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Патент USA US3050284

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Aug. 2l, 1962
c. N, GARDNER ETAL
3,050,278
GROUND-CONTACT sHocK ABsoRBING SYSTEM
.
Filed July 19, 1961
Ii 17
n'
INÓENTORS
Charles N. Gardroèr'
Ge er@- e E. Marra z]
Jack F-Fuz‘rez"
Uit .1
ttes
5f“
Patented Aug'. 21, 1962
1
2
3,050,278
tion, showing the same load and platform, before actua
tion of the foam forming devices embodied therein;
FIGURE 3 is a side elevational view, partly in section,
corresponding to FIGURE 22, and showing the platform
GROUND-CONTACT SHOCK ABSGRBING SYSTEM
Charles N. Gardner, Suitland, Md., and Jack F. Furrer,
Wayland, and George E. Murray, Lexington, Mass.,
assignors to the United States of America as repre
sented by the Secretary of the Army
Filed July 19, 1961, Ser. No. 125,280
13 Claims. (Cl. 244-138)
(Granted under Title 35, U-S. Code (1952), sec. 266)
The invention described herein, if patented, may be
manufactured and used by or for the Government for
governmental purposes, without the payment to us of any
royalty thereon.
This invention relates to a method and device for ab
sorbing the ground-contact shock of a load ejected from
an aircraft, and more particularly concerns an expansible
substantially fully expanded;
FIGURE 4 is a front elevational view, partly in sec
tion, of a modiñcation of the embodiment shown in
FIGURE 2.
It will be understood, of course, that the drawings, as
10 well as the following description thereof, are for purposes
of illustration, and are not to be deemed as limitations
upon the scope of our invention.
More particularly, reference numeral 10 denotes an
air dropped cargo, as, for instance, a packaged engine.
Cargo 19 is strapped to platform 11 by means of straps
12. A stabilizing parachute 13 (shown undeployed in
FIGURE 2) is connected to the composite platform load
platform, which is caused to expand during the descent
of the load, by the instantaneous formation in situ of
a cellular solid foam, eg., of the polyurethane resin type.
A cargo air drop is eífected either by means of para
chute-borne loads or by free drop. The latter method
is rarely practiced, and is only practical if a load is so
by means of lines 14, principally for the purpose of pre
compact that it can withstand a severe shock on ground
saving of cargo space in the airplane prior to load ejec
tion. However, after ejection from the airplane, solid
venting the load from tumbling during the drop.
Bellows 15 are nested in the underside of platform
11, in such a way that they do not protrude appreciably
(or at all) beyond the lower edge of the platform prior
to actuation of the foam forming device.
This effects a
contact. On the other hand, delivery of heavy cargo
by parachute necessitates the use of large canopies (one
plastic foam is formed inside the bellows in a manner
or more) which are expensive, diñicult to pack, and con
sume material that is likely to be critical in war time such
as nylon. It has also been proposed to combine both
about to be described, and expands them to a depth of
several feet.
In the embodiment shown in FIGURES l to 3, this
methods, by using a smaller parachute canopy than 30 solid plastic foam is formed after ejection of the load
from the airplane, as follows. Aerosol containers A
would ordinarily be required for successful .aerial delivery,
and B, filled with foam forming components and a pres
and a shock-absorbing platform of paper, e.g., honey
comb shaped paper, or a hollow platform ñlled with plas
tic cellular foam of the polystyrene type. These plat
forms have the disadvantage of occupying a substantial
amount of cargo space in the airplane and thereby great
ly reduce the payload that can be delivered by the plane.
surized propelling fluid such as Freon, are disposed to
either side of mixing valve i6 at one side of the plat
form, and corresponding containers A’ and B’ are dis
posed to the other side of mixing valve 16’ at ‘the other
We have now found that an expansible platform can
The mouths of the aerosol containers are connected to
side of the platform.
the mixing valve, and are closed by it (e.g., by means of
be provided which, when collapsed, occupies no more
space in the airplane than a conventional load pallet. 40 a conventional reciprocable plug; not shown) until the
mixing valve is actuated in a manner about to be de
This platform, when attached to the load and ejected
scribed.
