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Патент USA US3051156

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Aug. 28, 1962
Original Filed Feb. 18 , 1955
2 Sheets-Sheet l
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Aug. 28, 1962
Original Filed Feb. 18, 1955
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
United States Patent ()l?ce
Patented Aug. 28, 1962
provide annular passageways leading from the end of
the tire chamber remote from the ignition end thereof
Alick Clarkson, Paul Spur, Ariz., and Donald W. Miller,
with convolutions which are contiguous throughout their
to the vent outlet. Each coil includes a portion formed
Midland, Tex., assignors to Vapor Heating Corpora
entire circumference so that the inner and outer sur
faces of the closed portion of the coil will have a cor
tion, Chicago, 111., a corporation of Delaware
Original application Feb. 18, 1955, Ser. No. 489,060, now
Patent No. 2,998,807, dated Sept. 5, 1961. Divided
and this application June 15, 1961, Ser. No. 117,404
13 Claims. (Cl. 122—249)
This invention relates to improvements in boilers or
steam generators of the general class in which the water
or other ?uid to be heated or evaporated is passed
through a plurality of substantially concentrically ar
rugated or sinuous con?guration. The open Wall portion
may include a group of convolutions arranged in axial
alignment with the contiguous coils but are spread apart
10 to provide radial passageways for the gases or may in
clude a group of polygonal turns or convolutions which
have engagement with each other at spaced locations
and ‘because of their polygonal con?guration provide
a series of passageways between the convolutions so
ranged tubular coils in heat exchange relation with the 15 that the hot gases have ‘wiping contact with substantially
?re and hot gases within the boiler structure.
The present invention was originally disclosed in our
the entire area of these convolutions.
The said closed
wall portions of the coils, because of their corrugated
character, promote sut?cient turbulence in the ignited
co-pending application Serial No. 489,060, ?led Febru
ary l8, 1955, now Patent No. 2,998,807 of which the
gases both Within the ?re chamber and in said annular
present application is a division.
20 passageways to insure ef?cient cobustion of a large vol
A principal object of the present invention is to pro
ume of ?uid fuel in relation to the size of the boiler
vide, in a boiler or steam generator of the general water
coil type disclosed and claimed in our said co-pending
connected in series relation and arranged one within an
other to de?ne a ?re chamber and associated annular
wall portion of this coil are compelled to follow a cir
passageways for the hot gases of combustion; the ?re
chamber and passageways have corrugated Walls and are
polygonal convolutions and thereby wipe substantially
A cylindrical sleeve surrounds in close relation to the
application, certain improved constructions and arrange
polygonal convolutions of the intermediate coil so that
ments of the Water coils, whereby the said coils may be 25 the hot gases which wipe the inner surface of the closed
cuitous path through the openings formed between the
the entire area of these convolutions before passing into
so connected with each other as to provide a relatively 30 the annular passageway between the said intermediate
long “streamline” ?ow path for the hot gases through
coil and the outer coil of the srtucture. The outer coil
the ?re chamber and through the said annular passage- -
is provided with a similar group of polygonal convolu
tions in the region near the vent pipe leading to the at
ways, whereby adequate turbulence for e?icient com
bustion, high thermal ei?ciency and operating economy is
mosphere so that the outgoing combustion gases are
attained without excessive reverberation within the ?re 35 compelled to follow a circuitous heat exchange path
chamber and ?ow path of the hot gases.
through and around the polynal convolutions contain
Another object of the invention is to provide an im
ing the cool incoming water, whereby practically all
proved boiler or steam generator of the above class
having streamline gaseous ?ow and in which heating coils
are so arranged that the incoming ?uid to be heated will 40
?ow, for the most part, through the tubular coils in a
direction opposite to the ?ow path of the combustion
gases and thereby contact areas of the tubular coils of
of the heat contained in the combustion gases are ab
sorbed therefrom before the gases enter the vent pipe.
