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Патент USA US3050053

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Aug. 21, 1962
Filed Feb. 19. 1960
4 Sheets-Sheet l
if ala
k/¿lía'am A. Hale
Aug. 21, 1962
Filed Feb. 19. 1960
4 Sheets-Sheet 2
W¿ Zía'am A. Haie
Aug. 21, 1962
Filed Feb. 19, 1960
4 Sheets-Shea?l 3
vL /f
fnl/E' 27.70F
Wííh'am A. Haie
17j] 5_
Aug- 21, 1962
w. A. HALE
Filed Feb. 19, 1960
4 Sheets-Sheet 4
Wz'llínm Ah'ale.
United States ¿Patent @ffice
Patented Aug. 2l, 1962
zontally disposed boiler shell and the surface of the shell
immediately labove the ñrebox or fire chamber is pro
vided with generally longitudinally extending tins. Heat
from the iirebox irnpinges directly upon the lfinned lower
William A. Hale, 4503 N. Knoxville Ave., Peoria, Ill.
Filed Feb. 19, 1960, Ser. No. 9,988
4 Claims. (Cl. 122-367)
portion of the shell thereby transferring a substantial
amount of the heat generated in the fire. The air ilow
from the ñrebox is split by the main shell `and passes
The present invention relates to hot water yor steam
upwardly around both sides ott the shell tot a generally
boilers and is, more particularly, concerned with the con
centrally located flue outlet to the stack. Peripheral
struction of an extremely comp-act `and ultra eñicient
boiler particularly `adapted to residential use.
l() metal channels are provided for directing the hot air
ñow upwardly around the main shell t0 the centrally lo
As those familiar with the building trades and home
cated outlet. These channels provide a scrubbing heat
heating are aware, the construction of residential homes
Contact and heat transfer action between the llowing gases
of varying sizes in lany given location requires a corre
sponding variation in the heating plant designed for the
and the shell in a manner removing a substantial portion
residence. Further, of course, construction of the same
type of residence in various geographical locations may
likewise call for a variation in capacity of the heating
of the heat remaining in the upwardly «moving air follow
ing absorption of heat by the finned portion of the main
unit designed for the residence. Accordingly, it is de
of the device described, stack temperatures in the desired
sirable in the construction of residential, or for that matter
temperature range are readily achieved without bañied
shell. It has been found that as a result of the operation
commercial, boiler apparatus, that the apparatus be modi 20 boiler passaegs or other of the prior art devices that have
impaired the eñìciency of the boiler operation.
ñed easily to accommodate various capacities. While
Additionally, in accordance with the present invention,
such modiñcation is extremely desirable, it is important
a boiler is provided capable of accommodating -a highly
that heating efficiency be retained at a high level through
eñicient hot water heater without modifying the external
out the range of intended modiiication so that the boiler
unit will provide economical operation in its various in 25 configuration of the boiler or in any Way impairing its
It is, accordingly, an object of the present invention
In addition to the problems -mentioned above, those
to provide a compact, highly efficient, hot Iwater boiler.
familiar with the construction of single story buildings
Another object of the present invention is to provide
are aware that the relatively short chimney ordinarily
associated with such construction provides only a limited 30 an improved small size hot water boiler having an un
usually large heat transfer surface in substantially direct
natural draft. It is extremely important in boiler con
contact with tirebox gases.
struction that a negative `draft be provided in the boiler
Yet another object of the present invention is to provide
firebox at all times to promote clean combustion of the
an eflicient boiler construction capable of operating at a
fuel. In many prior art boiler structures with which I am
familiar, bafñes and similar air flow obstructions em 35 low stack temperature without employing combustion gas
flow restriction bafiles.
ployed for purposes of absorbing heat from the -boiler iire
Still a further object of the present invention is to pro
have su?ciently damped 4the flow of air to practically
vide a novel and substantially improved compact boiler
eliminate the draft in the iirebox or create a positive
construction employing a generally cylindrical main boiler
pressure over the lire resulting in incomplete combustion.
In such prior art structures employing baiiles, it has been 40 shell having both longitudinal and peripheral heat con
ducting lins connected therewith.
found that even where the bañles are initially acceptable,
Yet another object of the invention is to provide a
the accumulation of soot `during normal tiring of the
simplified generally cylindrical boiler having a generally
boiler eventually decreases the bailie passages to a point
horizontally disposed main boiler shell carrying a generally
where the draft is insutiicient for satisfactory operation.
