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Патент USA US3050779

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Aug. 28, 1962
H. BOMM
3,050,769
HYDRAULIC DOOR KEEPER
Original Filed Dec. 4, 1956
5 Sheets-Sheet 1
Hemz Bomm
INVENTOR.
Aug. 28, 1962
H. BOMM
3,050,769
HYDRAULIC DOOR KEEPER
Original Filed Dec. 4, 1956
5 Sheets-Sheet 2
21
2523 25
Heinz BOMM
INVENTOR.
?eslem, Ross 8 ?estem
Aug. 28, 1962
H. BOMM
3,050,769
HYDRAULIC DOOR KEEPER
Original Filed D60. 4, 1956
5 Sheets-Sheet 3
FIG.1O
Heinz BOMM
INVENTOR.
esfze
.Mesiml, To” 8 ‘M m
Aug. 28, 1962
H. BOMM
HYDRAULIC DOOR KEEPER
Original Filed Dec. 4, 1956
3,050,769
'
5 Sheets-Sheet 4
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FIG.I4
Heinz Bomm
INVENTOR.
?uid", was’ 8 MGM
Aug. 28, 1962
H. BOMM
3,050,769
HYDRAULIC DOOR KEEPER
Original Filed Dec. 4, 1956
5 Sheets-Sheet 5
57
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58
Heinz BOMM
INVENTOR.
United States Patent O?lice
3,50,759
Patented Aug. 28, 1962
1
2
3,050,769
HYDRAULIC DOOR KEEPER
Heinz Bomm, Ennepetal-Voerde, Germany, assignor to
are pivotally connected with opposite extremities of a con
necting rod and with respective cranks on the two studs
in such manner as to exert the maximum closing force in
Firmn Dorken & Mankel K.G., Ennepetal-Voerde,
Original application Dec. 4, 1956, Ser. No. 626,235, new
Patent No. 2,965,917, dated Dec. 27, 1960. Divided
and this application Nov. 17, 1958, Ser. No. 781,177
the closed positions; this alfords to the keeper, despite
the soft spring action of a spiral spring, a strong closing
pressure and e?icient operation. At the same time, the
spiral spring of a swinging door is loaded in one direction
Claims priority, application Germany Aug. 3, 1956
only, thus substantially diminishing fatigue of material
3 Claims. (£3. 16-55)
and lengthening service life compared to a spring loaded
Germany
10 in both directions. The unidirectional loading of the
The invention relates to a hydraulic door keeper hav
spring and the maximum of closing force in closed posi
ing a pivot and a torsion spring arranged with its axis
tion of the door is attained by a suitable dimensioning of
parallel to the said pivot, as well as linkages connecting
the articulated linkages that determine the position of clo
the spring to the pivot for a door swing of at least 180°.
sure, the arrangement ‘being such that one linkage un
Hydraulic keepers of a great many different types are 15 winds itself from the ?rst stud and winds itself on the
known, both for doors opening in one direction and for
second stud as the door is swung to rotate these studs
swinging doors. Swinging-door keepers have a swing of
against the spring force. The connecting rod, or one such
180°, while keepers for doors opening in one direction
rod if two are provided in the case of a swinging door,
generally have a swing of only 90°. However, keepers
intersects the common axial plane of the two studs, the
having a swing of 180° for doors opening in one direc 20 second connecting rod (if any) being positioned on one
tion are also known. Difficulties commonly arise in con
side of that plane. Stops are advantageously disposed
nection with accommodating the keeper Within a small
alongside these rods to limit the outward excursion of
space without sacri?ce of e?iciency of the mechanism.
either rod when the other is tensioned by a movement of
Thus all known door keepers have disadvantages consist
the door in one or the other direction.
ing either in large size, requiring a large ?oor opening, or
The device according to the invention will now be
in unsatisfactory function, or both. For example, door
more fully described with reference to the accompanying
keepers often make use of helical springs acting in tension
drawing, but it should be understood that the same is
or compression. In the arrangement of these springs,
given merely by way of illustration and not of limitation
the maximum restoring force, owing to limitations of at
and that many changes in the details may be made with
tachment, is not effective near the closed position of the 30 out departing from the spirit of the inveniton.
door, with the result that the closure pressure is inade~
In the drawing:
quate, while in other positions the spring action is stronger
FIG. 1 shows an embodiment of a keeper for swinging
and makes the door hard to open. Furthermore, the re
doors in longitudinal section along the line I-I in FIG. 2;
storing force of the springs lies within a swing of 180°, so
FIG. 2 shows a top view of the same embodiment with
that such keepers are not serviceable for doors opening in 35 cover plate removed, partially in section on the line II—IIV
one direction which, to avoid dead space behind the door,
of FIG. 1 and omitting, for the sake of clarity, the lines
are to swing 180“ without sacri?ce of automatic return.
