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Патент USA US3051481

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Aug. 28, 1962
‘a. BOULET
3,051,470
PNEUMATIC SUSPENSION FOR VEHICLES
Filed Nov. 4, 1959
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
3,51,4'?
Patented Aug. 28, 1962
l
2
phragm ‘5 which bears on the periphery of the cup closes
3,051,470
PNEUMATIC SUSPENSION FOR VEHHILEQ , \
Georges Boulet, Toulouse, France, assignor to Societe a
this latter in a ?uid-tight manner.
The chamber which
extends from the piston 2 up to the diaphragm 5 is ?lled
with a liquid such as oil, for example. The elastic ma—
terial which constitutes the diaphragm is therefore chosen
from those materials which cannot be attacked by the
said liquid. Above the diaphragm is disposed a mem
ber 6 in the shape of a bell, the edge of which bears
3 Claims. (Cl. 267-64)
on that of the diaphragm such that the diaphragm forms
In U.S. Patent No. 2,901,243 of August 25, 1959, there 10 a ?uid-tight joint between the bell member 6 and the
?ared member 3. The member 6 de?nes a chamber
was described a vehicular pneumatic suspension designed
with the diaphragm 5. The bell 6 is surmounted by a
so that its frequency of oscillation is substantially con
hollow body 7 having the shape of a portion of a sphere,
stant, irrespective of the amplitude of said oscillation and
through which pass radial walls 3. These latter form,
also independent of the initial load.
together with an axial core 9, spaces for a plurality of
The suspension which is described is characterized in
that it comprises a chamber having a volume variable
constant volume cells or compartments it), each of which
communicates exteriorly of the body 7 through a pas
as a function of the-load and two series of auxiliary
sage 11. The external ori?ces of these passages are ar
chambers. For a given static load of the vehicle, one
ranged successively in relation to the axis of symmetry
of the said series of auxiliary chambers is in communi
cation with the variable volume chamber while the other 20 of the hollow body 7. The body '7 is covered by a cap
12. The said cap bears on an elastic diaphragm l3’ and
series of chambers does not communicate therewith. All
stretches the said diaphragm over the spherical body. A
of these variable and non-variable volume chambers con
ring 14, which rests on the edge of the ?ared member
tain an unvarying mass of gas and means are provided so
3 is screwed into the skirt 15 of the cap 12, and insures
that when the capacity of the variable volume chamber
falls below the volume of reference corresponding to 25 the ?uid-tightness of the joints formed by the edges of
the two diaphragms. On each side of the elastic dia
the static load of the vehicle, the auxiliary chambers of
phragm 13 are formed two annular spaces 16 and 17
the second series are successively put into communication
located one above the other. Passages 18 cause the cham
with the said variable volume chamber, while the cham
ber de?ned by bell s and diaphragm 5 to communicate
bers of the ?rst series remain in communication with the
said variable volume chamber. When the capacity of the 30 with the annular space 17. The passages 11 are spaced
apart in the direction of the axis of the core 9‘. The
variable volume chamber rises above the volume of ref
volume between the bell 6 and the diaphragm 5, the an
erence, the auxiliary chambers of the second series re
main closed While those of the second series close in
nular spaces in and 17 as Well as the cells ill are ?lled
with a mass of inert gas such as nitrogen, for example,
succession.
A form is described in which the variable volume cham
pre-determined so that the pressure of the said gas bal
ber is a chamber of cylindrical shape while the constant
ances the static load supported by the device. The cham
volume chambers were laterally disposed with respect to
ber de?ned between the diaphragm 5 and the bell 6, the
the cylinder and put into communication or out of com
system of passages 1% and the annular space 17 constitute
munication with the said cylinder by the displacement 40 in their combined form the variable volume chamber as
of a movable piston in the said cylinder.
de?ned in the above numbered patent, While the cells
The present invention relates to a device for the prac~
Jill constitute the constant volume chambers.
tical application of the invention referred to above. It
In the case of an application relating to a suspension
is of particularly simple design and of small overall di
of an automobile vehicle, a unit of the type described
mensions and is therefore wholly suitable for ‘a pneumatic 45 will be employed for each Wheel, the piston 2 being rigidly
suspension of vehicles.
‘?xed to the axle while the cap 12, or the cylindrical
It is characterized in that the variable volume cham
body 1, is rigidly ?xed to the suspended portion of the
ber is a container having one wall formed by an elastic
vehicle. In this case, the mass of gas will be pro-deter
Responsahilité Limitée: Recherches Etudes Production
R.E.P., Paris, France, a corporation of France
Filed Nov. 4, 1959, Ser. No. 85%),832
Claims priority, application France Nov. 15, 1958
diaphragm stretched over a body inside which are ar
mined so that the ?oor of the vehicle remains at a pre
ranged the constant volume chambers, and in that the 50 determined height, under the mean static load for which
ori?ces which cause the said constant volume chambers
it is intended, Iwhile a known hydraulic device for re
to communicate with the variable volume-chamber which
surrounds these latter are disposed successively over the
surface of the said body in such manner that the elastic
storing the level can be provided so as to maintain this
level at a constant height under diiferent static loads.
