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Патент USA US3051236

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Aug. 28, 1962
3,051,226
B. R. WALSH
RECIRCULATING COMBUSTION APPARATUS
Filed Aug. 5, 1958
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
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INVENTOR.
$9065 4?. 1444156’
ATTORNEY
Aug. 28, 1962
3,051,226
B. R. WALSH
RECIRCULATING COMBUSTION APPARATUS
Filed Aug. 5, 1958
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
Aiul ?mnI»
20
INVENTOR.
5494/65 A’. 1454156’
BY
ATTORNEY
3,®5l,226
Patented Aug. 28, 1962
1
2
tion of the ?re pot will vary with the furnace and the
?re pot may be, for example, circular, rectangular, square
3,051,226
RECIRCULATING COMBUSTION APPARATUS
or hexagonal in shape. Port r15 is provided in the furnace
Bruce R. Walsh, Pittsburgh, Pa., assignor to Gulf Re
for receiving the burner 16. The burner 16 can be any
search & Development Company, Pittsburgh, Pa., a 5 of the burners commonly used in the art for supplying a
corporation of Delaware
combustible mixture of a liquid or gaseous fuel and air to
Filed Aug. 5, 1958, Ser. No. 753,254
the combustion chamber. One such burner is the gun
10 Claims. (Cl. 158-1)
type burner which is utilized to supply a mixture of liquid
fuel and air to the combustion chamber. A smoke pipe
This invention relates to fuel burning apparatus and
more particularly to an improved combustion chamber 10 or flue stack is indicated at 17. A combustion chamber
in accordance with the invention is located within the
for burning fuels with air.
?re pot l3 and is designated generally by the numeral 18.
For the generation of heat energy in fuel burning ap
Referring more particularly to FIGURES 2, 3 and 4
paratus such as furnaces and boilers, a combustible mix
of the drawings, the combustion chamber 18 of the in
ture of air and a liquid or gaseous fuel are usually dis
charged directly into a combustion chamber wherein com 15 vention comprises an outer shell adapted to ?t within the
?re pot of the furnace and ‘an inner shell disposed therein
bustion of the fuel takes place. It is, of course, desirable
de?ning a combustion zone. The outer shell generally
to obtain substantially complete combustion of the fuel
indicated at 19 will be of suitable dimensions and shaped
within the combustion chamber and it is to this end the
to ?t within the ?re pot of the furnace. The outer shell
present invention is directed.
19 open at its top, comprises substantially upright sheet
The present invention provides a combustion cham
metal side Walls ‘29 and 21, back wall 22, front wall 23,
ber which is so constructed that the products of com
and bottom wall 24. Port 25 is provided in the front
bustion are recirculated to the combustion zone in a man
wall 23 for receiving the burner [16.
ner to achieve greatly improved combustion and heating
Disposed within outer shell 19 and spaced therefrom is
ef?ciency.
In accordance with the invention, there is provided a 25 an inner shell designated generally at 26 which de?nes a
zone wherein combustion of the fuel takes place. Inner
combustion chamber comprising an outer shell and an
shell 26 open at its top, comprises substantially upright
inner shell disposed within and spaced from the outer
sheet metal side walls 27 and 28, back wall 29, front
shell to de?ne a passage between said shells for the re
wall 30, and bottom wall 31. Secured to and depending
circulation of the products of combustion. The passage
between the shells is closed at the top and suitable open 30 from the bottom wall 31 are a plurality of legs 32 by
means of which inner shell 26 is supported on the bottom
ings are provided in the inner shell to permit the hot
wall 24- of outer shell 19 in spaced relationship there
gases produced upon combustion of the fuel to circulate
with. The horizontal dimensions of inner shell 26 are
through the combustion gas passage and to re-enter the
such that the upright walls thereof are spaced from the
combustion zone at a point near the fuel injector nozzle.