drawn in FIG. 4a to represent the guide roller of‘the
In swinging-door keepers, apart from the said helical
damping mechanism;
tension or compression springs, spiral springs are fre
FIG. 3 shows a transverse section along the line
quently employed. Since the closed position of swinging 40 III~III
in FIG. 2;
.
doors lies midway in the 180° swing, and the restoring
FIG. 4 is a transverse section showing the lever system
force must therefore act in two different directions, the
at the section line IV—IV in FIG. 1 with the door closed;
keepers are constructed with two sp' al springs, which in
FIG. 4a is a transverse section showing the connec
tions
to the damping mechanism at the section line IVa——
structing such swinging-door keepers with a single helical 45 IVa in
FIG. 3, in the same position of the door as in
spring, which is wound up or down according to the side
FIG. 4;
_ .
on which the door is opened. Such helical springs like
FIG. 5 is a sectional view taken on the same section
wise require ample space and large size of unit. Further
line as FIG. 4 showing the lever system with the door
more, the reversing loads. on the spring soon result in
creases their size.
Means are known, however, for con
fatigue of the material, leading to relaxation and ultimate
failure of the spring.
The present invention, then, is addressed to the prob
lem of improving such door keepers so as to avoid the
opened counterclockwise;
_.
FIG. 6 is a sectional View taken on the same section
line as FIG. 4 showing the lever system with the door
opened clockwise;
FIG. 7 is a longitudinal section of the cushion cham
her as seen from above with the door closed;
extreme simplicity of construction and small size.
55
FIG. 8 is a longitudinal section of the cushion cham
This problem is solved essentially in that the restoring
ber with the door opened;
spring used is preferably a spiral spring acting in one die
FIG. 9 is a diagrammatic representation of the arrange
rection, having one end attached to the casing and the
ment of tension members with the door closed, in another
other end to a ?rst stud or winder serving to regulate the
‘
spring tension and that a connection is established be 60 embodiment;
FIG. 10 shows the same with the door opened counter
tween the spring-urged stud with a second stud acting as a
said disadvantages and achieve satisfactory function with
door pivot, by tension members including articulated link
clockwise;
FlGkll shows the same with door opened clockwise;
FIG. 12 shows another embodiment of a keeper for
swinging 180° in one direction, in top view, with
cise the maximum closing force in the closed position of 65 doors
door open;
the door, the pivot stud being advantageously linked to
FIG. 13- shows the same in side view, in secti0n'X[lI—
the piston- of a hydraulic damping cylinder to control the
XIII of FIG. 12;
p
'
ages whose moment arms ar so proportioned with respect
to the pivot stud and the spring-loaded stud as to exer
closing pressure. By the provision of a single spiral
FIG. 14 shows a portion of the same in section XIV
spring for returning a door with 180° swing in a keeper
XIV of FIG. 13;
according to the invention, extreme simplicity of construc 70
FIGS. 15-17 show various positions of the push rod, in
tion and small size are attained, permitting a small ?oor
diagrammatic form.
opening for the keeper. The linkages include bars that
In FIGS. 1 to 8, a. housing 1 accommodates all me
j
7
..
3,950,769
3
.
4
arrow in FIG. 6, the process is the same except that now
connecting rod 12’ with crank 13' transmits the force and
movement, while connectingrod 12 and crank 13 fol
chanical parts including the hydraulic damping system,
and is closed off dustproof at the top by cover plates 2
and 3., The pivot stud 4 revolves in a bearing boss 5 in
cover 2 and a thrust bearing 6in the bottom of housing 1.
In the center of bearing 6, as a foot bearing to carry the
low idly.
,
7
After removal of cover plate’3, the spring 14 can be
removed and replaced by ‘another if necessary. To permit
Weight‘ of the door, a large ball is accommodated, the
adjustment of initial'tension, the'top pin 9" ‘of winder 9
upper half of which ?ts a matching recess in the pivot 4.