Other objects and, advantages of the invention, not
at this time enumerated, will become more readily ap
parent as the nature of the invention is better under
progressively increasing temperature, but in the ?nal heat
A preferred embodiment of the invention is shown in
ing period of the ?uid it will ‘?ow in series relation 45 the accompanying drawings wherein:
to the ?ow path of the ?ame and hot gases through
the innermost coil constituting the ?re chamber of the
boiler. Accordingly, the ?uid entering the system will
?rst come intov heat transfer relation with areas of the
FIG. 1 is a sectional view taken longitudinally and
substantially centrally through a water tube boiler con
structed in accordance with the principles of the pres
ent invention;
coils which are heated by gases which have previously 50
FIG. 2 is a sectional view taken substantially on line
delivered up part of their heat, but are nevertheless suf
2—2 of FIG. 1 looking in the direction of the arrows;
?ciently hot to present a high heat di?erential. As the
FIG. 3 is a sectional view taken on line 3—3 of FIG.
flow of ?uid progresses through the system it comes into
1 looking in the direction of the arrows;
heat transfer relation with progressively hotter areas of
FIG. 4 is an enlarged fragmentary section taken on
the coiled tubes. Immediately before it leaves the sys 55 line 4—4 of FIG. 2; and
tem, it is caused to traverse the innermost coil wherein
FIG. 5 is a fragmentary sectional view taken on line
it is heated by the high temperature ?ame and gases in
5--5 of FIG. 3.
the ?re chamber.
Referring to the drawings: v10 designates the improved
A further object is to provide a boiler or steam gen
boiler structure as a whole including an outer casing or
erator of the above class wherein the coils are so con 60 shell 11 having front and rear plates 12 and 13, respec
structed as to provide a rigid compact structure as a
tively, both of which are suitably secured to the shell
whole so as to facilitate arrangement of the coils either
11. The front plate 12 constitutes a support for a ?re
horizontally or vertically, as may be desired, and where
pot assembly 14 in which initial ignition of the fuel
in each coil includes a closed wall portion and an open
takes place. It may also constitute a support for a burner
Wall portion, the said closed wall portion of each coil be 65 unit (not shown) by means of which a liquid or a gase
ing arranged in opposition to the open Wall portion of
an adjacent coil whereby the hot gases passing radially
between the convolutions of the open wall portion of
ous fuel may be introduced into the ?re pot 14. While
the fuel is ignited in the ?re pot 14, its combustion is
normally completed within the boiler ?re chamber.
one coil will come into wiping contact with the closed
However, in the event of incomplete combustion within
wall portion of an adjacent coil.
the ?re chamber, the combustion of the partially ignited
According to the present invention, there are three
coils arranged in concentric relation and spaced apart to
fuel may be completed after it passes out of the ?re
- chamber and into surrounding passageways formed by
the several coils. The ?re pot 14 is of conventional de
sign and comprises a cylindrical body 15 of refractory
material such as ?re clay ie‘nclosed between annular cas
ings 16, 17, the latter of which de?nes the ?re pot open
ing or passage through which a preregulated mixture of
fuel and .air is introduced into the ?re chamber of the
boiler. An exhaust conduit 18 communicates with the
interior of the casing 11 near the rear end thereof. The
boiler structure 14, in addition to the elements above
four and one-half straight-away portions 37 and four
arcuate portions 38. This construction presents an effec
tive staggering of .the straight-away portions 37 relative
to the straight-away portions of ‘adjacent convolutions
and thereby provide passages 39 for the combustion gases
between the adjacent polygonal coils. Each polygonal
coil has nine areas of contact, as at 40, where it crosses
adjacent convolutions. Consequently, the coil 20, in
effect, is composed of contiguous coils throughout its
described, includes three concentrically arranged, but 10 length, yet the coils 34, because of their polygonal con
spaced apart water coils 19, 20and 21, the innermost of
?guration, provide the openings 39 for the ?ow of hot
which de?nes the ?re chamber 22.
gases between the coils in a manner to wipe substantially
against the wall 12. The said spiral convolutions 23 con
site the open wall group of convolutions 25 of the coil 19.
