upward force on the upper
along the line -6—6 of FIGURE 3;
end of the drill string to take some of the load off of
FIGURE 7 is a fragmentary cross-sectional view taken
the bit. This is a situation intended to be applicable to
along the line '7—-7 of FIGURE 3; and
the FIGURE 2 arrangement, where upward forces may
FIGURE 8 is a fragmentary cross-sectional view taken
actually be exerted through the medium of the swivel com
65 ponent 22. In any case where an upward force is be
along the line 8—8 of FIGURE 3.
Referring now more particularly to ‘the drawings, there
ing exerted on the upper end of the drill string to relieve
is.shown in FIGURES 1 and 2 a drilling installation
the stress upon the bit, there Will be a certain point in
of the type disclosed in co-pending application Serial No.
the string between the bit and the swivel whereat, mov
ing downwardly along the string, the internal stresses in
840,068, ?led Sept. 14, 1959, illustrating two possible
ways in which a percussion hammer mechanism embody 70 the string changed from tensile stresses to compressional
ing the principles of the present invention and generally
stresses. This can be calculated in advance from knowl
3,050,033
.
3
4
'
‘
a
edge of the mass per unit length of the structure making
by the cylindrical wall 244, the lower end of the cap
up the drill string. The dimension L in FIGURE 2, from
the bit to the location of the hammer mechanism 18 is
intended to denote the lengthrof drill string wherein com
pressional stresses exist during an operation where up
member 224 and the bottom wall 238.
Ward forces are being exerted on the swivel.
,
‘It has been found to be preferably practical to locate
the hammer mechanism no further above the bit than
the distance L as de?ned above, when upward forces are.
applied to the upper end of the drill string. ' It appears
that the percussion blows are transmitted to the bit with
least attenuation when these waves need not travel through
As indicated above, the percussion hammer mechanism
18 of the present invention is arranged to be actuated
by ?uid, preferably the ?uid utilized in the drilling instal
lation to clean the cuttings from the bottom of the for
mation. To this end, the upper end portion, 288 of the
core member has formed therein a bore 250 which ter
minates inwardly of the core member in spaced relation
to the inward termination of the lower bore 212. Fluid,
as for example air, passing downwardly through the up
per drill string 16, enters the bore 250' and passes radial
the part of the drill string under tension.
ly outwardly therefrom selectively through a series of
To complete the explanation of FIGURES 1 and 2,
longitudinally spaced pairs of. diametrically opposed,
it may be added that usual rotary bit drilling calls for 15 radially extending ports or openings'252, 254 and 256.
passage of ?ushing ?uid downwardly through the interior
The flow of ?uid through the ports 254 and 7256 is con
of the drill string. ‘Upon reaching the bit, ports are pro
trolled by means of a valve member, generally indicated
vided for this ?ushing ?uid to emerge in thepvicinity of
at 258. The valve member includes an upper hollow cy
the cutting edges, and the fluid then passes upwardly in
lindrical portion 260 which closely embraces the upper
the hole, carrying with it the cuttings’, to a suitable cap
end portion 228 of the core member for longitudinal
sliding movement thereon. Formed in the cap member
224 is a ?rst counter-bore 262 :for slidably receiving the
tings. 'Flushing ?uid may be entered into the drill string
upper end portion 260 of- the valve member 258. The
by a suitable hose or like means 28 associated with the
lower portion of ‘the valve member 258 is formed into
25 a generally bell-shaped con?guration, as indicated at 264,
swivel structure 22.