Cover plate 3 has a bearing boss 7, and the bottom of
has an internalhexagon 29, to receive a wrench. By
means of the wrench, the winder 9 is moved in the direc
housing 1 carries another bearing 8, two pins 9’, 9” form
ing an axle for the winder 9 of spring 14 being journaled 10 tionrof winding ‘the spring 14 until, through a closable
opening provided in the cover plate 3 and one of the holes
in these ‘bearings. The bottom’ pin 9' of the winder bears a
ranged around the entire circumference of the Winder 9,
' crank arm 10. The crank 10 is ?xedly attached'to the
_ the screw 11, FIG. 4, becomes visible.
winder by a screw 11, FIGS. 4, 5, 6. The crank 10‘ is
The screw 11 is screwedgdown until it ‘encounters a
connected to the pivot 4 by connecting rods 12, 12' and
cranks 13, 13'. The connecting rods 12, 12' are articu 15 recess provided in the bottom of the housing whereby the crank 10 is secured against rotation, but the winder is dis
lated to the crank 10 with pins located both on the same
engaged and may be rotated relative to the lever 10. The
stud 9, 9’, '9" is rotated until another hole lies ima
side of the line between centers of the pivot 4 and the
spring 14. Winder 9 and its pins 9', 9" may be regarded
as another stud loaded unidirectionally by spring 14 for
rotation about its axis.
mediately abovethe screw 11, whereupon the crank andv
the spring can be'reengaged with ‘each other.
'
7,
The movement of the keeper mechanism is paralleled
by that of the damper mechanism. The ?rst 30° of clos
At the other end, connecting rods 12, 12’ are articu-'
lated to the cranks 13, 13', arranged substantially sym
ing movement, or from 11-0 to 80°, are traversed at high '
metrically on opposite sides of the common axial plane
speed, followed by a gentle adjustably retarded movement.
through the line between the pivot and spring studs. ‘ The
The
high speed is intended to, avoid leaving the door open
cranks lie one above the other, are rotatably mounted on 25
too long in retarded return movement, but is so propor-a
the pivot 4, and include a catch 15, integral with the '
pivot, between them.
tioned as not to interfere with tra?‘ic.
7
' The restoring spring 14, for example a ?at spring, is
hooked ‘by its outer ?ange 14' to housing 1 and by its
inner ?ange 14” to the winder 9, and, when wound, will
pull crank 10 and connecting rod 12,12’ steadily in the
direction of arrow a (FIG. 4) until cranks 13, 13' rest
against the ‘catch 15 to right and left. A rigid connection
is thus formed from spring 14 to the square 16 on pivot 4,
transmitting the closing force of the spring to the door
'
cam
The17damper
?xedly system
connected
is actuated
to the pivot,
from 4the
presses,
pivot as
4. ithey
door closes, against a roller 19 mounted in guide?memi ;
her 18, moving the latter around pivot 4. Guide member
18 is articulated to lever 20, connected to pin 21. In
known manner, pin 21 is provided below with a crank and
pin moving the. damper piston 23 back and forth inthe '
damper cylinder 24, by means of piston rod 22., - "
'- When the door is opened, the guide member 18 moves .
through a lever mounted on the square. In the position
in the direction oiarrow b (FIG. 3)..
described and represented in FIGS. 2 and 4, with the door
The hydraulic ?uid vcontained in the crank chamberv
closed, the initial force of the spring acts to draw cranks
?ows
through an open ball valve, not shown, in'piston 23
'13, 13’ hard against the faces of catch 15, thus holding
the door in closed position. The articulations of con 40 into, the cylinder chamber. When the door closes, piston
23 moves in the direction of arrow 0 (FIG. 8) ‘and, under '
necting rods 12, 12', both on the spring side and on the
the load of the keeperv spring, exerts pressure on the hy
pivot side where they jointhe cranks 13, 13', are so chosen
draulic ?uid, whereby the ball valve is closed and the fluid
that the highest closing pressure is provided, in the ?rst
must make its way through a passage with regulating valve
10—20° of opening to the right or left. This means con
25 to return to the space behind therdamper piston 23.
versely' a maximum closing pressure in the last 10—20°
Depending on the port area, variable by means of valve I
of the closing motion, 'or precisely in the critical‘ range of
25, the closing speed of the door can be regulated. The'
stroke ofgpiston 23 per degree of door angle is nearly,
' closure. This ensures positive closing of the door at the
end of the closing operation and retention of the swinging
door in middle position. It the door is opened in the
constant from 80pm 0°, so that there is an equalized damp- '
ing e?ectrthroughout this range. By means of‘ another
valve 26, the ?nal swing (sudden ‘closure overthe’ last
direction of the arrow in FIG. 5, then'catch 15 will press
against the’lugof crank 13, while connecting rod 12 will
pull up the lever and wind the spring. This construction
8-10” of closing movement)’ can be hydraulically con-‘
allows the door to open right and left up to 110°. Over
the distance from 0 to 110°, the torque on the door is
constant within the ?rst 20°.