On the other hand, it has been found with prior art boiler 45 horizontally disposed hot water heater.
Still a further object of the invention is to provide an
constructions, that elimination of the baffles has rendered
inexpensive highly ellicient hot water boiler capable of
the boiler apparatus insufliciently efficient to utilize the
simple modiíication to accommodate a large number of
heat of the fire with a resultant unsatisfactorily high stack
boiler capacities.
The boiler apparatus of the present invention has pro
vided a novel and substantially improved boiler construc
A feature of the invention is the provision of a general
ly cylindrical horizontally disposed main boiler shell hav
ing a plurality of peripheral channels requiring the ñow
tion which is readily modified for various vboiler capaci
of c-ombustion gases vertically around the sides of the shell
ties. Further, the boiler employs no bafñes in the usual
in scrubbing contact therewith.
sense, thereby utilizing substantially the entire natural
draft provided by even the short chimneys of one story 55 Another feature of the present invention is the construc
tion of a boiler having a generally horizontally disposed
buildings. These important advantages are achieved,
boiler shell co-operating with a substantially vertical
however, without in any way rendering the boiler in
draft and employing no ñxed ba?lies for materially restrict
eñicient or in any way raising the stack temperature above
ing dlow of the combustion gases through the boiler unit.
a desired value. Additionally, the construction of the
Still other and further objects and features of the present
boiler in accordance with the present invention permits
invention will become apparent to those skilled in the art
extremely lightweight materials to be employed since the
from a consideration of the attached specilication and
boiler may be constructed within the provisions of the
wherein a preferred embodiment of the invention
miniature boiler code. This construction is accomplished
by way of illustration only, and wherein:
even though the boiler `output compares with that of
«FIGURE l is an end elevational view, partially broken
much larger prior art boiler units.
away, of a boiler constructed in accordance with the prin
More particularly, the improved boiler of the present
ciples of the present invention;
invention comprises a generally cylindrical main boiler
FIGURE 2 is a cross-sectional view, in plan, taken
shell containing liquid to be heated. The shell is less than
along the line II-II of FIGURE l;
16” in diameter placing the shell Within the “miniature
FIGURE 3 is a View in cross~section looking upwardly,
boiler” provisions of the Steel Boiler Institute Code. A 70 and taken along the line III-III of FIGURE 1;
burner chamber is positioned immediately below the hori
FIGURE 4 is a cross-sectional view taken through the
main boiler shell of the boiler construction of the present
invention, and taken along the line IV-IV of FIGURE 1;
FIGURE 5 is a plan view of the blank used in construct
ing individual flow channels.
As shown on the drawings:
As may be seen from a consideration of FIGURE l of
the drawings, the boiler of the present invention comprises,
generally, a heat exchanger 10 comprising a generally
horizontally disposed cylinder supported on a vertically
rising casing 11 forming a combustion chamber 12 above
a direbox l9 which in turn has a generally horizontally dis
posed fuel inlet 13. Fuel is introduced via inlet 13 by
conventional burner equipment adapted for the combus
tion of liquid, gaseous or solid fuel. Upon introduction
into the iìrebox >9, the fuel is ignited, again by any con
ventional igniting means. The burning gases proceed
vertically upwardly in the combustion chamber 12 and
of material, such as for example, aluminized steel, of a
configuration generally illustrated in FIGURE 5. As
may be seen, each of the strips 20 is notched as at 20f.
The strip is subsequently bent along the lines 20g, 20h,
Ztlz', and 20j to provide the cross-sectional configuration
illustrated in FIGURE 4. The surface 20a may then be
struck into an are to provide the linal form shown in
FIGURE l where the notches Zílf are substantially closed
and the ñanges 20d and 20e form generally to the main
shell 16 and are welded thereto as at 20k.
Alternatively, the channels 20 may be die stamped
from a plain, unnotched blank into their final shape, in
which case a larger blank may be used and more than a
single channel may be stamped at one time.