Referring now more particularly to FIGURES 3-8, the
and is arranged to slidably reciprocate within a second
percussion hammer mechanism for the present invention
counterbore 266 formed in the cap member.
comprises a central, vertically extending core member,
The flow of’ ?uid through the lower ports 256 is con
generally indicated at 210. The lower end portion of the
trolled by means of an annular shoulder or valve seat
time ‘member has a central bore 214 formed in the lower 30 268 formed on the core member 210 adjacent the lower
end of the bore 212 for receiving a portion of the drill
end of the reduced upper end portion 228 thereof, and
string 16 which extends downwardly from- the mecha
a cooperating annular surface 270 formed on the bell
nism. Formed in the core member 210 adjacent the
shaped lower end portion 264 of the valve member.
threaded counterbore 214 is an annular ?ange 216, the
The ?ow of ?uid through the intermediate ports 254
is controlled by means of a pair of diametrically opposed
7 upper surface of which is arranged to. engage and receive
structure 24 at the surface of the formation, which has
a ?uid outlet means 26 for exhausting the ?uid with cut
the lower end of an outer casing or tubular member, gen
ports 272 extending radially through the upper end por
erally indicated at 218; Formed on the. lower end of
the casing 218 is a bottom wall 220, the lower surface of
which is arranged to engage the upper surface of the ?ange
216. Of course, the bottom wall 220 is centrally aper- ‘
tured, as at 222, to receive the core member 212.
Mounted within the open upper end, of the. casing or
tion 269 of, the valve member. The inner ends of the
ports 272 communicate with an annular groove 274
formed in the interior surface of the upper end portion
260‘ of the valve member and the outer ends communi
cate with an annular groove 276 formed in the exterior
surface of the end portion 260.
The ‘annular groove 276 also controls the flow of ?uid
to upper and lower longitudinally spaced radially ex
tubular member 2It8v is an annular cap member 224 hav
ing the lower portion of its periphery relieved, as at 226,
tov receive the upper end of the tubular member 218. The 45 tending ports 278 and 280 formed in the adjacent por
core member 210 includes an upper end portion 228
tion of the cap member. As best shown in FIGURE 5,
which extends upwardly through an opening 230 formed
the inner end of the lower port 280 is’ arranged to com
in the cap member 224 and suitable sealing means, such
municate with the annular groove 276 and the outer end
as annular seal 232, is preferably provided between the
thereof communicates with the upper end of a longitudi
opening 230 and the upper end portion of the core mem
nally extending recess 282 formed in the exterior of the
her 228.
cylindrical wall 244 of the anvil member. Thelower
The upper extremity of the core member end portion
extremity of the recess communicates with the interior
228 is exteriorly threaded, to receive the lower end of the
of the cylindrical wall 244 adjacent the bottom wall 238
drill string 16 disposed above the percussion hammer
by means of a radially extending port 284. As best
mechanism 18. A spacer ring or washer 234 is mount
shown in FIGURES 3 and 4, the lower extremity of the
ed between the lower extremity of the drill string 16 and
hammer member 248 has its outer periphery relieved,
the upper surface of the cap member224 and serves to
maintain the casing 218 and the cap member 224 in
engagement with the ?ange 216 of the central core mem
ber
210.
r
'
_
.
Mounted within the casing 218 is an anvil member
generally indicated at 236. The anvil member includes
as indicated at 286, to permit ?uid from the port 284 to
' act upwardly on the hammer memben.
. As best shown in FIGURE 6, the outer end of the
60 upper port 278 communicates radially with the upper
end of a passage 288 extending longitudinally through
the main cylindrical wall of the tubular casing 218. The
a bottom wall 238 which is centrally apertured, as at
240, to receive the core member 210. Preferably suita
lower end of the passage 288 communicates with the
outer end of a passage 290 extending radially through
ble sealing means, such as annular seal 7242, is provided 6-5 the bottom wall 238 of the anvil member 236. As best
between the opening 240 and the adjacent portion of the
shown in FIGURE 7, the inner end of the passage 290
core member. The bottom wall 238 of the anvil mem
communicates with an annular groove 292 formed in the
ber 236, is arranged to engage the bottom wall 220 of
opening 240 of the bottom wall 238. The annular
the casing and has a tubular wall 244 extending upwardly
groove 292 registers with an annular groove 294 formed
therefrom for threaded engagement with the lower Ie
in the exterior of the core member 210 and a pair of
cessed extremity of the cap member 224, as indicated
at 246. A sleeve-like hammer member 248 mounted
in surrounding relation to the core member 210 within
the cylindrical {wall 236 of the anvil member is arranged’
to reciprocate longitudinally within the chamber de?ned
diametrically opposed ports 296 extending radially in
wardly from the annular groove 294 into communica
tion with the bore 212 formed in the core member 210.