therewith from an airplane, is capable of expanding to a
Cords 17, 17' are connected at one end thereof to mix
substantial depth, by the release into the inner space of
ing valves 16, 16’. The other end of each of these cords
the platform of solid cellular foam forming agents. On
ground contact, the foam is crushed and thereby absorbs in C21 is connected to a load line 14 of the orienting parachute
13. Upon deployment of the orienting parachute 13,
the energy of the ground impact.
load lines 14 are pulled taut, and cords 1'7, 17’ are pulled
Accordingly, it is a principal object of our invention
upwardly. This opens mixing valves 16, 16’ and the
to provide a ground contact shock absorbing platform
mouths of `aerosol containers A, B, and A', B', and in
which occupies a minimum of cargo space prior to ejec
tion from an airplane and which expands to a substantial 50 jects their contents through mixing valves 16, 16', into
depth after ejection.
Anl‘ïequally important object 'of our invention is a
method of .a absorption of ground contact shock by pro
the interior of bellows 15. A cellular plastic foam forms
within a few seconds, and causes the bellows to expand to
a position shown in FIGURE 3. The orienting para
chute 13 assures that expanded bellows 15 hit the ground
viding a deep solid cellular foam layer beneath the load,
55 first. The ground impact energy is dissipated by crush
which is formed during descent of the load.
ing the foam and bursting the bellows, and the cargo
A further object of our invention is an aerial delivery
10 and platform 11 come to rest gently as the latter settles
system which dispenses with the need for large-canopied
parachutes.
A further object of our invention is a simple and re
in the crushed foam.
In the modification shown in FIGURE 4, the foam
liable foam forming system incorporated in an aerial 60 forming ingredients are placed in separate containers C
and D and nested inside the lower portion of platform
delivery platform.
21 and surrounded by collapsed bellows 22. These con
Still further objects and advantages of our invention
tainers are of thin-walled rupturable plastic. Lever 23
will become apparent from the following description of
is pivoted to the underside of platform 21 at 24, laterally
a principal embodiment of our invention and of a modi
of containers C and D, and the other end of lever 23 is
fied embodiment of the same.
In the accompanying drawings:
FIGURE l shows a perspective view of .a load imme
diately after ejection from an airplane, and provided
connected to one end of cord 25 through a small aper
ture 26 in bellows 22. The other end of cord 25 is
connected to a load line of the orienting parachute (not
shown in FIGURE 4). Upon ejection of the platform
with a shock-absorbing platform in accordance with our 70 load from the aircraft, and deployment of the orienting
invention;
FIGURE 2 is a front elevational view, partly in sec
parachute, cord 25 pulls lever 23 upwardly around pivot
point 24.
This causes a shearing action on containers
3,050,278
3
4
C and D, with resulting breakage of both containers and
ejection of their foam forming'contents into bellows 22,
In lieu of the vinyl toluene of Example 2, other vinyl
monomers, such as styrene, isobutylene, or vinyl-2-chloro
ethyl ether may be substituted. The aluminum stearate
of the first component is a viscosity stabilizer, and may
be raplaced by a functional equivalent such as a liquid
causing them to expand to a depth of several feet as
shown in dotted lines in FIGURE 4. Upon ground con
, tact, this arrangement functions in the same way as the
butadiene acrylonitrile copolymer.