55
Depending on the strength of the spring installed, the
torque on the door will then decrease by 1A to ‘A, this 7
(decrease ending at about 40°. From 40° to 110° the
torque remains constant.
1'
This is due not only to the length of the cranks 13 and
trolled, an important point for striking doors requiring
to be pushed into locked position. The ?nal slamlcanbe' , . "
shut o? entirely by means of valve 26, or so adjusted that
the ?nal speedpwill meet speci?c requirements. . The crank 1' V.
21, in'this arrangement of guide member 18, moves inone '7 '
direction only regardless of the direction of opening of
the door.
‘
'
‘
'
‘This achieves a reliable damping action down to
V -
‘crank 10, but also to the" position of the swing of these 60 closure, even in the case of swinging doors. Beneath cam
17, a follower 27, FIG.‘ 4a, .is provided,':resting against 7‘
relative to the line joining the pivot and the pin of the
spring, as well as the variation’ of the spring force with
_ the lug 28 of guide member 18 Iand serving to return guide "
angle of swing. The moment arm of the connecting rod.
12 with respect to stud 9, 9', 9", on commencement. of
closure at'110°, is very long, becoming less until the mini
ing that it can be set in a horizontal plane about: pivot 14
, mumrlever arm is reached at the end of the closingfopen
ration.- At commencement of closure, the spring 14 is
member 18 when the door is opened.
The housing 1 is so accommodatedin a protective
7
' in order to correct inaccuracies of’ installation,
In FIGS. 9 toll, the pivot 4 vis provided with'two'
cranks 31’, 31" ?xedly attached thereto. Connecting bars '
much morestrongly Wound than in rest position, trans
I
its force via the engaged crank 13 to the‘ catch 70 32a’, 32b’ and 32a", 32b" join the cranks 31', 31” to,“
connecting rods 33' and 33" which ‘are articulated at the
.
15,,which tends to turn the pivot4and hence to close the
otherend by a bar 34 to a common‘crank arm '35 on; .
door.v The connecting rod 12', with crank ‘13' meanwhile
executes an idle movement on the other side of pivot 4,
without transmitting any force or action. If the door is
winder9. It should be noted that in FIGS..9—11 pivot ' V
4 and winder, 9 have a construction identical with shaft '
moved clockwise,ror in other Words in the direction of the 75 4 and winder 9 shownin FIGS. 1'to 3. The end of con-'
=
5
3,050,769
necting rod 33' articulated to bar 34 is forked and em
braces the adjacent end of connecting rod 33", while bar
34 consists of a pair of straps embracing the ends of the
connecting rods 33' and 33". Rod 33" intersects the com
mon axial plane of pivot stud 4 and Winder 9.
The connecting rods 33’ and 33" are articulated to bar
314 by means of a ‘common pin 36. Bar 34 folds against
crank 35, resting against ‘a surface 37 thereon, while bars
32a’, 32b’ and 32a”, 32b" can similarly fold up against
the cranks 31’, 31” so as to come to rest against surfaces 10
6
leverage progressively increases the closure force until
the maximum is reached v‘10" ahead of ?nal closure.
It will be apparent that the changes in the moment
arms between rods 33’, 33" and the stud axes in FEGS.
9—11 are analogous to those just described with reference
to the embodiment of FIGS. 12-17.
The present application is a division of application
Ser. No. 626,235, ?led December 4, 1956, now Patent
No. 2,965,917.
I claim:
1. A door keeper comp-rising a ?rst and a second stud
parallel to each other, spring means tending to rotate said
?rst stud in a predetermined direction about its axis, said
known manner within an outside casing, not shown, ‘ac
second stud being provided with coupling means for con
commodates the pivot 4 and spring 14. 'In spring 4, a 15 necting it to a swingable door, and transmission means
winder 9 is rotatably mounted, with an attached crank ._ positively interconnecting said studs for joint rotation
arm 57. To crank 57 a bar 58 is attached, articulated
about their axes; said transmission means comprising a
to a connecting rod ‘59. Bar 58 is articulated to a lateral
rod intersecting the common axial plane of said studs, a
extension of ‘crank 57 for limited angular motion related
?rst articulated linkage including a ?rst crank coupled
thereto. The pivot 4 is provided with a crank 61 con 20 with said ?rst stud and a ?rst connecting bar pivotally
nected to the other end of connecting rod 59 by a bar
connected to said ?rst crank and to one extremity of said
42. The pivot 4 turns in bearings mounted in the bottom
rod, and a second articulated linkage including a second
of housing 55 and a cover 43 closing 01? a damper cham
crank coupled with said second stud and a second con
ber 44 partitioned from the interior of housing 55. The
necting bar pivotally connected to said second crank and
38, 39 thereof. Connecting rods 33' and 33” are guided
by stops 41’, 41" which limit their outward excursion.
