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Патент USA US3050124

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Aug. 21, 1962
J. A. SAUNDERS ETAL
3,050,112
RADIANT GAS BURNER
Filed Sept. 2, 1960
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
El
ZO
26 5
60
[02 62
3+ e9
74
By
EDWARD E
cone
纋lg~ 21, 1962
.1. A. sALJNDERs ETAL
3,050,112
RADIANT GAS- BURNER
Filed Sept. 2, 1960
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
INVENTORS
縜an
A. E.SAuNu脘s
owARo
Moons
M
ATTY.
United States Patent O ? ICC
3,,l12
Patented Aug. 21, 1962
2
the arrangement being s-uch as to provide an inner swirl
chamber at the rear of the assembly into which air is
3,050,112
RADIANT GAS BURNER
John A. Saunders and Edward E. Moore, Rockford, lil.,
admitted through a series of tangentially arranged ports
which give to the air a swirling motion within the cham
ber. The chamber is provided with a restricted forward
exit opening Ihaving associated therewith a forwardly ex
tending lip. The air within the chamber picks up a
considerable amount of circumferential velocity causing
it to hug the cylindrical Wall of the chamber as it passes
assignors to Eclipse Fuel Engineering Co., Rockford,
Ill., a corporation of Illinois
Filed Sept. 2, 1960, Ser. No. 53,744
3 Claims. (Si. 158-109)
The present invention relates to gas burners and it Ahas
particular reference to a radiant gas Iburner of novel 10 forwardly toward the exit opening and lip. As it leaves
the lip, this swirling mass of air has injected into it gas
design capable -of producing a flame of low forward Ve
which is introduced through a series of circumferentially
locity over a wide expanse with the ilame being developed
arranged gas ports. The air and the thus injected gas
within a comparatively short combustion zone.
l
travel still further forwardly within the ?burner construc
There are many industrial applications in which it 1s
tion, while at the same time the swirling action continues
desirable to develop a large expanse of 'heat radiation
with :both the air and gas being thrown outwardly by
which may be directed towards an object to be heated
centrifugal force and thus caused to hug the cylindrical
wall surrounding it. As the gas and air mixture
continues thus forwardly, intermixing thereof is pro
with the flow of gases proceeding at a relatively `low
velocity. `For example, in glass annealing furnaces, it 1S
necessary to uniformly heat a large area of glass with
no localized heating or ?hot spots? resulting from direct
flame impingement. The burner requirements for such
furnaces therefore are the production of a flame of large
expanse which produces an appreciable amount 玱f radiant
heat and which may be directed against the work 1n
close proximity thereto, uniformity of flame temperature
throughout the entire liame area, and negligible forward
velocity of the products of combustion. Where a single
burner furnace is concerned, it is obvious that such a
large radiant area is a necessity. Uniformity of tem
perature must be maintained throughout the flame area
to prevent localized heating of the work. Minimum for
ward velcity is a requirement for the reason that with
a high forward velocity, flame length is increased at the
expense of accurate heat control within the vicinity of
the work undergoing heating.
gressively elfected until such time as there has been sul'li
cient intermixing to support effective combustion. Com
bustion is initiated at this point and, due to the high
velocity spin of the mixture, the forward motion of the
same is very materially reduced and is, in fact, main
tained at a rate which is dependent only upon the crowd
ing action of the oncoming gaseous constituents. At this
p region of extremely low forward velocity, the surface of
the combustion block spreads outwardly in radial fashion
so .that the flame, still affected strongly by centrifugal
30 forces, tends to follow the radial surface of the block with
little or no forward motion. The net result of this phe
nomena is the provision of a wide flat expanse of llame
with the necessary turbulence for intimate mixing of
the gas and air, and consequent complete combustion
35 taking place in a circumferential path rather than in an
axial path so that an extremely short flame character
istic is attained for heat application over a wide area,
while at the same time, the radial faces of the com
Radiant burners constructed in accordance with the
above-mentioned requirements are by no means limited
to use in connection with glass annealing furnaces and
bustion block and furnace -wall ?become incandescent and
they may 駈d wide industrial application in iields such
as the heating of galvanizing kettles, for firing melting 40 olfer a ?large amount of substantially static radiant heat.
The provision lof a burner construction of the char
furnaces, flat roof rotary heat treatment furnaces, forge
acter ybrieiiy outlined above being among the principal
furnaces, billet heaters, cover-fired ladles, process tub
objects of the present invention, it is a further object to
ing heaters and a wide varieyt |of other installations too
provide a composite burner assembly which is comprised
numerous to mention.