The invention will be further described with reference 35 adjacent walls of the outer shell 19 and cooperate there
with to provide ‘a horizontal passage through which the
to the drawings wherein:
products of combustion are recirculated to the combus
FIGURE 1 is a vertical sectional view of a complete
tion zone.
furnace employing the combustion chamber of this in
If desired, the inner shell can be constructed without
vention.
_
FIGURE 2 is a perspective view of the combustion 40 the bottom wall as shown in FIGURE 5, in which case,
the upright side, front and back walls of the inner shell
chamber of the invention.
bear upon the bottom wall 24 of the outer shell 19. It
FIGURE 3 is a plan view of the combustion cham
is preferred, however, to have the inner shell provided
ber of the invention.
with a bottom wall and spaced from the ‘bottom wall of
FIGURE 4 is a cross-sectional view taken through
45 the outer shell as this construction provides an additional
FIGURE 3 along the plane of the line IV-IV.
open passage underneath the inner shell for the recircu1a~
FIGURE 5 is a view similar to FIGURE 4 but illus
tion of the hot combustion gases.
trates a modi?ed form of the combustion chamber of
The front wall 30 of the inner shell 26 is provided with
the invention.
port 33 which registers with port 25 in the outer shell
FIGURE 6 is a front sectional view of the combus
50 and through which the air-fuel mixture enters the com
tion chamber of the invention.
bustion zone. The burner 16, while projecting within
FIGURE 7 is a plan view of a further embodiment of
the outer shell is positioned such that its discharge end
the invention wherein the ?re pot of a furnace is em
ployed as one component of a combustion chamber con
terminates a short distance in front of port 33 so as to
be capable of delivering a mixture of fuel and air to
55 the interior of the inner shell without interfering with
the flow of the combustion products. A plurality of open
ber of the invention is illustrated in connection with a hot
ings are provided in the remaining Walls of the inner shell
air type of furnace but it is to be distinctly understood
26 to permit the products of combustion to exit from the
that it is not limited to such use. The combustion cham
structed in accordance with the invention.
With reference to the drawings, the combustion cham
combustion zone and to pass into the combustion gas pas
ber of the invention can be utilized in furnaces of the
hot-air or hot-water types commonly employed in homes 60 sage between the inner and outer shells. Thus, side
walls 27 and 28 of inner shell 26 are provided with a
for heating and ‘also in other fuel burning apparatus such
plurality of vertically elongated slot-like openings as in
as for example, gas turbine and jet engines to improve
dicated at 34, ‘35 and 36. Attached adjacent the vertical
the combustion e?iciency thereof.
slot-like openings on the side walls and projecting in
Referring to FIGURE 1, the numeral 11 designates a
65 wardly within the inner shell 26 are louver members 37,
furnace of the hot-air type in which a combustion cham
- 38 and 39. The louver members assist in directing the
ber constructed in accordance with the invention is em
hot combustion gases through the slot-like openings into
ployed. The upper part 12 represents, more or less,
the space between the inner and outer shells. In a pre—
diagrammatically the heating chamber of the furnace. A
ferred optional construction, additional exits for the prod
?re pot 13 which'forms the lower section of the furnace 70 ucts of combustion are provided in the back and bottom
is lined by refractory wall 14 and shaped to ?t the con
walls of the inner shell. Thus, relatively large opening
tour of the furnace in which it is placed. The con?gura
40 is provided in back wall 29 of the inner shell op~
3,051,226
1 '
3
posite' port 33. Similarly, the bottom Wall 31 of the inner '
shell 26 can be provided with an opening as indicated
at 41.
Extending horizontally and joining the top portions of
the upright walls of the inner and outer shells is ‘top 42.
Top member 42 extends continuously along the marginal
edges of the top portions of the upright walls of the inner
and outer shells and is attached thereto by suitable means
to form an air tight seal. Top member 42 thus coop
erates with the upright walls of the inner and outer shell
I
.
~
.