Consequently hot gases pass through the open wall pas
sages 26 of coil 19 and enter the said annular passage 27
the entire area of each convoltuion of said group 34.
The coil 19 comprises a plurality of spiral convolutions
The coil 20, it will be observed, is arranged with its
23 positioned along the inner face of the front wall 12
cylindrical convolutions 35 arranged oppo~
and serving to prevent the hot gas from impinging 15
nect with a large group 24 of closely wound turns or
convolutions which are contiguous throughout their cir
cumference and de?ne a closed wall portion of the ?re
chamber 22. The closely wound coils 24 surround the
?re pot 14, the latter of which serve to support a front
end of the coil. The contiguous windings of the coil
makes it practical to use a maximum number of convolu
tions in the side wall of the ?re chamber and, therefore,
increases the liquid volume contained in the ?re cham
ber wall. The convexity of the tubes de?ning the side
wall of the ?re chamber provides the wall with a sinuous
or corrugated con?guration which increases the heat ab
sorbing area thereof and also ‘serves to promote turbu
lence so as to effect thorough intermixing of the fuel and
air and thereby e?ect more efficient combustion and also
recurrent wiping of the hot gases against all parts of
the ?re chamber wall. The group 24 of contiguous con
volutions connect with a small group 25 of convolutions
at the end of the ?re chamber remote from the ?re pot
existing between the opposed surfaces of the inner coil
20 19 and the intermediate coil 20.
The hot gases within
the annular passage 27 continue their turbulence and
wiping action because of the opposed corrugated wall
surfaces of the said passage. The hot combustion gases
then pass through passages '39 existing between the con
25 volutions 34 which, by virtue of their polygonal con
?guration, provide said passages as shown best in FIG. 4.
The hot gases, after passing through the openings 39
between the polygonal convolutions of group 34, pass into
the annular space or channel 41 existing between inter
30 mediate coil 20 and the outer coil 21.
A cylindrical
baf?e 42 surrounds a portion of this series of polygonal
con?gurations at the junction thereof with the group 35
of cylindrical contiguous convolutions 35 so that the hot
gases in the annular passageway 27 are compelled to
35 pass through circuitous passages 39 on their way to their
entrance into an annular passage 41 between the inter
14. These convolutions are axially aligned with the
mediate coil 20 and the outer coil 21.
group 24 but are spaced apart to provide radial passage
Referring now to the construction of the outer coil 2i1:
ways through which the hot gases are discharged from
It is similar to the construction of the intermediate coil
the'?re chamber 22.into an annular passageway 27 in
tervening between the innermost coil 19‘ and the inter 40 20 in that it includes a series of closely wound cylin
drical convolutions 43 constituting a closed outer side wall
mediate coil 20. The spaced apart convolutions 25, it
of the annular passage 41, and a group of polygonal con
will be observed, presents substantially their entire area
volutions 44. This coil, however, is of shorter length
to the ?re and gaseous products of combustion at a lo
than the intermediate coil and is arranged in a reverse
cation near the‘discharge end of the system so that the
hot water or steam will be discharged at its maximum 45 position in respect thereto so that the closed wall portion
43 of the outer coil is positioned opposite to the open
temperature. This high temperature discharge of the
wall portion 34 of the intermediate coil and the open wall
heated ?uid is aided to a substantial extent by a series
portion of the group 44 of the polygonal convolutions
of the outer coil are opposite the contiguous cylindrical
29. This group intervenes between the end convolution
50 convolutions 35 of the intermediate coil 20. Each polyg
of group 25 and the outlet pipe 28.