As a result of the arcuate configuration of the chan
nels 26, a substantial portion of the combustion gases are
forced to scrub against -the peripheral surfaces 20a. This
scrubbing action causes an etlicient heat transfer from
the gases to the heat conducting met-al of the channels
of the generally cylindrical main shell 16 of the heat eX 20 Ztl, and further, causes a deiiection of the gases against
changer 10. This downwardly facing portion, forming the
the outer shell 16 providing intimate contact of the gases
top surface of the combustion chamber, is commonly
with the shell within the channels 20. While the chan
termed the crown sheet and is provided with longitudinally
nels 20 accordingly provide extremely efiicient heat trans
extending ribs 17 of heat conducting metal. The moving
fer action, it will be noted that they in no way provide
combustion gases are divided laterally and pass upwardly 25 blocking baffles or other impediments to the ñow of the
in the direction of arrows 18 between the shell 16 and
combustion gases around the main shell 16.
casing `19 via guide channels 20 and thence vertically up
As the combustion gases leave the upper ends of the
wardly via outlet flue 21 to a conventional stack by which
channels 20, and the area between the channels, they
they are discharged to atmosphere. The entire boiler ap
pass out to the stack (not shown) via ñue 21. The iiue
paratus is conveniently enclosed in an outer shroud or 30 21 is provided with a vertically sliding sleeve 21a which
impinge directly on the downwardly facing portion 15
housing 25.
With the above general configuration ofthe boiler com
ponents in mind, particular structural details may be ob
may be adjusted vertically and locked in adjusted posi
tion by screw 2lb. If desired, slight adjustment of the
sleeve 21a may from time to time be made to control
served from a consideration of the sectional views in FIG
the stack draft within a very small range.
URES 2, 3 and 4. Thus, it will be observed in FIGURE 2 35
As shown in FIGURE 4, the main shell 16 of the boiler
that the fuel inlet 13 is provided with a flange 26 to which a
comprises a generally cylindrical sheet of heavy gauge
conventional burner element may be secured. Fuel is in
sheet metal. The ends of the boiler space 14 are closed
troduced via the inlet 13 in the direction of arrows 27 for
by front and rear heads 40 and 41 respectively which are
ignition and combustion in the ñrebox 9 and combustion
welded annularly to the main shell 16 as at 42 and 43.
chamber» area 12. The ñrebox is formed by respective 40 The front head 40 is provided with an inspection opening
layers of ñrebrick and tire clay 28A and 29 which provide
44 which is closed by -a cap `45 and sealed by an annular
a generally upright cylindrical chamber form. The outside
resilient seal 46. The- cover plate 4S slidably passes a
of the chamber is formed by a generally cylindrical sheet
tiebolt 47 which is welded to the rear headl 41 at 48.
metal casing 30. Likewise illustrated in FIGURE 2, the
The front end 49 of the bolt 47 is threaded to accept a
combustion chamber 12 comprises a generally rectangular
securing nut 50 which is in turn recessed at 51 to accom«
volume having side walls ‘31, 32, 313 and 34 of sheet metal
modate a seal 52. By tightening the nut 50 down. against
backed ‘by insulating material 35. At the junction between
the seal 52 and the cover plate 45, the cover plate is
the top of the generally circular ñrebox and the combus
tion chamber, a rectangular block of insulating material
36 is provided. This material is provided with a circular
cutfout indicated at 37 providing communication between
the ñre‘box and the combustion chamber 1,2.
>As shown in the upwardly facing cross-sectional view
of ‘FIGURE 3, the crown sheet or downwardly facing sur
face 15 of the cylindrical main shell 16 is provided- with a
plurality of longitudinally extending heat conducting tins
17. These tins are secured along their lengths to the main
resiliently tightly sealed against the front head 40 and
the boiler chamber 14 is, accordingly, sealed.
In the embodiment of the invention illustrated, the
boiler is provided with a hot water heater element 55
which extends generally horizontally within the chamber
14. The coil 55 is provided with an inlet 56 and an outlet
57 which may be connected to the conventional residence
hot lwater system. The inlet 56 and outlet 57 are passed
through the coverplate 45 and sealed with respect thereto,
preferably by means of brazing as at 58. It will be ap
parent, of course, that the hot water heating element
thereof, for example, as at 17a in FÍGURE 1. As may
may be dispensed with by providing a coverplate having
be seen from a consideration> of FIGURES 1 and 3', the
no apertures for the passage of the coil inlet and outlet
fins 17 do »not extend laterally a suiiicient distance to abut
56 andV 57 respectively.