4
adjacent the openings 50 and 51 and 52 respectively, and
serve to direct combustion gases through these openings
into the combustion gas passage. The entire outer sur
face of the walls comprising the inner shell 46 are spaced
from the corresponding wall portions of the ?re pot 45
with the exception of the top 56. Top 56 is attached
along the upper ends of the upright walls of the inner
shell 46 and extends horizontally therefrom to have its
to form a closed or roofed passage which extends entirely
outer ends in engagement with the wall portions of ?re
pot 45. To prevent leakage of the hot combustion gases,
top 56 is cemented or joined by other suitable means to
around the inner shell. As shown in FIGURE 6, de
the ?re pot ‘45. Thus, top member 56 cooperates with
?ectors 43 and ‘44 are provided on the exterior surface
the upright walls of the ?re pot 45 and inner ‘shell 46
of front wall 30 of inner shell 26 to direct the flow of
to form a closed combustion gas passage.
hot combustion gases toward port 33 through which the 15
It will be apparent to those skilled in the art that
combustion gases pass into the combustion zone.
various modi?cations can be made in the combustion
For convenience in installation, both the inner and
outer shell members can be made in sections so that the
chamber of the invention. Thus, for example, the outer
and inner shells comprising the combustion chamber
combustion chamber may be assembled in existing heat
of the invention can be made of ceramic material instead
ing units after fabrication thereof. Thus, the inner and 20 of sheet metal as previously indicated. Moreover, the
outer shells of the combustion chamber may comprise
number of openings provided within the walls of the inner
upper and lower matching sections or front and rear
: matching sections of a size to readily pass through the
openings-normally provided in the front of the heating
unit. Upon installing the combustion chamber the match
shell can be varied as desired.
‘From the foregoing description, it is apparent that
the invention provides a novel combustion chamber of
25 simple construction which can be readily installed in fur
ing sections are brought together to complement one
naces to improve the combustion e?‘lciency of the fur
another and to form the combustion chamber in accord
naces. In the aforedescribed combustion chamber the
ance with the invention.
hot products of combustion are recirculated through the
'In operation of a fuel burning apparatus equipped with
chamber and subjected to combustion a second time
a combustion chamber constructed in accordance with 30 thereby assuring substantially complete combustion of the
the invention, burner ‘16 delivers a mixture of fuel and
fuel. An additional advantage of the novel combustion
‘air into the inner shell 26 wherein combustion of the fuel
chamber is that the hot products of combustion upon re
occurs. As the ?ame progresses rearwardly within the
entering the combustion zone at a point near the fuel in
inner shell, the hot products of combustion pass through
jector nozzle, supply heat to the incoming fuel and air
the relatively large opening 40 provided in the back Wall 35 thus assisting in the combustion of the fuel. Further
729 by the inner shell into the space de?ned by the walls
more, in the combustion chamber of the invention, the
‘of ‘the inner and outer shells and the top member 42.
hot combustion gases are prevented from being imme
The portion of the combustion products which impinge
diately exhausted up the stack thus resulting in the fur
upon the back Wall of the inner shell and re?ect there
. nace having lower stack temperatures.
from, pass out through the openings 34, 35, 36 and 41 40
Those modi?cations and variations which fall within
provided in the side and bottom walls respectively. The
the spirit of the invention and the scope of the appended
inwardly projecting louver members 37, 38 and 39 serve
claims are to be considered part of the invention.
to direct the combustion products through the openings
I claim:
34, 35 and 36 provided in the side walls of the inner
1. A fuel burning apparatus comprising an outer shell,
shell. The combustion gases upon entering the space
an inner shell having generally upright’wall means dis
between the inner and outer shells are constrained to flow
posed within said outer shell and spaced therefrom to de
horizontally toward the front of the combustion chamber
?ne a passage extending around the outer periphery of
and eventually re-enter the combustion zone through port
said upright wall means, the inside of said inner shell be
33 provided in the front wall 30 of the inner shell 26.
ing a combustion chamber and said passage around said
In this manner, the products of combustion are again 50 upright wall means adapted to serve as a recirculation
subjected to combustion, thus providing a form of two
passage for combustion gases from said combustion cham
stage combustion and assuring substantially complete fuel
ber, means closing the upper and lower ends of said re~
com-bustion. _ Inaddition, the hot combustion gases re
circulation passage, ?rst opening means in said upright
wall means adapted for the horizontal admission of fuel
injector nozzle convey heat to the incoming fuel and 55 to said combustion chamber, said ?rst opening means
air and prime the mixturefor combustion.