Other gas-blowing agents, known :in the art may Abe
embodiment of FIGURES 2 and 3, i.e., dissipates the
ground contact energy by crushing the foam. In this
modification, the mixing of the foam forming components
substituted in lieu yof dinitroso pentamethylene diamine,
takes place principally by gravity.
so long as they are -able to evolve'a gas -in the presence
IIn either embodiment, the sides of bellows 15 are made
of the second component (eg. aluminum `chloride).
of flexible material such as strong coated paper, fabric,
„Examples of such .compounds -are diazoaminobenzene,
p,p’oxybis-(benzene sulfonyl-hydrazide), benzosulfohy
flexible plastic, or other suitable material; the bottom of
bellows may be made, e.g.„ of plain or corrugated card
drazide, or similar organic compounds which _liberate
nitrogen gas. The ionic catalyst (second component) may
An instantly forming solid foam system which is formed 15 be aluminum chloride, boron triñuoride, stanic chloride,
by the chemical inter-'action of two separately container
or other electron acceptor (Lewis type acid).
ized foam forming systems, has been developed for use
The foams of Examples 1 and V2 are also suitable for
board, or plywood.
_
use in the modification illustrated in FIGURE 4 of the
drawing, without the use of Freon or other pressure fluid.
trative only -as obviously otherV systems of equivalent 20 While we prefer the use of an orienting parachute in
in our invention. Such a system and a modification there
of will now be described, but are to be deemed as illus
functions can be provided by use of chemical equivalents.
conjunction with our system, the orienting parachute is
_Example 1.--F0rmatìon of Polyurethane Foam
The first foam-forming component (in container A)
not indispensable,'if the cargo is packed in such a way
is a mixture of the Ifollowing components:
that the center of gravity is Well below its geometrical
center, i.e., is located near Vthe bottom of the load. In
25 such a case, the actuating cords are attached to a con
N,N,N’,N’ tetrakis (Z-hydroxypropyl) ethylene di
ventional static line (not shown).
Parts
It will also be understood that the practice of our in
vention is not limited _to the air dropping of freight, as
15.9
it also can be used in connection with a pilot ejection
11.9 30 seat, wherein the seat would take the place of platform
11.3
11. The remainder of the `system will function in the
amine (catalyst) _________________________ __ 23.8
Castor oil
Triallyl cyanurate __________________________ __
Glyceryl monoricinoleate ____________________ __
Petromíx No. 9 (or other wetting agent) _______ __
Witco 77/86 (or other wetting agent) _________ __
1.8
1.8
same manner as is shown in FIGURES 1 to 3.
ì
s
Also, platform 11 together with the operating parts
_____
1.4
located in its interior (as shown in FIGURES 1 to 3) may
Ethyl Vcellulose `N-lOO ______________________ __
5.4
be connected to or built into the bottom of a helicopter
The second foam-forming component (in container B)
is toluene diisocyanate, 80.0 parts.
These components, when expelled through the mixing
or similar aircraft for the purpose of softening the ground
impact shock in case of a crash landing; in such an event,
Water
,
yalve under »the pressure of the Freon or other pressure
fluid, with which containers A and B are charged, rapidly
forms a cellular solid self-curing crushable polyurethane
the actuating cords are operated by the pilot when the
emergency arises. Thus, the term “load” as used in the
40 specification and claims is also intended to encompass
these'embodiments, i.e., pilot ejection seats, helicopter
fuselages, and the like.
Having thus described the principle of our invention
v30 to 60 times of its original volume, and yfilling the plat
and several ways of carrying-the same into practice, it
form bellows.
The “par-ts” of the ¿foregoing table may be ounces or 45 is readily apparent that departures and modifications may
be made from _the disclosed details of our invention,
fractions or multiples of ounces, depending on the size
while still remtaining within its spirit and scope. We
of the containers.
thus wish it to be understood that such modification and
In lieu of the castor oil and/ or glyceryl monoricinoleate
departures are deemed to be covered by the appended
of the first component, there may be substituted a suit
~foam expanding Within about 5 to 10 seconds to about
able hydroxyl terminated unsaturated polyester.
50
Petromix No. 9 is a ,commercial wetting agent supplied
by L. Sonneborn & Sons, New York city, and is used to
disperse the water in the resin. Witco 77/ 86 is also a
claims.
-~
We claim:
l. Method of absorbing the ground-contact shock of a
load ejected from »an aircraft, comprising attaching an ex
pansible platform to said load prior to ejection from said
commercial wetting agent supplied by the Witco Chemical
Co., _New York city, and is used as a foaming assistant. 55 aircraft, and rapidly forming a cellular solid foam within
said expansible platform after ejection from said aircraft.