onal convolution of group 25 includes four and one-half
I The spiral turns of the group 29 of convolutions are
of radially arranged convolutions constituting a group
partially embedded in and, therefore, supported by a
straight-away portions 45' (shown best in FIG. 2) and
connect with arcuate portions 46. All of the polygonal
coils have contact with adjacent coils at the several points
header assembly 311 which, in turn, is supported by the
discharge conduit 28 and the end wall 13. The ignited 55 47. The said straight-away portion 45 and the arcuate
portions 46 of adjacent coils are, in effect, offset in stag
and partially ignited fuel impinges against the header 31
gered relation ‘to each other so that the passages 48
and the spiral group of turns 29 before passing through
provided thereby for the hot gases will also have a like
the radial passageways 26. In order to add rigidity to
staggered relationship.
the convolutions of the spaced apart group 25, spacer
The connections of the several coils in series relation
blocks 32 may be ?xed at suitable locations between the 60
body of. refractory. material 30 constituting a part of a
spaced apart convolutions. The said header assembly, in
addition to the refractory material 30, includes a cup
ship so that the water or other ?uid being heated will
flow through the coils in a manner hereinbefore described
shaped shell 33 spaced from the end wall 13 and serving
is attained by connecting ‘the water .inlet pipe.49.with
to retain the refractory material 30.
the outer coil 21 at the end thereof which .is remote
The intermediate coil 20 of the boiler includes a group 65 from the ?re pot 14. The inner end of the coil 21
34 of contiguous polygonal convolutions which surround
connects with the inner end of the coil '20 and the outer
the inner coil 19 but are in spaced relation thereto, at
end of the coil 20 is connected through a by-pass conduit
the ?re pot end of the boiler. The inner end of this group
50 leading to the inlet end of the innermost coil 19
34 of polygonal convolutions connects with a group 35
of contiguous cylindrical convolutions which provide a 70 at its inner end. The extreme outer end of coil 19
connects with the outlet pipe 28 whereby the hot water
closed side wall portion of the coil 20 and extend beyond
or steam, as the case may be, will bedischarged at its
the header assembly 31 and connects with a group 36 of
maximum temperature and at the region of the ?re cham
radially wound convolutions which overlie the marginal
ber where the hot combustion gases leave the said chamber
outer face portion of the header assembly 31. The in
dividual turns of the group of convolutions 34 include 75 and pass .into the annular passageway, 27.
We claim:
1. A boiler or steam generator including a plurality of
serially connected tubular coils for containing liquid to
be heated or vaporized and arranged one within another
in spaced apart relation to provide an annular passage
way between adjacent coils, the innermost coil of which
constitutes a ?re chamber and comprises a group of
convolutions forming a closed side wall portion of the
?re chamber at one end thereof and a group of spaced
8. A boiler or steam generator according to claim 1
wherein an end wall is provided for closing the ends of
said annular passageways at the front ends of the coils
and wherein the innermost coil includes a series of radially
extending spiral convolutions positioned adjacent the front
end wall of the structure and serving to prevent over
heating of said end wall.
9. A boiler or steam generator according to claim 8
wherein the end of the ?re chamber adjacent said group
apart convolutions at the other end thereof providing gas 10 of spaced apart convolutions of the innermost coil is
discharge openings communicating with the surrounding
annular passageway between the said innermost coil and
the next adjacent coil, whereby the combustion gases
follow a streamline flow path through the ?re chamber
and said surrounding annular passageway, and said next 15
adjacent coil comprises a plurality of axially aligned
groups of convolutions one of which is composed of a
series of contiguous convolutions providing a closed wall
portion arranged opposite the gas discharge opening of
the ?re chamber, and another group is composed of
contiguous convolutions each of which has a series of
portions o?set radially relative to adjacent convolutions
at circumferentially spaced locations to provide a series
of discharge openings located opposite the closed side Wall
portion of the ?re chamber.
2. A boiler or steam generator according to claim 1
closed by means of ‘a header of refractory material and
the said innermost coil is provided with a series of radially
arranged spiral convolutions which connect with an outlet
pipe and are partially embedded in said refractory mate
rial of said header, whereby the ?ames and hot com
bustion gases within the ?re chamber impinge against said
partially embedded convolutions so that the ?uid therein
will be discharged at maximum temperature.