The passage of ?uid from the chamber within which
the hammer member 248 is slidably mounted for longi~
3,050,033
5
6
tudinal reciprocation is provided by pairs of diametrical
ly opposed radially extending openings 298, 300 and 302
will also be transmitted through port 306, recess 304, port
308 and counterbore 266 which will cause the valve mem
ber to move ‘downwardly into its lowermost position as
shown in FIGURE 3.
Of course, at the end of the downward movement of the
hammer member, the same will strike the bottom wall 238
of the anvil member with a percussion blow and the com-‘
formed in the core member in communication with the
bore 212.
‘
Formed in the exterior periphery of the cylindrical
wall 244 of the anvil member 236 in diametrically op
posed relation to the passage 283 is a longitudinally ex
tending valve actuating recess 304, the lower end of
pression wave thus caused 'will be transmitted directly by
which communicates with the interior of the cylindri
the drill string connected to the lower end of the core
cal wall 244 adjacent the bottom wall 238 by a radially 10 member to the rotary drilling bit 10 on the lower end
extending passage 306. As best shown in FIGURE 8,
thereof. It will also be understood that the air or other
the upper end of the recess 304 communicates with the
?uid entering the bore 250 at the upper end of the hammer
upper end of the second counterbore 266 in the cap mem
mechanism will eventually pass into the lower bore 212
ber 2224 by means of a radially extending passage 308
from which it is directed by the pipe string 16 connected to
formed in the latter.
15 the lower end of the hammer mechanism to the bottom
In operation, it will be understood that the hammer
‘of the formation being drilled through the rotary drill bit
member 248 is longitudinally reciprocated within the
to perform the usual function of clearing the cuttings from
chamber provided by the cylindrical wall 244 in a con
the formation.
It will be noted that the ?uid pressure entering the bore
250 will at all times pass into the upper end of the counter
bore 262 through ports 2'52 and therefore act on the upper
end of the valve member 258. The existance of this
constant pressure acting downwardly on the valve member
258 aids in eifecting a movement of the valve member at
tinuous cycle. For purposes of convenient description
the operation of the percussion hammer mechanism will
be set forth below beginning with that point in the cycle
just after the hammer mechanism has delivered a per;
cussion blow.
As shown in FEGURE 3, in this position the hammer
mechanism 248 will be disposed in the lower portion of
the proper time in the cycle of operation, that is, prevents
the chamber in engagement with the bottom wall 238 of
the anvil member. In addition, the valve member 258
the creation of compression or vacuum conditions within
the bore 262 which would detrirnentally effect the free
movement of the valve member.
It thus will be seen that the objects of this invention have
be disposed in its lowermost position with the annular
surface 270 in engagement with the valve seat 268 to
been fully and effectively accomplished. It will be real
ized, however, that the foregoing speci?c embodiment has
prevent ?ow of ?uid through the ports 256 and with the
ports 272 of the valve member communicating the inter
mediate ports 254 with the port 280‘ and closing off flow
been shown and described only for the purpose of illus
trating the principles ‘of this invention and is subject to
to the port 278.
It will be seen that ?uid from the upper portion of the
extensive change without departure ‘from such principles.
drill string 16 enters the bore 250 will pass through the 35 Therefore, this invention includes all modi?cations en
ports 254, valve ports 272, cap member port 280, recess
compassed within the spirit and scope of the following
282 and port 284- into- the lower end of the hammer
chamber, thus causing the hammer member therein to be
moved upwardly. During the upward movement of the
hammer member 248 the air in the hammer chamber there
claims.