.Other commercially available wetting agents may be sub
2. Method of absorbing the ground-contact shock of
stituted for either or both.
a load ejected from an aircraft, comprising attaching an
Example 2.-F0rmatìon of Gas Blowing Polyvinyl Foam
expansible platform, to said load prior to ejection from
The first foam-forming component (container A) is a 60 said aircraft, and rapidly forming a cellular solid foam
in said expansible platform by mixing a plurality of
mixture of the following components:
Afoam-forming materials inside said platform after ejec
tion from said aircraft.
3. Method according to claim 2, wherein said mate
65 rials are propelled from pressurized containers after
ejection from said aircraft.
.Dinitroso -pentamethylene diamine (.or other gas blow
4. Method according lto claim V2, wherein said mate
ing agent)
0.1
rials are confined in rupturable containers prior to ejec
The second foam-forming component (container B)
tion from said aircraft, and wherein said containers are
is an ethyl ether solution of 0.8 part aluminum chloride, 70 ruptured after ejection from said aircraft.
which acts as an ionic catalyst. i
5. Method according to claim 1, wherein said cellular
These components form a foam in a similar manner
foam is a polyurethane foam.
6. Method according to claim 1, wherein said cellular
and to a _similar consistency as in Example 1.
vThe term “parts” in Example 2 has the same meaning
as -in Example l.
foam is a gas-blown polyvinyl foam.
75
'
7. Ground-contact shock absorbing device compris
„mi
3,050,278
5
6
ing an expansible platform, means for attaching said
11. Device according to claim 7, wherein said foam is
a gas blown polyvinyl foam.
12. Method of absorbing the ground-contact shock of
a descending load, comprising attaching an expansible
platform to said load prior to its descent, and rapidly
forming a cellular solid foam Within said expansible
platform during the descent of said load.
13. Ground-contact shock `absorbing device for a de
platform to a load, and means within said platform for
rapidly forming a cellular solid foam vafter ejection of
said load and attached platform from an aircraft.
8. Ground~coutact shock absorbing device comprising
an expansible platform, means for attaching said plat
form to a load, and means Within said platform for rap
idly forming a cellular solid foam after ejection of said
load and attached platform from an aircraft, said means
comprising a plurality of pressurized containers for segre
gated materials which are capable of rapidly producing
a cellular solid foam upon being mixed.
9. Ground-contact shock absorbing device comprising
an expansible platform, means for attaching said plat
form to a load, and means within said platform for
rapidly forming a cellular solid foam after ejection of
said load and attached to platform from an aircraft, said
means comprising a plurality of rupturable containers for
segregated materials which are capable of rapidly produc
ing a cellular solid foam upon being mixed.
20
10. Device according to claim 7, wherein said foam
is a polyurethane foam.
cending load, comprising an expansible platform at
tached to said load, and means within said platform for
rapidly forming a cellular solid foam during the descent
of said load.
References Cited in the tile of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
Re. 24,767
2,653,139
2,779,689
2,860,856
2,974,912
2,989,938
3,010,540
Simon et al ___________ __ Jan. 19, 1960
Sterling ____________ __ Sept. 22, 1953
Reis ________________ .__ Ian.
Bauer ______________ ___ Nov.
Namsick ___________ __ Mar.
Patterson ___________ __ June
Dahlen _____________ __ Nov.
29,
18,
14,
27,
28,
1957
1958
1961
1961
1961
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
CERTIFICATE 0F CORRECTION
Patent, No. 3„O50„278
August 2lv 1962
Charles No Gardneri et, al.
It is hereby certified that error appears in the above numbered pat
ent requiring correction and that the said Letters Patent should read as
corrected below.
Column 5, line 17, strike out, "to"„
Signed and sealed this 11th day of December 1962D
(SEAL)
Attest:
ERNEST w. SWIDER
DAVID L. LADD
Attesting ÜffiCCr
Commissioner of Patents
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