against the combustion chamber walls 31 and 33. Instead,
It has been found in actual manufacture of boiler
a flo_w passage is provided at 18, between the main shell
in accordance with the present invention that
V16 and the outer sheet metal casingv 19. As above noted,
in welding the heads 40- and 41 to the shell 16, at the
combustion gases leaving the combustion chamber 12 pass
points indicated `at 42 and 43, a small distortion of the
upwardly around' the main shell of the boiler via passage
heads occurs causing thel central portion of the heads> to
ways 18, and arcuate channels 20.
bow slightly away from one another. Upon tightening
Control of the flow of the combustion gases around
of the nut 50 to secure the coverplate 45 this slight bow
the main shell is clearly observed in FIGURE 4. There,
in the heads 40 and 41 provides additional resiliency in
it will be observed that thirteen channels 20 are pro
0 the system maintaining the coverplate tightly sealed at
vided on each side of the _main shell 16. Each channel
all times.
comprises an outer peripheral surface l 2da generally
In operation, the boiler of the present invention has
shell 16, preferably by a continuous weld along one edge
radially inwardly projecting sides 2Gb and- 29C and longi
tudinally extending flange portions 20d and 29e. Each
proved extremely efficient in spite of its compact size.
As those skilled in the art of heating are aware, it is
of the channels 20 may be constructed from a fiat sheet 75 desired that the stack temperature for a usual residential
heating boiler be less than 600° F. and preferably on the
order of 450° to 500° F. It has been found through
actual tests, that the boiler above described and illus
closure and the combustion chamber may be lowered to
provide still greater compactness.
A further modification that may be made within the pur
view of the present invention lies in the positioning of the
fins 17. In the embodiment of the invention illustrated in
trated will provide a stack temperature in ythe 450° to
500° range when fired with gas or oil at the rate of
150,000 B.t.u.’s per hour with a boiler shell diameter of
the drawings and described specifically above, the fins
only fifteen inches and a boiler length of only approxi
17 are parallel to the longitudinal axis of the boiler shell
mately nineteen inches. Such a boiler shell provides a
16. It is preferred that the fins be positioned in this
shell surface area of approximately fourteen square feet
manner since to do so permits utilization of a substan
which is substantially less than the approximately seven
tially perfectly straight fin welded to the shell along a
teen square feet ordinarily considered necessary. Further,
generally straight line. However, the fins 17 may eX
by constructing the boiler of the present invention with a
tend longitudinally of the shell 16 in the form of a helix
shell diameter of less than sixteen inches, the boiler
on the surface of the shell 16. Similarly, the fins 17
comes within the requirements of the miniature boiler
could lie generally transversely of the shell 16. In both
code permitting small one inch inspection openings, such
these latter cases, however, the fins must be constructed
as shown at 60 in FIGURE 1. Further, the miniature
in a curved form and the lines of attachment are substan
boiler code permits the use of lightweight sheet metal
tially complicated.
for the boiler, on the order of 1A” thickness. As a result,
I claim as my invention:
the expense of the boiler is materially reduced.
1. A boiler comprising means defining -a combustion
As those skilled in the art are aware, the draft ordinar 20 chamber, means introducing fuel into said combustion
ily available in a one story building approximates three
chamber for comb-ustion thereof, heat transfer apparatus
inches of water. Since the boiler of the present invention
for transferring the heat of combustion of said fuel to a
utilizes no fiow restricting baffles, it has been found that
heat transfer fluid, comprising a generally cylindrical hori
substantially all of this draft is available at the combus
zontally disposed boiler shell of generally circular cross
tion chamber 12. In fact, it has been found that this 25 section positioned .above said combustion chamber, an
boiler apparatus will provide approximately 2%" of
outlet positioned above said shell for directing the prod
water draft at the fire. In spite of this very favorable
ucts of combustion passing upwardly around said shell to
draft condition and the absence of flow restricting baflies,
an outlet stack, means defining passageways upwardly
the stack temperature remains at the low desired level
`due to the extremely efiicient heat transfer afforded by 30 around both sides of said shell to said outlet, each said
passageway including a plurality of arcuate generally U
the large crown sheet area, fins 17, and the arcuate
shaped channels having the legs thereof secured in heat
channels 20.