There are, at the present time, on the market and in 45 of a minimum number ?of parts and each of which is 0f
relatively simple design which readily lends itself to
current use, burners which meet the above requirements
straightforward casing operations, thereby resulting in a
of a large area and low forward velocity llame and which,
burner assembly which is simple in its construction and
furthermore, depend for their eliiciency upon a large
which may be manufactured at a relatively low cost.
measure of radiant heat generation. These burners, in
general, consist of concave refractory shapes of cup-shape 50 A further object of the invention is to provide a burner
assembly of this sort in which the operation thereof is
design and through which premixed gas and air is de
not vaffected by the direction of firing. Stated in other
livered -for combustion purposes and then deflected along
words, the burner assembly of the present invention is
the inside walls of the refractory cup. Such burners
capable of Vertical firing, either upwardly or downwardly,
require some method of premixing the `gas and air as,
for example, the use of a fuel proportioning apparatus, 55 of horizontal tiring, or of firing at any in-between angle.
Other objects and advantages of the invention, not at
such arrangements ?being subject to frequent back-firing.
this time enumerated, will readily suggest themselves as
The present invention is designed to overcome the above
the nature of the invention is better understood in the
noted limitations that are attendant upon the use of such
light of the following description.
burners as use premixed gaseous constituents for com
bustion purposes. Toward this end, briefly, it contem
plates the provision of a burner assembly including a rela
tively simple burner casting of novel design capable of
60
In the accompanying two sheets of drawings forming
a part of this specification, yone illustrative embodiment
of the invention has been shown.
In these drawings:
developing a highly radiant surface by means of gas
FIG. l is a front elevational view of a burner assem
combustion and incorporating Athe advantages of a nozzle
mixing burner in that it has a wider range of heating 65 bly constructed in accordance With/the principles of the
capacity, is not subject tok back-firing, and is extremely
present invention;
?
simple to control.
FIG. 2 is avsectional View taken substantially along
The provision of a burner construction of the type
the line 2_2 of FIG. 1 and schematically illustrating
briefly outlined above is among the principle objects of
certain flame and radiant heat characteristics which are
the invention and, in carrying out this object, the in 70 associated with the use of the present burner;
vention contemplates the provision of a composite burner
FIG. 3 is a sectional view taken substantially along the
assembly and a cooperating refractory combustion block,
line 3-3 of FIG. 2; and
3,050,112
'
4
3
FIG. 4 is a sectional view taken substantially along the
line 4-4 of FIG. 2.
therewith.
The rear wall 6i? is formed with a relatively
large central opening 64 therethrough and designed for
Referring now to the drawings in detail, the burner
threaded reception of an air supply pipe 68. It will be
assembly of the form of the invention selected for illus
seen therefore that the cover casting 14, in elfect, con
tration herein involves in its general organization three CII stitutes a manifold casting which, in combination with
principal parts including a main burner casting 1t), a front
the rear portion of the main casting 10, provides a pre
tube 12 which in effect constitutes a forward extension
liminary or manifold chamber 66 for air and from which
of the main casting 1?), and a rear cover casting 14 which
chamber air is admitted through the air ports 30 to the
constitutes an air connection for the main casting 10.
swirl chamber 26. The lower region of the outer cylin
These three parts, when assembled upon one another,
are associated with a cooperating combustion block 16
and a block holder 18.
The main burner casting 10 is of cylindrical design
and it is also of cup-shaped or dished configuration. The
casting 1i? is provided with a substantially flat circular rear
wall 20 and a cylindrical side wall 22 having a forward
cylindrical extension 24. The side wall 22 and its for
ward extension, in combination with the circular rear
wall 20, de駈e therebetween a substantially cylindrical
inner air chamber 26 which, because of the peculiar mo
tion of air 駉wing through this chamber, will hereinafter
be referred to as the swirl chamber. The forward end of
the swirl chamber is open and is provided with an in
drical wall 34 is thickened as at 69 and is provided with
an opening '76 therethrough which is threaded as at 72
for threaded reception of a gas supply pipe 74.
As best seen in FIGS. l and 4, the rim region 36 of
the outer cylindrical wall 34 is for-med with a pair of
radially extending diametrically disposed attachment ears
8@ by means of which the entire assembly, including the
main casting 18, and the rear cover casting 14, as a
whole may be secured to the combustion block holder
18. A gasket 81 may be interposed between the rim 36
and the block holder 18.
