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Патент USA US3050321

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Aug. 21, 1962
3,050,311
W. L. MIKELL'
SOLID RING FLOATING PACKING
Filed Nov. 23, 1960
14
2
FIG. 1
2
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Patented Aug. 21, 1962
2
3,950,311
SULID RHNG FLQATHNG PAOKING
Winborn L. Mikeil, Houston, Tex., assignor to Garloek,
Inc, Palmyra, N.Y., a corporation of New York
Filed Nov. 23, 196i), Ser. No. 71,289
5 Claims. (Cl. 277—157)
which are contained in a vessel located to the right of the
packing box ‘from passing through the openings between
the rod and the stu?ing box, there has been provided a
set of packing rings, 3-5. 'Ihese packing rings, to be
described hereinafter, have inner surfaces of su?‘icient
diameter to pass over the piston rod 1. The rings are
assembled in an annular recess or channel formed at the
The invention relates to mechanical packings, and par
ticularly mechanical packings for sealing parts under
going relative motion in environments of high ?uid
pressures.
In many industries, there exists a need for rigid ele
ments such as packing rings for inclusion in the wall of
left hand side of the stu?ing box. The gland 7 is pro
vided for holding the rings in the channel formed in the
stu?ing box. The gland is secured to the stuffing box
by means such as bolts 8. Normally, ?uid escaping
through the opening between the piston rod 1 and the
stu?ing box 2 acts along the front wall 9 of the stu?ing
box tending to drive the set of packing rings 3—6 axially
a container bearing ?uids, such as liquid or gas, and de
signed to prevent or minimize leakage between the rigid 15 against the gland 7. Additionally, some ?uid escaping
parts of such a- container. Where the rigid parts of a
along the rod or shaft tends to drive the packing rings
radially outward. Normally, this radial outward force
container are capable of relative motion, the packing is
required to be in sliding contact with one or more parts
tends to break the sealing action sought by use of packing
of the container. Examples of such moving parts are
rings.
'
piston rods, valve stems, plungers, moving shafts, etc.
The ?oating metal packings now in common usage,
trap ?uid pressure in the ocean of the stuffing box partially
As ?uid pressures are increased, greater demands are
placed on the packing to insure intimate sealing contact
occupied by the spring part 14, which is between the
with the moving parts. Prior art packing devices have
outside diameter of the packing rings and the inside di
proved to be essentially ineffective with respect to wear
ameter of the stu?ing box. This ?uid pressure commonly
at pressures above 15,000 pounds per square inch. In 25 creates great and excessive forces, which force the seg
general, excessive heating due to friction is developed
mental parts of common pacldng rings into the surface
at the points of intimate contact with consequent destruc
or’ the rod, thereby generating excessive friction resulting
tion of the packing, thereby necessitating high packing
in heat and wear. In my invention, however, a partial
replacement costs, increased down time of equipment to
balance of the forces created by the ?uid in the area of
permit packing replacement, etc.
14 is obtained by the forces created by the ?uids in the
It is therefore an object of this invention to provide an
area 13, thereby greatly reducing the net resulting forces
improved mechanical packing ‘for sealing parts under
which act to force the inside surface of the packing ring
. going relative motion.
contact with the outer surface of the rod, thus the friction
It is another object of this invention to provide an im
between these two parts is'greatly reduced along with
proved mechanical packing capable of operating at higher
pressures.
It is a further object of this invention to provide an
the resultant heat and wear.
In accordance with oneernbodiment of the present
invention, use is made of this normally undesirable radial
improved mechanical packing capable of e?ectively seal
outward force to provide an improved packing ring. Re
ing under conditions of variable pressure.
ferring to FIG. 3, there is shown in exaggerated form one
It is another object of this invention to provide an im 40 of the four rings, for example ring 3. Ring 3 has an
proved packing which automatically adjusts to varying
inner circumference large enough to permit passage of
sealing requirements.
the ring 3 over the circular shaft 1. As shown in PEG. 3,
While the novel and distinctive features of the inven
the channel 19 which is formed in the packing box 2, to
tion are particularly pointed out in the appended claims,
accommodate the ring, is of a larger diameter than the
a more expository treatment of the invention, in principle 45 outer diameter of the ring 3. In the embodiment of FIG.
and in detail, together with additional objects and ad
3, the outer circumference of the ring 3 is shown to have
vantages thereof, is atforded by the following description
a uniform dimension, that is, it is circular. However, the
and accompanying drawings in which:
inner surface of each ring has a ?rst radius over a given
In FIG. 1 illustrates in longitudinal section form, a sec
tion of a packing box embodying my arrangement for
chord angle equal to the radius of the piston rod 1.