conducting relation to said shell and having the bottom
As pointed out earlier in the specification, the boiler
of the channel open to the combustion chamber and the
apparatus of the present invention readily lends itself to
slight modification to accommodate varying capacities of 35 top open to the outlet, the bight of the U providing a pe
ripheral surface facing inwardly toward the periphery of
said shefll for forcing the upwardly flowing products of
fuel burning operation. As illustrated in FIGURE 4,
thirteen channels 20 are provided on each side of the
combustion to flow in close contact with the upper sur
boiler. When operating at a capacity of 150,000 B.t.u.’s
per hour a stack temperature of 460° has been main
face of said shell or with the channel to thereby conduct
tained. By eliminating two channels 20’ on each side of 40 heat from the products of combustion to said fluid in an
the boiler shell, without other modification, it has been
efficient manner.
found that a capacity of 140,000 B.t.u.’s per hour will
2. A boiler comprising means defining a combustion
provide the eminently satisfactory stack temperature of
approximately 480° ‘F. At the rating of approximately
chamber, means introducing fuel into said combustion
chamber for combustion thereof, heat transfer apparatus
140,000 B.t.u.’s per hour for one gallon of oil, it has been
found that employing .85 gallons per hour, or approx
imately 120,000 B.t.u.’s per hour, a stack temperature of
for transferring the heat of combustion of said fuel to a
approximately 480° F. is achieved by utilizing only seven
channels 20 on each side of the boiler shell. Likewise,
at .75 gallons per hour, or approximately 105,000 B.t.u.’s
per hour, that stack temperature is maintained by utiliz
ing five channels 20 on each side of the boiler shell. At the
rate of approximately .5 gallon per hour the stack tem
perature of approximately 480° F. is maintained by uti
lizing only three channels 20 on each side of the shell. 55
heat transfer íiuid, comprising a generally cylindrical hori
zontally disposed boiler shell of generally circular cross
section positioned above said combustion chamber, an
outlet positioned above said shell for directing the prod
ucts of combustion passing upwardly around said shell
to an outlet stack, said shell having a plurality of lon
gitudinally extending fins projecting downwardly from the
Thus, by modifying the number of channels 20, without
surface thereof and facing the combustion chamber, means
defining passageways upwardly around both sides of said
shell to said outlet, each said passageway including a plu
making other modifications of any nature, such as for
rality of arcuate generally U-shaped channels having the
legs thereof secured in heat conducting relation to said
example by adding baflies or the like, the capacity of the
shell and having the bottom of the channel open to the
boiler is simply modified and the stack temperature is
60 combustion chamber and the top open to the outlet, the
maintained at its efiicient, desired, level.
As will be seen from a consideration of the specifica
bight of the `U providing a peripheral surface facing in
tion and drawings as hereinabove described, the construc
wardly toward the periphery of said shell for forcing the
tion of the present invention provides an extremely corn
upwardly flowing products of combustion to flow in close
pact and eliicient boiler unit for heating purposes. It will
contact with the upper surface of said shell or with the
be apparent to those skilled in the art that variations and
channel to thereby conduct heat from the products of
modifications may be made in this structure without de
combustion to said fiuid in an eflicient manner.
parting from the scope of the novel concepts thereof
and it is, accordingly, intended that the scope of the present
invention be limited solely by that of the hereinafter ap
pended claims. For example, in the form of the invention
3. The boiler constructed in accordance with claim 1
wherein means is provided for adjusting the cross-sec
tional area of said outlet for restricting the rate of flow
of products of combustion therethrough.
illustrated, the firebox and combustion chamber are ar
4. The boiler constructed in accordance with claim 1
ranged generally for use with conventional oi’l burners.
Where it is desired that gas be employed as a fuel, it is
including a pair of heads enclosing the opposite ends of
ordinarily unnecessary to provide a fire brick lined en
75 said ends and passing through the other said ends, said
said cylindrical shell, a tie bolt rigid’ly secured to one of
other of said ends having an enlarged opening concentri-
References Cited in the ñle of this patent
calliy lof said tie boltì a cover slidably mounted relative to
said tie bolt for seahngly engaging the other head on the
outside thereof, and securing means for co-operation with
said tie -bolt and said cover to simultaneously secured said 5
Junkers -------------- ” Aug’ 22' 1905
Donohue ----------- “ NOV' 11' 1952
Great Bn'tain _________ __ July 28, 1954.
cover to said heads and reinforce said heads against inter~Dal pressures m Said Shen-
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