establishing an inlet to said combustion chamber from
‘In FIGURE 7, a further modi?cation of the invention
said recirculation passage, second opening means in said
is illustrated. In this embodiment of the‘ invention the
upright wall means establishing an outlet from said com
walls de?ning the ?re pot of the furnace serve as the
bustion chamber to said recirculation passage, said re
outer shell of the improved combustion chamber. Re 60 circulation passage providing a path for circulation of
ferring speci?cally to FIGURE 7, the- ?re pot of the
combustion gases from said second opening means to
furnace made of refractory ceramic material and of
said ?rst opening means, said inner shell having an open
hexagonal shape is indicated at 45. Disposed within
top establishing overhead exhaust removal means from
?re pot 45 and spaced therefrom is the inner shell 46.
said combustion chamber, the only access between said
Inner shell 46 can be made of ceramic material also or 65 overhead exhaust removal means and said recirculation
can .be of sheet .metal construction. The front wall of
passage being through said combustion chamber.
the inner'shell 46 is provided with port 47 which is
2. Claim 1 wherein said second opening means is dis
[aligned with port 48 in the front Wall of ?re pot 45.
posed in said combustion chmaber in a position generally
The opposed back wall of inner shell v47 is provided with
opposite to said ?rst opening means.
a relatively large opening as indicated at 49 which com
3. Claim 1 wherein a nozzle is disposed substantially
municates with the combustion gas passage‘between the
horizontally at said ?rst opening means adapted for spray
inner shell 46 and the walls of the ?re pot 45. Elongated
ing a liquid fuel substantially horizontally into said com
entering the combustion zone at a point near the fuel
slot-like openings are provided along the remaining sides
bustion chamber.
4. A fuel burning apparatus comprising an outer shell
projecting louver members 53, 54 and 55 are attached 75 having generally upright walls and a bottom wall, an
of the inner shell as indicated at 50, 51 and 52. Inwardly
3,051,226
inner shell having generally upright Wall means disposed
within said outer shell and spaced therefrom to de?ne a
6
being a combustion chamber and the passage around the
periphery of said upright wall means and said bottom
passage extending around the outer periphery of said
upright wall means, the inside of said inner shell being a
combustion chamber and said passage around said up
right wall means adapted to serve as a recirculation pas
sage for combustion gases from said combustion cham
ber, means closing the upper and lower ends of said re
circulation passage, ?rst opening means in said upright
wall means adapted for the horizontal admission of fuel
to said combustion chamber, said ?rst opening means
wall means adapted to serve as a recirculation passage
for combustion gases from said combustion chamber,
horizontal closure means continuously extending between
the upper portion of the upright wall means of said inner
shell and the upright walls of said outer shell to en
close the top of said recirculation passage, ?rst opening
means in said upright wall means adapted for the hori
zontal admission of fuel to said combustion chamber,
said ?rst opening means establishing an inlet to said com
bustion chamber from said recirculation passage, second
opening means in said upright wall means establishing an
said recirculation passage, second opening means in said
outlet from said combustion chamber to said recirculation
upright wall means establishing an outlet from said com
bustion chamber to said recirculation passage, said recir 15 passage, said recirculation passage providing a path for
circulation of combustion gases from said second open
culation passage providing a path for circulation of com
ing means to said ?rst opening means, said inner shell
bustion gases from said second opening means to said
having an open top establishing overhead exhaust removal
?rst opening means, said inner shell having an open top
means from said combustion chamber, the only access be
establishing overhead exhaust removal means from said
combustion chamber, the only access between said over 20 tween said overhead exhaust removal means and said re
circulation passage being through said combustion cham
head exhaust removal means and said recirculation pas
ber.
sage being through said combustion chamber.