I claim:
above will be forced outwardly through the openings 298
and 300. As the hammer member moves upwardly, the
upper opening 298 will be covered so that during subse
quent upward movement the air trapped in the upper por
tion of the chamber will act upon the lower bell-shaped
end 264 of the valve member and'move the same up
wardly into the position shown in FIGURE 4. This move
ment of the valve member 258 interrupts communication
between the valve port 272 and the inlet ports 256 of the
core member 2-10 and communicates the. lower port 280
with the upper port 278 through the exterior annular
groove 276 of the valve member. In addition, the annular
surface 270 of the valve member moves away from the
valve seat 26-8 permitting the lower ports 256 to communi
cate with the upper end of the hammer chamber. This
condition of the hammer mechanism is illustrated in FIG
URE 4. It will be noted that the ?uid from the drill string
passing through the upper bore 250 will now pass through
_
1. In apparatus for drilling earth formations, the com
bination comprising a rigid structure for ?xed securement
between lengths of drill string, said rigid structure in
cluding a central core member and means surrounding
said core member de?ning an annular hammer chamber
therearound, a hammer member mounted on said core
member within said chamber for free longitudinal re
ciprocation therein, said rigid structure also having ?uid
passage means for directing a source of pressurized ?uid
into and out of opposite ends of said chamber, and valve
means movably carried by said rigid structure spaced
apart from said hammer member and operably disposed in
relation to said ?uid passage means for controlling the
?ow ‘of ?uid alternatively into opposite ends of ‘said cham~
her to effect reciprocation of said hammer mechanism~
therein, said valve mechanism being operab‘ly movable
. by the flow of ?uid through said passage means in response
to the reciprocating movement of said hammer member,
said ?uid passage means including a central bore formed
in the upper end of said core member and spaced inlet
the lower ports 256 into the upper end of the hammer
ports communicating therewith for control by said valve
chamber, thus causing the hammer member 248 to move 60 mechanism.
downwardly.
2. The combination as de?ned in claim 1 wherein said
Downward movement of the hammer member 248 will
rigid structure includes a head member adjacent the upper
cause the air in the lower portion of the hammer chamber
end of said hammer chamber, said head member includ
to pass outwardly into the bore 212 through the lower
ing a central bore receiving the upper end of said core
openings 302. As the hammer member 248 closes the
member and ?rst and second counterbores formed in
openings 302 during its downward movement, the air in
the lower portion of ‘said bore, said valve member includ
the lower portion of the hammer chamber will be com
ing an upper sleeve-shaped portion slidably mounted with
pressed and forced outwardly through port 284, recess 282,
in said ?rst counterbore and a lower bell-shaped portion
port 280, and then into port 278 through the exterior valve
member recess 276.
From the port 278 the air passes
through the passage 288, port 290 and core member ports
296 into the bore 212. It will also be noted that during the
downward movement of the hammer member 248 past the
openings 302, the air in the lower portion of the hammer
chamber will be compressed and this increase in pressure 75
slidably mounted in said second counterbore, said bell
shaped portion being arranged to have ?uid pressure act
on the upper and lower surfaces thereof to effect the
movement of said valve member in response to the move
ment of said hammer member.
3. In apparatus for drilling earth formations, the com
bination comprising an elongated core member having
3,030,033
7
8
means on opposite ends thereof for conne'cti'on'with lengths
of drill string, casing means ?xed to said core member
nular'?ange extending outwardly from the lower end there
de?ning
annular hammer chamber thereabout, a'ham
of, means de?ning a hammer chamber‘ around said core
member including a tubular casing surrounding said core
mer member mounted on said core member within said
member and having a bottom wall engaging said annular
chamber for longitudinal reciprocation therein, said core
member having spaced upper and lower bores therein and
?ange, ahead member secured to the upper end of said
casing and having a central. bore receiving the upper end
spaced ports communicating each of said bores with the
portion'of said core member and ‘?rst and second counter~
exterior of said core member, the ports communicating
bores formed in the lower end of said bore, a valve
with said lower ‘bore also communicating with said ham
member slidably mounted on said core member and hav
mer chamber and ?ow therethrough being controlled by 10 ing {an upper sleeve-shaped’ portion movable in said ?rst