10. In a water tube boiler or steam generator of the
character described, in combination, an outer casing pre
senting an inner cylindrical wall, a plurality of helically
wound tubular coils disposed within said casing and ar
ranged one within another to provide inner, outer and
intermediate coils connected in series ‘and the said inter
mediate coil cooperating with said inner coil to de?ne
an annular space surrounding the inner coil and said outer
wherein the said group of contiguous convolutions having
coil cooperating with said intermediate coil to de?ne a
radially o?set portions have contiguous contact with ad
second space surrounding the intermediate coil, an end
jacent convolutions at spaced location only and the said
wall structure for closing one end of the inner coil and
offset portions are located between the said points of 30 de?ning, in combination with said inner coil, a combus
tion chamber, a ?repot projecting into the other end of
3. A boiler or steam generator according to claim 2
said inner coil for supplying combustible materials to said
wherein each convolution of the group having radially
o?set portions are of polygonal convolutions including in
combustion chamber, each of said coils being comprised
portions of adjacent convolutions.
5. LA. boiler or steam generator according to claim 4
wherein a circular baf?e surrounds the other surface
character described, the combination set forth in claim
of two groups of helical turns, one of which has adjacent
each case a series of straight-away portions the ends of 35 turns provided with opposed surfaces which are separated
which are connected in series relation by arcuate sections
from each other to provide open spaces for the passage
which constitute said o?set portions.
of combustion gases therethrough and the other of which
4. A boiler or steam generator according to claim 3
has its adjacent turns arranged in substantial coextensive
wherein the straight-away portions and arcuate connection
contact, the groups of dissimilar characteristic in the three
sections are arranged in staggered relation relative to like 40 coils being directly opposed to each other ‘in radial op
11. In a water tube boiler or steam generator of the
of a portion of said convolutions having said radially olf
10 wherein the group of helical turns of the inner coil
set portions, whereby hot combustion gases are compelled 45 whose adjacent coil provides said open spaces is dis
to follow an inwardly and outwardly circuitous path
posed within the casing at the rear thereof.
between the adjacent convolution in the region of said
12. In a water tube boiler or steam generator of the
character described, the combination set forth in claim
‘6. A boiler or steam generator according to claim 1
11 wherein said ?uid inlet and said ?uid outlet connect
wherein a third coil is provided with a group of contiguous 50 with the rearmost helical turn in the outer and inner
convolutions providing a closed wall opposite the dis
coils respectively and ‘in which the rearmost helical turn
charge openings of the last mentioned coil and a second
of the intermediate coil is connected to the foremost heli
group of contiguous convolutions each of which has a
cal turn of the inner coil by a length of by-pass tubing.
series of portions oifset radially relative to ‘adjacent con
-13. IIn a water tube boiler or steam generator of the
volutions at circumferentially spaced apart locations to 55 character described, the combination set forth in claim
provide a series of discharge openings located opposite
11 wherein all of the helical turns of the intermediate
the closed side wall of said last mentioned coil, a casing
and outer coils are arranged in longitudinal contiguity.
enclosing all of said coils and formed with a vent stack
in the region of the last mentioned outlet openings, said
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
casing serving as a ba?ie to direct a portion of the gases 60
through a circuitous path de?ned by the olfset portions
Mayr ___________ __a___ July 14, 1931
Harris et a1. _____n__.____ July 14,1953
wherein each convolution of the group having radially off
set portions are of polygonal con?guration including in 65 2,998,807
Walter _____________ .._ Sept. 20, 1955
de?ning said last mentioned discharge openings.
7. A boiler or steam generator according to claim 6
each case a series of straight-away portions the ends of
which are connected in series relation with arcuate sec
tions which constitute said offset portions.
Clarkson et a1. -..__-__.._t__ Sept. 5, 1961
Canada _______ __. ____ __ Dec. 13, 1949
=France _______________ __ Mar. 7,1951
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