The combustion block holder 18 is in the `form of a
generally flat dish-shaped casting including 籥 rectangular
plate-like portion `82, provided with a marginal 馻nge 84
wardly directed rib 27 defining a gradual restriction and
which extends forwardly therefrom and which encom
terminating in a relatively thin circular lip 2S, the nature 25 passes the extreme rear portion of the combustion block
and function of `which will be set forth presently. Air
16. The combustion -block is conformably shaped to the
is adapted to be admitted to the interior of the swirl cham
holder 18 and it may be formed of various materials
ber 26 through a series of circumferentially spaced and
capable of heat absorption and radiation as, for example,
tangentially directed air ports 30, the nature and func
a refractory or ceramic material, asbestos block, metal
tion of which also will be explained subsequently. The 30 alloy, etc. The ?block 16 is generally rectangular and it
rear lwall 28 may be formed with a threaded hole 31 adapt
is formed with a relatively large central horn-shaped open
ed to receive a conversion plug 33 therein. The hole and
ing 86 therethrough which is 馻red forwardly and out
plug have no signi鹀ance in connection with the present
wardly as ?best seen in FIG. 2. The opening 86 registers
invention other than to provide a convenient means where
by the burner may be converted to oil operation.
The side wall 22, at its juncture with the extension 24,
is formed with a radial web 32 which is joined to an
at its rear end with a conformably shaped opening 88
provided in the block holder 18 and the rear end of the
opening 86 encompasses the forward open rim 90 of the
front tube 12. The rear region of the opening 86 is gen
erally cylindrical as indicated at 92 but in the medial
outer cylindrical wall 34 spaced from and concentric
with the extension 24. The outer wall 34 projects a
regions of the opening, a gradual flaring thereof as shown
short distance forwardly of the extension 24 and has an 40 at 9'4 causes the opening to terminate in a radial face 96
inturned open rim 36 provided with a reentrant portion
which constitutes the forward face of the combustion
38 which is interiorly threaded as at 40. The outer wall
block.
34, in combination with the side wall extension 24, Web
The block holder 18 and its attached combustion block
32 and inturned rim 36, provides a jacket-like gas cham
16 are adapted to be projected in the usual manner through
ber 42 which surrounds the swirl chamber 26.
,
a suitable opening 97 provided in a furnace wall, a frag
The front tube 12 is of cylindrical design and it is ex
ment of which has lbeen shown 玜t 98, suitable mounting
ternally threaded in the medial regions thereof as at 44
clamps or straps 101) being provided to retain the assembly
forrthreaded reception in the reentrant portion 38 so
in position on the 籪urnace Wall.
that, in et頴ct, it constitutes a further extension of the side
Referring now to FIG. 3, the side wall 62 of the cover
wall 22. Forwardly of the threaded portion 44, the 50 casting 14 is shown as having nine of the tangentially
tube 12 is thickened as at 46 and projects into the block
disposed air ports 30, but it is 玹o be distinctly understood
holder 18 and combustion block 16. Rearwardly of the - that a greater or lesser number of such ports may be
threaded portion 40, the tube 12 has a thin lip portion
employed if desired. The various port-s 30 have their
48 which spans the distance between the reentrant por
tion 38 and the lip 28 and closes the otherwise open an
axes arranged ?tangentially with respect to a circle which
nulus between these two parts. The tube 12 is provided
with an inner cylindrical wall surface 50 which, except
for the interruption provided by the lip 28, ai頾rds a
cylindrical continuation of the inner cylindrical wall sur
face _52 of the side wall 22. The lip 48 seats within a 60
casting 10, the circle having a diameter only slightly
is cnocentric with the longitudinal axis of the main burner
smaller than the diameter of the inner cylindrical wall
surface 102 of the side Wall 62. The gas ports 57 in the
front tube 12 have been shown purely for illustrative pur
poses, as being nine in number, Aand these latter ports are
recess 53 provided at the rim of the extension wall 24
truly radial. It will be understood, of course, that the size
and it is spaced slightly from the lip 28 so that the two
and inclination of the ports of either series may be varied
lips de鹡e therebetween a small annular pocket S5 im~
at will to accommodate varying installations.
mediately behind the lip 28. The lip 4S is formed -With
The essential and operative elements of the improved
a series of circumferentially spaced gas ports 57 there 65 burner assembly of the present invention have been de
through which function to admit gas from the gas cham
scribed above and certain alternative or auxiliary instru
ber 42 to the _annular pocket 55 for purposes that will be.
mentalities, such as peep sight, piloting and electrode de
made clear presently.
vices 104, 106 and 108, respectively (FIG. l), are believed
The web 32 terminates
a radially extending bolting
to require no detailed description. It is deemed sufficient
flange S4 designed for attachment to a similar bolting 70 to state that provision is made for these devices by afford
flange 56 provided on the cover casting 14, suitable clamp
ing a thickened region 110 in the body of the combustion
ing bolts S8 being provided for attachment purposes.
block holder 18 in the upper regions thereof and provid
The cover casting 14 is of cup-shape design and in
ing tapped holes therein yfor removable reception of the
cludes a rear Wall 60 and a cylindrical side wall 62 hav
ing the previously mentioned bolting flange 56 associated
same.