‘In FIGS. 12 and 13, a housing 55, let into the floor in
bearing in cover 43 is protected by a centered stut?ng box 25 to the other extremity of said rod, said linkages being so
45 centering the cover 43 in a recess '46 of housing 55.
dimensioned that said ?rst linkage unwinds itself from
Rod 59 intersects the common axial plane of the studs,
said ?rst stud While said second linkage Winds itself upon
the same as rod 33" in the preceding embodiment.
said second stud upon rotation of said second stud with
Cover 43 is rigid with a damping cylinder 47, accom
entrainment of said ?rst stud in a direction opposing the
modating piston 48. Piston 43 is connected to pivot 4 by 30 force
of said spring means.
a crank mechanism Gil. From the cylinder chamber of
2. A door keeper comprising a ?rst and a second stud
the damper system, an outlet passage 49 leads in known
parallel to each other, spring means tending to rotate said
manner to the damping chamber 44, whose outlet aper
?rst stud in a predetermined direction about its axis,
ture is variable by a screw 5% for regulation of the damp
ing elfect; the necessary return path to the chamber 44, 35 said second stud being provided with coupling means for
connecting it to a swingable door, and transmission means
described in connection with FIGS. 1-8, has not been i1
positively interconnecting said studs for joint rotation
lustrated. Passage 49 contains a relief valve 51 which
about their axes; said transmission means comprising a
allows hydraulic fluid to escape into chamber 44 in event
?rst
rod intersecting the common axial plane of said
of excess pressure in the cylinder chamber.
The mode of operation of the keeper according to 40 studs, a second rod on one side of said plane, a ?rst
articulated linkage including a ?rst crank coupled with
IGS. 12-17 is as follows.
said ?rst stud and a ?rst connecting bar pivotally con
With the door closed, member 58 rests against surface
nected to said ?rst crank and to one extremity of each
52 of crank 57, while member 42 and connecting rod 59
of said rods, a second articulated linkage including a
are extended in line (FIGS. 12 and 15). Then, upon
second crank coupled with said second stud and a second
opening of the door, the lever arm of crank 61 acts upon 45
connecting bar pivotally coupled to the other extremity
the pivot 4, while the e?fective moment arm between rod
59 and the stud 9, 9', 9" (i.e. the distance between rod
'59 and the stud axis) is very short. This leverage results
in an initial high restoring force at the commencement of
of said ?rst rod, and a third articulated linkage including
a third crank coupled with said second stud and a third
connecting bar pivotally connected to said third crank
opening. Upon enlargement of the angle of opening of 50 and to the other extremity of said second rod, said link
ages being so dimensioned that rotation of said second
the door, member 58 is lifted O? crank 57, thus increas
ing'the effective moment arm of rod 59 relative to the
axis of rotation of winder 9. This increased leverage re
stud in either direction tensions a respective one of said
rods for rotary entrainment of said ?rst stud in a direc
tion opposing the force of said spring means, the ten
duces the force transmitted to connecting rod 59. At the
second stud represented by pivot 4, member 42 comes to 55 sioned rod having an increasing moment arm with re
spect to said ?rst stud and a decreasing moment arm with
rest against surface 53 of crank 61 in the course of the
respect to said second stud upon said entrainment.
opening operation. In the ?nal position at 180°, con
3. A door keeper according to claim 2, further com
necting rod 59 likewise comes to rest against a surface
prising stop means positioned alongside said rods for
54 of crank 61, thereby further reducing its effective
limiting the outward excursion of each rod upon a ten
moment arm with respect to the axis of stud 4. This re
sioning of the other rod.
duction of leverage additionally intensi?es the force re
duction due to the lengthening of the moment arm acting
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
at the spring end. Thus the force required to open the
UNITED STATES PATENTS
door is steadily diminished. In the closing operation,
this atfords the advantage that during the initial travel, 65
not hydraulically controlled, the starting speed is not ex
cessive, While during the control travel the now inverted
799,342
1,064,255
Jordan ______________ __ Sept. 12, 1905
Rixon _______________ __ June 10, ‘1933
2,669,745
Rydberg _____ -n ______ __ Feb. 23, 1954
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