Over the remaining chord angle A the inner surface of
the ring has a radius which is larger than the radius of
rod 1. Thus there exists essentially a crescent shaped
opening 13 between the rod and the inner surface 12 of
mechanical packings;
In FIG. 2 illustrates schematically the manner in which
the various packing rings of a packing set are designed
to intimately contact the moving rod or piston;
FIG. 3 is an exaggerated view of one of the packing
the ring 3. A spring 14 of, for example, stainless steel,
forces the inner ‘surface of the ring 3 defined by the chord
FIG. 4 illustrates essentially, in exploded view form,
angle 0 into intimate pressure sealing contact with
the abutting surface of the piston rod 1. Under these
the manner in which the various rings are located on the
conditions, any leakage ?uid passing axially along the
moving rod or shaft;
FIG. 5 illustrates an arrangement for holding the rings
under spring pressure against the rod or shaft, this ar
rod 1 through the crescent'shaped opening 13 causes a
force shown as F to be developed. This force F is in
rings;
rangement being here shown as a ?at portion;
the direction which effectively forces the portion of the
inner surface of ring 3 de?ned by the chord angle 6 into
pressure sealing contact with the abutting portion of the
FIG. 6 illustrates another view of FIG. 5; and
piston rod surface, this being accomplished by the force
FIG. 7 illustrates the arrangement illustrated in FIG.
65
F applying pressure against that portion of the inner sur
5 positioned to be used to hold the rings against the rod
face of ring 3 de?ned by the chord angle A to separate it
or shaft.
Referring to FIG. 1, there is shown in longitudinal
from rod 1. .It is seen, therefore, .thatthe spring 11%- has
the primary function of establishing the initial intimate
section, a packing box having an arrangement of pack
ing rings, embodying the present invention.
70 contact between the inner surface of ring 3v de?ned by the
The piston rod 1 passes through an opening in the
chord angle 0 into intimate contact with the abutting
packing box 2.. To prevent ?uids under high pressures
surface of the piston rod 1, but that thereafter force F
3,050,311
A
I‘!
,
3
'
5;
,
developed by the leakage ?uid maintains this intimate
contact.
said rod completely encircle the circumference of said
It is this force, developed at high pressures,
'
which results in the improved sealing action permitted by
the present invention. The force F as previously de- .
scribed could never result in forces as great as those forces
utilized in popular current designs of ?oating metal pack
ing, wherein the total ?uid pressure in position designated
‘by number 10 is utilized for force segmental rings against
rods.
The 'Working surface of-the rings should conform as
accurately as possible to that of the sliding member of
rod 1, or should achieve this condition within a reason
able time after the sealedmembers have startedto oper- '
ate. Furthermore, the ring should be composed of ma
terial that will not damage the sliding member during
the process of wearing into a ?tting condition and should
be capable of withstanding without injury the heat re
sulting from packing friction. The material of the pack?
the rod. The present invention balances the total forces
in position 10, due to the rings 3—6 being constructed of
materials of su?icient mechanical strength to adequately
resist those forces tending to collapse the ring radially in
ing ring should also be free of contamination or attack
ward toward the rod.
by the ?uid being packed, and should be su?iciently rigid
’
It is obvious that the use of a single ring as shown in
so that it does not- seize the piston rod 1 during opera
~ FIG. 3 is insu?icient to provide sealing action completely 15 tion but permits sliding contact with minimum friction.
around the surface of, the rod 1. Accordingly, a plurality
The rings of the present invention can and will be made
of any of the materials of construction currently being
utilized for the manufacture of ?oating metal packings or
of the present invention employing a series of four rings.