In the operation of the burner assembly air entering
3,050,112
5
6
than the internal diameter' of the swirl chamber, said
passages'being disposed in a ?common transverse plane of
the cylindrical swirl chamber, said side Wall being further
provided with a series of circumferentially spaced gas pas
passages or ports 30 and enter the swirl chamber 26 in a
sages 'therethrough at a medial region spaced still further
generally circumferential direction. Since the axes of all
forwardly of said rear wall and rearwardly of said open
of the ports lie in a common transverse plane of the burner,
circular rim, said gas passages being disposed in a common
each jet produced by the por-ts 30 will intersect the next
trnsverse plane of the cylindrical swirl chamber, the medial
adjacent jet in the direction of air swirl near the base
region of said side wall being provided with a continuous
of such jet. The net result of this is that the various jets
are forced against the cylindrical wall surface 52 of the 10 internal annular inwardly and forwardly directed rib which
lies insideA and is spaced radially inwardly 籪rom said gas
side wall 22 in the immediate vicinity of the common
passages `and which, in combination with the inside face
transverse plane of the jets and the various jets pick up,
of the side wall, defines an annular pocket which opens
so to speak, considerable velocity. The rear wall 20
forwardly and into which gas is discharged from said gas
provides a reaction surface for the forward impelling of
passages, said rib providing a restriction within the swirl
the swirling mass of air under the inlluence of the on
chamber for inhibiting the forward dow of air in the latter
coming air issuing from the ports 30 and the mass of -air
to thus enhance thes'wirl characteristics of such air prior
tends to move slowly forwardly while at the same time
to passage thereof forwardly of said rib, means for supply
closely hugging the cylindrical wall 52.
ing air to said -air passages, and means for supplying gas
Due to the restriction afforded by the lip 28, the com
ponent of forward velocity remains small in comparison 20 to said gas passages.
Z. In a gas burner assembly, in combination, a burner
with the component of circumferential or swirling velocity
casing comprising a cylindrical cup-shape body having a
and, at the lip 28, su耢cient air pressure is built up to draw
rear wall and a cylindrical side wall deiining a forward
gas inwardly through the radially disposed ports 57 by a
open circular rim, said walls de駈ing a substantlally
modified venturi action. This venturi action, unlike con
ventional venturi phenomena wherein the motivating fluid 25 cylindrical swirl chamber, said side wall being provided
with a series of circumferentially spaced air passages
rushes axially past a secondary opening, relies -for its
therethrough at a region spaced slightly forwardly of said
venturi effect upon the relatively high velocity circum
rear Wall, said air passages having their longitudinal aXes
ferential sweep of air around the rim of the lip 28 and
extending substantially tangent to a circle which is coaxial
in front of the pocket 55 into lwhich the various ports 57
discharge their gas streams. The gas is picked up at this 30 with the side wall and which is of a diameter slightly less
than the internal diameter of the swirl chamber, said air
region and is constrained to follow the swirling motion of
passages being disposed in a common transverse plane of
the air and move forwardly with the latter. At this initial
the cylindrical swirl chamber, said side wall being further
region of gas entrainment intermixture of the air and gas
provided with a series of circumferentially spaced gas
is incomplete so that there will be little or no combustion.