When in motion the floor is intended to oscillate above
deformation of the said diaphragm unmasks a series of 65 and below this level according to the unevenness of the
ori?ces or closes another series of ori?ces according to
road surface. It is assumed that this position of reference
whether the volume of the variable volume chamber falls
is that of FIG. 1, in which a certain number of cells
below or rises above a position of reference, this position
1% are in communication with the space 17 through the
of reference being that which corresponds to the static
ori?ces 11 While the other cells are separated from the
charge only of the suspension.
said chamber by the diaphragm 13 which is stretched over
A form of embodiment of the present invention is
the ori?ces 11a of the said cells. The method of op
described below by Way of example and not in any sense
eration of the device may now be readily understood.
by way of limitation and is illustrated by the accompany
Assuming that the piston 2 is driven into the cylinder
ing drawings in which:
1, the diaphragm 5 is forced back by the liquid to reduce
FIG. 1 is a longitudinal cross-section taken along the 65 the volume of the hell 6. This causes an increase of
line I—I of FIG. ‘2.
pressure of the gas in the chamber de?ned by diaphragm
FIG. 2 is a transverse cross-section taken along the
5, bell 6 and diaphragm 13 which increases the volume
line 11-11 of FIG. 1.
of the annular space 17 caused by expansion of the elastic
In these ?gures, l is a cylindrical chamber in which
diaphragm 13. This latter uncovers one or a number of
there is a moving piston 2. The cylinder 1 is extended 70 successive ori?ces 11 which successively cause a num
by a flared member 3‘ forming a kind of cup with which
ber of other cells 10‘ to communicate with the annular
it communicates through passages 4. An elastic dia
space 17. On the other hand, if the piston moves in
3,051,470
reverse direction starting from the position of reference,
xi.
her, a piston displaceable in said cylindrical body to exert
the diaphragm S is deformed in the reverse direction, the
pressure in said ?rst chamber, a liquid enclosed between
volume of the bell increases and the existing pressure
the piston and the diaphragm, a hollow body on the other
falls in the bell as well as in the annular space 1'7. The
di?’erence of pressures which exist in the armular spaces
spherical surface, said hollow body being provided with
3
of said members, said hollow body including in part a
16 and 17 applies the diaphragm against one portion of
a plurailty of compartments and an ori?ce for each of
the ori?ces 11 which were previously open, while those
ori?ces which were closed remain closed.
said compartments opening externally of said body, the
ori?ces being spaced longitudinally along said hollow
body, a hollow cap over said hollow body and the other
The principle of the present invention of the above
numbered patent is thus always effectively adhered to 10 of said members and de?ning a space therewith, a second
elastic diaphragm in the latter said space and sealably
and, by means of the device described, it is also possible
engaged between said hollow body and said hollow cap,
to produce a monochronous or substantially mono
said second elastic diaphragm being stretched over said
chronous suspension, that is to say a suspension in which
spherical surface of the hollow body and dividing said
frequency of oscillation is constant and independent of
oscillation magnitude and which provides the best con 15 latter space into two annular spaces, said other member
being provided with a plurality of passages providing ?uid
ditions of comfort for the passengers of an automobile
communication between said second chamber and one of
the annular spaces; a gas in the second chamber, said
one annular space, said compartments and said passages;
vehicle.
It will be observed that the passages 18 which open
beneath the bell 6 are also staggered in height. This has
for its object the closing of the said passages successively 20 said gas providing a predetermined position of the piston
in the cylinder such that at least one of the ori?ces is
in such manner as to stiffen the suspension, as may be
exposed, the other of the ori?ces being closed by the
required, towards the end of the largest amplitudes of
second diaphragm.
movement in the direction of the compression, in the
2. A suspension as claimed in claim 1 comprising a
case of particularly violent shocks.
In the apparatus described above, the body containing 25 plurality of radial walls in said hollow body to de?ne
said compartments, said hollow body having an axis,
the constant volume cells, the elastic diaphragm which
said radial walls de?ning planes passing through the axis
masks and unmasks the ori?ces and the cap which rests
of said hollow body.
on the said diaphragm can very easily be separated from
3. A suspension as claimed in claim 1 wherein the
the suspension members which cause the volume of the
passages between the second chamber and said one an
variable volume chamber to vary. They can therefore
nular space are staggered to open into the second chamber
at different elevations therein.
be housed in any suitable emplacement and coupled by
means of a piping system to the said members, the po
sition of which is coupled to the position of the axles.
What we claim is:
1. A suspension comprising ?rst and second members
35
de?ning a space; a ?rst elastic diaphragm sealably en
gaged between said members de?ning ?rst and second
Reterences (Jited in the ?le of this patent
UNlTED STATES PATENTS
2,370,942
Dick _________________ __ Mar. 6, 1945
1,100,585
France ________________ __ Apr. 6, 1955
FOREIGN PATENTS
chambers in said space, a cylindrical body coupled to one
of the members and communicating with said ?rst cham 40
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