the reciprocating movement of said hammer member,
counterbore and a lower bell-shaped portion movable in
separate passage means in said casing means for com
said second counterbore, said core member having a
municating the said upper bore ports with opposite ends
central ?uid inlet bore formed in'the upper end portion
of said hammber chamber, a valve member slida’bly
thereof and inlet port means extending therefrom, means
mounted on said core member adjacent the ports therein 15 including said valve member for alternately directing a
communicating with said upperbore for movement be
tween rtwo positions, said valve member in one position
permitting ?ow of ?uid from said upper bore through
one of the ports communicating therewith and into the
source of ?uid fromysaid inlet port means to the upper
and lower ends of said chamber, respectively, said core
member having a central ?uid exhaust bore formed in the
lower end portion thereof and upper and lower exhaust
one of said passage means, communicating with one end 20 ports communicating with said bore and said hammer
of said hammer chamber ‘and in the other position per
mitting??ow of ?uid from said upper‘bore through another
{chamber in spaced relation to the upper and lower ends
thereof respectively, a hammer member mounted onsaid
‘core member within said chamber for reciprocating move
of Ithe ports communicating therewith and into the other
of said passage means communicating with the opposite
ment therein in response to the passage of ?uid into op—
end of said hammer chamber to thereby effect reciproca 25 posite ends of said chamber, the lower end of said second
tion of said hammer, said valve member being movable . 'counterbore communicating with the upper end of said
between said positions ‘by the movement of ?uid through
hammer chamber above said upper, exhaust port and pas
said passage meansand communicating ports in response
sage means .in said casing communicating the upper end
to the reciprocating movement of said hammer member.
of said second counterbore with the lower end of said
4. The combination as de?ned in claim 3 wherein said 30 hammer chamber below said lower exhaust port whereby
chamber de?ning means includes a head member adjacent
upward movement of said hammer member will exhaust
the upper end of said chamber, said head member having
?uid through said upper exhaust port, close the same, and
a central bore therein receiving the upper end portion of
then direct pressure ?uid into the lower end of said second
said core member and ?rst and second counterbores
counterbore against the underside ‘of said valve member
formed in the lower end of said central bore, said valve
to effect movement of said valve member upwardly and
member including an upper sleeve-shaped portion slidably
downward movement of said hammer member will we
received within said ?rst counterbore and a’ lower bell
thaust ?uid through said lower exhaust port, close the
shaped portion siidably received in said second counter
same and than direct pressure ?uid through said passage
lbore, the lower surface of said ‘bell-shaped portion com
means into said upper end of said second counterbore to
40
munioating with the upper end ofsaid chamber'so the
effect movement of said valve member downwardly.
?uid pressure therein resulting from the upward move
7. The combination as de?ned in claim 6 wherein said
ment of said hammer member will effect upward vmove
chamber
de?ning means ‘also includes an inner anvil mem
ment of said valve member, said chamber de?ning means
her having a bottom wall engaging the bottom wall of
providing ?uid passage means extending between the lower
end of said hammer chamber and the upper end of said 45 said casing ‘and a cylindrical peripheral wall engaging
the tubular casing above the bottom wall thereof.
second counterbo-re for transmitting ?uid pressure in the
lower end of said chamber during downward movement
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
of said hammer member to ‘the upper surface of said bell
shaped portion to e?ect downward movement of said valve
UNITED STATES PATENTS
50
member.
'
5. The combination ‘as de?ned in claim 4 wherein said
core member also has formed therein a port communicat
ing with said upper bore and the upper end of said ?rst
lcountenbore.
.
.
21,489
629,967
1,087,632
1,828,491
Danvers _____________ __ Sept. 14,
Peck ________________ __ Aug. 1,
Benjamin ____________ __ Feb. 17,
Curtis _______________ __ Oct. 20,
1858
1899
1914
1931
V
6. In an ‘apparatus for drilling earth formations, the
combination comprising an elongated core member hav
ing means on opposite ends thereof for connection with
lengths of drill string, said core member having an an—
1,843,958
Smith ______________ _'___ Feb. 9, 1932
2,774,334
Cline ________ __
2,851,251
2,917,025
Mori ________________ __ Sept. 9, 1958
Dulaney ____ __; ______ __ Dec. 15, 1959
‘ ____ .__ Dec. 18, 1956
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