passages therethrough at a medial region spaced still
However as the two fluids move forwardly in the swirl 35
further
forwardly of said rear wall and rearwardly of
chamber 2.6 along the inside of the front tube 12, the mix
said `open circular rim, said gas passages being disposed
ture is improved gradually until the same reaches the
in a common transverse plane of the cylindrical swirl
forward rim of the front tube, at which time the gas and
chamber, the medial region of said side wall being pro
air are thoroughly intermixed and will support combus
vided with a continuous internal annular inwardly and
tion. As a region just forwardly of the front tube 12, 40 forwardly directed rib which lies inside and is spaced
stoichiometric conditions obtain and, because of the fact
radially inwardly from said gas passages and which, in
that during the entire travel of the Itwo iluids through the
combination with the inside face of the side wall, de駈es
front tube 12 there is a tendency for the gas and air to
an annular pocket which opens forwardly and into which
hug the cylindrical inner wall surface of the tube, an
gas is discharged from said gas passages, said rib provid
ignition ring is created immediately forwardly of the 45 ing a restriction within the swirl chamber for inhibiting
front rim of the tube 12 at the region where the mixture
the forward flow of air in the latter to thus enhance the
iirst contacts the bore 86 of the combustion block. The
swirl characteristics of such air prior to` passage thereof
now burning mixture, i.e., the products of combustion,
forwardly of the rib, means encompassing the rear end
retain a high velocity spin and as lthe diameter of the bore
region of said side wall and defining therewith a manifold
86 becomes larger the forward velocity of these products 50 air chamber common to said air passages, means en
of combustion is reduced practically to nothingness so
compassing the medial regions of said side wall and defin
that the 馻me hugs the forwardly and outwardly flared
ing therewith a manifold gas chamber common to said
wall of the bore 86 and spreads out, so to speak, across
gas passages, an air supply pipe in communication with
the iiat radial face 96 and travels radially outwardly con
said manifold air chamber, and a gas supply pipe in com
siderably beyond the forward rim of the combustion
munication with said manifold gas chamber.
block 16 and into the interior of the furnace chamber.
3. A gas burner construction for producing a low for
the manifold chamber 66 from the supply pipe 68 causes
an appreciable pressure to be built up within this chamber
so that it -will pass through the tangentially disposed air
The invention is not to be limited to the exact arrange
ment of parts shown in the accompanying drawings or de
scribed in this specification as various changes in the de
tails of construction may be resorted to without departing
from the spirit of the invention. Only insofar as the inven
tion has particulraly been pointed out in the accompanying
ward velocity flame of wide expanse, said burner con
struction comprising a burner casing comprising a cylin
drical cup-shape body having a rear wall and a cylindrical
side wall de駈ing a forward open circular rim, said walls
defining a substantially cylindrical swirl chamber, said
side wall ?being provided with a series of circumferentially
claims is the same to be limited.
spaced air passages therethrough at a region spaced slight
Having thus described the invention what we claim as
ly forwardly of said rear wall, said air passages having
new and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
65 their longitudinal axes extending substantially tangent to
1. In a gas burner assembly, in combination, Ia burner
a circle of relatively large radius which is coaxial with the
casing comprising a cylindrical cup-shaped body having
side wall, said air passages being disposed in a common
a rear wall anda cylindrical side wall de駈ing a forward
transverse plane of the cylindrical swirl chamber, said
open circular rim, said walls defining a substantially cylin
side wall Ibeing further provided with a series of circum
drical swirl chamber, said side wall being provided with 70 ferentially spaced gas passages therethrough at a region
a series of circumferentially spaced air passages there
spaced still further forwardly of said rear wall but rear
through at a region spaced slightly forwardly of said
wardly of the forward open rim of the side wall, said gas
rear wall, said air passages having their longitudinal axes
passages being disposed in a common transverse plane of
extending substantially tangent to a circle which is coaxial
the swirl chamber, said side wall immediately rearwardly
with the side wall and which is of a diameter slightly less 75 of the series of gas passages being formed with an internal
3,050,112
rib defining a restriction within the swirl chamber and
terminating in a forwardly extending lip spaced inwardly
of the side Wall and de駈ing in combination therewith an
annular pocket -which opens forwardly and with which
said gas passages communicate, the restriction afforded
1by said rib serving to inhibit the forward velocity of air
issuing from said air passages and passing spirally for
wardly toward the restriction and to enhance the swirl
characteristics of such air prior to passage thereof for
wardly of the rib, a combustion block of refractory mate
rial capable of heat-assimilation and of heat-radiation and
having a 馻t forward face and a central lliore therethrough
in register with the forward open end of said side wall,
said Ibore presenting an internal surface of circular cross
section throughout, the rear region of which is substantial 15
1y cylindrical and constitutes in ei頴ct a cylindrical ex
tension of the inner surface of the side wall, and the for
ward region of which is 馻red gradually outwardly and
8
forwardly so?as to merge gradually with the forward 馻t
face of the combustion block, means for supplying air to
said air passages whereby the swirling mixture of air and
gas which moves forwardly in the swirl chamber from
said restriction will, under the in駏ence of centrifugal
force, closely hug the flared forward region of said inter
nal surface and increase its radial velocity while at the
same time decreasing its forward velocity, and means for
supplying gas to said gas passages.
References Cited in the 駆e of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
1,893,533
Barber _______________ .__ Jan. 10, 1933
1,918,397
2,439,554
Jesler _______________ __ July 18, 1933
Anderson ____________ __ Apr. 13, 1948
476,721
Germany ____________ -_ May 28, 1929
FOREIGN PATENTS
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