?oating mechanical packings. Such materials would in
In order to simplify the explanation, FIG. 2 only illus 20 clude ferrous metal, non ferrous metals, plastics and
trates the positioning of the inner surface or inner diame
modi?ed plastics. The near substitution of a newior
ter of the respective rings 3-6 with respect to piston rod
previously’ unused material'or combination of materials
1. Each of the inner surfaces is shown having a portion
of construction should not be considered as an improve
de?ned by a chord angle which has a radius substan
ment on the principles of the present invention, for it is
tially equal to the radius of the piston rod 1. There 25 the intent of the inventor to utilize any or all existing
maining portion of each inner surface is shown to have
known materials or new material, if such materials should
a radius somewhat larger than the radius of the rod 1.
offer improved wear properties, strength, heat'resistance,
Use is made of heavy lining to indicate the relative loca
or other properties that would render it suitable for use
tions of the portions of such inner surfaces that have a
in the present invention.
radius equal to the radius of the piston rod. In the ar
For purposes of illustration, a solid packing ring and a
rangement of FIG. 2 and reading from left to right, the
reciprocating shaft Were shown. It should be understood
equal radius portions are shown to occur at zero degrees,
that the principles of this invention are also applicable to
' 180 degrees, 90 degrees, and 270 degrees. If the heavy
split packing rings, piston rings, and rotating shafts.
lining portions are superimposed over one another in
While the principles of theinvention have now been
the axial direction of piston rod 1, it is seen that they 03 U1. made clear,- there will be immediately obvious to those
‘overlap and completely cover’ the circumference of the
skilled in the art many modi?cations in structure, ar-‘ '
of rings are employed.
'
Returning to Fl G. 2, there is shown one embodiment
piston rod. Thus, any leakage of ?uid passing axially
rangement, proportions, elements, and components used
along ‘the piston rod drives the inner surfaces of the suc
cessive rings so that the set of packing rings provides an
in the practice of the invention, and otherwise, which are
particularly adapted for speci?c environmentsrand oper»
intimate sealing action completely surrounding the cir
40
ating requirements, without departing from those princi
cumference of the piston rod. The result is a mechanical
ples. The appended claims are therefore intended to
packing which responds to leakage ?uid pressure to pro
videa very satisfactory sealing-action, even under ex
cover and embrace any such modi?cations within the
limits of the true spirit and scope of the invention.
tremely high pressures.
.
It is‘ understood that the two circles above-mentioned,
which comprise the inner surface of any one of the re
' spective rings 3-6 and which have been described as hav
ing differing radii, are joined together by arcs to form an
irregular circular shape with a smoothly rounded cir
cumference.
Referring to FIG. 4, there is shown in exploded form
the several mechanical packing rings 3-6 having inner
surfaces oriented and additionally positioned by respec
It is claimed:
.
"
_
1. A mechanical packing set adapted to respond to
?uid pressure for sealing said packing set to a rod of
circular cross-section comprising‘ a plurality of rings,
each of said rings having an inner surface of sufficient '
size to pass said rod, said inner surface of each ring hav
ing a ?rst radius over a given chord angle equal to the
radius of said rod, and a second radius over the remain
ing chord angle which is larger than said rod radius, said,
rings being mounted on said rod in pressure seal abutting
relationship and angularly oriented about said rod so that
resulting from leakage ?uid pressure passing through the 55 said inner surfaces of said ?rst radius completely encircle
effectively crescent shaped opening take over and main
the circumference of said rod, said rings when so mount
tainthe sealing contact necessary to minimize leakage of
ed having their inner surfaces of said second radius
' ?uid beyond the packing set.
adapted to respond to ?uid pressure developed between
tive springs 14 to intimately contact the rod 1 until forces
While FIG. 4 illustrates one form of spring construc
said second radius inner faces and the adjoining rod'sur- ,
tion, it is obvious that other forms may be resorted to 60 faces to force said inner surfaces of ?rst radius into pres
without departing from the spirit of the present inven
tion. For example, FIG. 5 illustrates an arrangement in
which the rings are notched for the springs. This at‘
rangement eliminates the need for keying each of the
rings 3—6 and the need for separately attaching the
springs.