10. A fuel burning apparatus comprising an outer shell,
5. Claim 4 wherein said upright inner shell wall means
an inner shell having generally upright wall means dis
are shorter than said outer shell upright walls.
6. Claim 4 wherein an opening exists in an upright 25 posed within said outer shell and spaced therefrom to
de?ne a passage extending around the outer periphery
wall of the outer shell in register with the ?rst opening
of said upright wall means, the inside of said inner shell
means in the upright Wall means of the inner shell.
being a combustion chamber and said passage around said
7. A fuel burning apparatus comprising an outer shell
upright wall means adapted to serve as a recirculation
having generally upright walls and a bottom wall, an
inner shell having generally upright wall means and bot 30 passage for combustion gases from said combustion cham
ber, means closing the upper and lower ends of said re
tom wall means disposed within said outer shell and
circulation passage, ?rst opening means in said upright
spaced therefrom to de?ne a passage extending around
wall means adapted for the horizontal admission of fuel
the outer periphery of said upright wall means and said
to said combustion chamber, said ?rst opening means
bottom Wall means, support means for supporting said
inner shell, the inside of said inner shell being a com 35 establishing an inlet to said combustion chamber from
said recirculation passage, second opening means in said
bustion chamber and said passage around the outer pe
upright
wall means in a position in said combustion
riphery of said upright vwall means and said bottom wall
chamber opposite to said ?rst opening means establishing
means adapted to serve as a recirculation passage for com
an outlet from said combustion chamber to said recircu
bustion gases from said combustion chamber, means clos
ing the upper end of said recirculation passage, ?rst open 40 lation passage, third opening means comprising a plu
rality of openings in said upright wall means intermediate
ing means in said upright wall means adapted for the
said ?rst and said second opening means, each of the
horizontal admission of fuel to said combustion cham
openings of said third opening means having an inwardly
her, said ?rst opening means establishing an inlet to said
projecting
louver adjacent thereto directed toward said
combustion chamber from said recirculation passage,
second opening means in said upright wall means estab 45 second opening means, said recirculation passage provid
ing a path for circulation of combustion gases from said
lishing an outlet from said combustion chamber to said
second opening means and said third opening means to
recirculation passage, said recirculation passage provid
said ?rst opening means, said inner shell having an open
ing a path for circulation of combustion gases from said
top establishing overhead exhaust removal means from
second opening means to said first opening means, said
inner shell having an open top establishing overhead ex 50 said combustion chamber, the only access between said
overhead exhaust removal means and said recirculation
haust removal means from said combustion chamber, the
passage being through said combustion chamber.
only access between said overhead exhaust removal means
and said recirculation passage being through said com
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
bustion chamber.
55
UNITED STATES PATENTS
8. Claim 7 wherein an opening exists in said bottom
wall means of the inner shell providing an additional
1,671,448
Plassmann ____________ __ May 29, 1928
outlet from said combustion chamber to said recircula
1,901,922
Mekler ______________ __ Mar. 21, 1933
tion passage.
1,959,033
McGuiness __________ __ May 15, 1934
9. A fuel burning apparatus comprising an outer shell
2,247,977
Uschold et al. ________ __. July 1, 1941
having generally upright Walls and a bottom wall, an 60 2,424,765
McCollum __________ .__ July 29, 1947
establishing an inlet to said combustion chamber from
1,
inner shell having generally upright Wall means and bot
2,601,667
Permann ____________ __ June 24, 1952
tom wall means disposed within said outer shell and
spaced therefrom to de?ne a passage extending around
the outer periphery of said upright Wall means and said 65
2,648,599
Throckmorton et al. ____ Aug. 11, 1953
2,701,608
2,808,046
2,857,961
2,918,117
Johnson ______________ __ Feb. 8,
Jaye ________________ __ Oct. 1,
Brown et al. _________ __ Oct. 28,
Gri?in ______________ __ Dec. 22,
bottom Wall means, legs supporting the bottom wall
means of said inner shell, the inside of said inner shell
1955
1957
1958
1959
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