Furthermore, whereas the invention has been described
as involving the use of four springs, it is obvious that a
different number of rings, either more or less, could be
employed to affect the desired sealing action under differ
ent operating requirements. It is only sul?cient that the
rings bepmounted on the rod in pressure sealed abutting
relationship and angularly oriented about the rod so that
the portions of the inner surfaces of the rings which have
sure 'seal contact with said rod.
'
.
2. ‘A mechanical packing set adapted to respond t
?uid pressure for sealing said packing set to a moving
part comprising a plurality of solid discs, each of said
discs having a completely enclosed inner opening of mill
cient size to pass said part, the inner opening of each
disc having a ?rst portion of its periphery dimensioned
to conform substantially exactly to a corresponding por-'
tion of the periphery of said part and said inner opening
of each disc having a second portion of its periphery. di
mensioned to be substantially larger than the correspond
ing remaining periphery of said part, said discs being
mounted on said part in pressure seal abutting relation
ship and angularly oriented about said part so that said
a radius over a given chord angle equal to the radius of 75 ?rst portions of said discs completely surround said part,
3,050,311
5
6
said discs when so mounted having their inner surfaces
said rod so that said portions of said inner surfaces over
lap one another and thereby surround the circumference
corresponding to said second portions adapted to respond
of said rod, said rings, when so mounted, adapted to
respond to ?uid pressure developed between said larger
faces and the adjoining part surfaces to force said inner
surfaces corresponding to said ?rst portions into pressure 5 radial inner ‘surfaces and the adjoining rod surfaces to
force said portions of said inner surfaces into pressure
seal contact with said part.
seal contact with said rod.
3. A mechanical packing set adapted to respond to
5. A mechanical packing set adapted to respond to
?uid pressure for sealing said packing set to a moving
?uid pressure for sealing said packing set to a moving rod
rod of circular cross-section comprising four solid rings,
each of said rings having inner opening surfaces of sul? 10 of circular cross-section comprising four solid rings, each
of said rings having inner opening surfaces of sui?cient
cient size to pass said rod, a ‘continuous portion of the
radii to pass said rod, a continuous portion of the pe
periphery of said inner surface of each ring having a
riphery of said inner surface of each ring having a ?rst
?rst radius substantially equal to the radius of said rod
radius substantially equal to the radius of said rod, and a
and a radius over the remaining periphery which is larger
than said rod radius, said rings being mounted on said 15 radius over the remaining periphery which is larger than
said rod radius, said rings being mounted on said rod in
rod in pressure seal abutting relationship and angularly
pressure seal abutting relationship and angularly oriented
oriented about said rod so that the bisectors of the periph
about said rod so that the bisectors of the peripheral inner
eral inner surfaces having said ?rst radius occur sub
surfaces having said ?rst radius occur substantially at
stantially at zero degree, 90 degree, 180 degree, and 270
degree points around the circumference of said rod, said 20 Zero degree, 90 degree, 180 degree, and 270 degree points
around the circumference of said rod, spring means act
rings, when so mounted, adapted to respond to ?uid pres
ing on each of said rings for biasing said peripheral irmer
sure developed between said larger radial inner surfaces
surfaces having said ?rst radius into intimate cont-act with
and the adjoining rod surfaces to force said peripheral
the adjoining rod surfaces, said rings when so mounted
inner surfaces having said ?rst radius into pressure seal
25 adapted to respond to ?uid pressure developed between
contact with said rod.
said larger radial inner surfaces and the adjoining rod
4. A mechanical packing set adapted to respond to
surfaces to maintain said peripheral inner surfaces having
?uid pressure for sealing packing set to a moving rod of
said ?rst radius in pressure seal contact with said rod.
circular cross-section comprising four solid rings, each of
to ?uid pressure developed between said last named sur
said rings having inner opening surfaces of su?icient radii
to pass said rod, a continuous portion of the periphery of 30
said inner surface of each ring having a ?rst radius sub
stantially equal to the radius of said rod and a radius over
the remaining periphery which is larger than said rod
radius, said rings ‘being mounted on said rod in pressure
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
1,831,674
1,891,436
seal abutting relationship and angularly oriented about 35 2,172,141
Lindgren ____________ __ Nov. 10, 1931
Mitchell _____________ __ Dec. 20, 1932
King ________________ __ Sept. 5, 1939.
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