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Патент USA US3052049

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Sept. 4, 1962
Filed Aug. 5, 1959
Mme” F Mann/.5
Patented Sept. 4, 1962
mal operative relationship to a subject whose hair is
being dried;
FIG. 2 is a central cross-sectional view of the hair drier
Mechell F. Harris, 5415 Central, Kansas City, Mo.
Filed Aug. 5, 1959, Ser. No. 831,890
4 Claims. (Cl. 34-80)
made in accordance with the invention taken along a ver-'
This invention relates generally to means for desiccat
ing air currents and more particularly, to such means
of FIG. 2; and
FIG. 4 is a fragmentary, enlarged cross-sectional view~
tical, central section thereof;
FIG. 3 is a cross-sectional view taken on line 3'--3'
taken on line 4-4 of vFIG. 3.
especially ‘adapted for use in connection with hair drying
Referring to the drawings, the hair drier to be described
as a preferred ‘construction for illustrating the inven
In conventional apparatus such as used for the drying
tion is generally designated by the numeral 10. Drier 10
of hair in beauty salons or the like, means are provided
includes a head-receiving unit 12, and suitable support
for heating the air as the latter is circulated or recir
ing means for the unit 12 generally designated by the
culated along a path impinging the heated
upon the subject’s hair to dry the latter. In order to 15 numeral 14 and which may be of any conventional char
acter for interconnecting the unit 12 to a chair, wall, ped
obtain drying action in a conventional hair drier, the
estal or the like, not shown.
air circulated over the hair is normally heated to a
The unit 12 is provided with a dome-like outer hood
temperature of around 120° F. Such heated air currents
generally designated 16 having a side wall 18‘ which con
cause the subject whose hair is- being dried consider-able
discomfort, particularly in view of the relatively long 20 verges at its normally upper extremity in a top 20. The
side wall 18 is inwardly ?anged at its lowermost extremity
period of time required for drying the hair after shampoo
as at 22‘ to de?ne an opening 24 for receiving the head
ing or the like by conventional means.
of a subject Whose hair is to be dried.
It has now been discovered that merely heating the
Mounted within the outer hood 16 is a tubular inner
air used for drying purposes, although hastening the drying
process somewhat, does not reach the essence of the matter 25 hood 28 having a band~like side wall 3t}l spaced inwardly
and is of only secondary assistance in hastening the dry
ing process. The reason for this is that the air circulated
with conventional means, even though heated, may, and
from the side wall 18 of outer hood 16 about the entire
circumference thereof. Side wall 30‘ is inwardly flanged
as ‘at 32 to de?ne the opening 34 for receiving the upper-v
most portion of the head of the subject whose hair is to
over the wet hair, a high percentage of moisture. Such 30 be dried. _ The upper portion of side Wall 30 is provided
with a cylindrical ?ange 36 for purpose hereinafter to
moist air used for drying purposes in conventional hair
be described.
drying apparatus is obviously slow and ine?icient in its
Mounted within the hollow interior of the unit 12 ad
drying action.
jacent the top thereof is an electric motor 38 supported
It has been found that the secret of quick and effective
drying of wet hair or the like is not merely in the heat 35 on the side wall 18 by members 411 secured to the body of
motor 38 as at 412. The motor 33 is provided with a drive
ing of such air but instead is primarily in the continuous
shaft 44- upon which is mounted an ‘air moving fan 46,
drying of the air itself. With dehumidi?cation of the air
which may be of various types, but is shown for simplicity
being used in moving currents to dry the hair, the overall
of illustration since the exact form thereof is not critical
time of hair drying is cut to a fraction of that required
with conventional apparatus and no heating at all is re 40 to the invention, as of bladed fan construction. It is
normally dom, contain, particularly after recirculation
quired, although some heating to approximately normal
signi?cant, however, that the motor 38, when energized,
ambient room temperatures may be used, if desired, for
the comfort of the subject and to protect the latter from
the possibility of catching a cold.
rotates vthe shaft 44 in a direction such that the fan
46 will move currents of air upwardly through the inner
hood 2.8, it being noted that the fan 46 is juxtaposed rel-a
tion to provide improved means for the drying of hair or
the like which incorporates therein means for recirculat
ing the air used for drying purposes and means for con
tion immediately above the latter to produce this effect.
Mounted within the outer hood 16 upon the side Wall
Accordingly, it is the primary object of this inven 45 tive to the ?ange 36 of inner hood 2.8 for creating a suc
18 thereof is an annular heater assembly 48 having a cen
tralopening 50 to clear the body of motor 38. It will
be understood that heater 48 may be omitted if desired,
circulation thereof.
but is included in the preferred form of the invention to
.It is ‘another important object of this invention to
heat the currents of air being moved to a temperature
provide hair drying apparatus utilizing desiccant means
which will be optimum from the standpoint of comfort
disposed in the path of recirculation of the air for continu
of the subjects whose hair is being dried. Such heater as
ously removing moisture from the latter.
It is another important object of the invention to pro 55 sembly 48 may be constructed similarly to ?at heating ele
ments used in stoves or the like and may include a backing
vide a desiccant assembly having incorporated therein elec
52 of ceramic or the like which carry a spirally
tric heater means running through the desiccant material
disposed electric heating element 54. Where the heater
itself, which may be used upon application of electric
element 48 is to be omitted, it has been found desirable to
current to such heater means for reactivating the desiccant
60 employ, in lieu thereof, structure giving a similar parti
tinuously removing moisture from such air during re
after the same has absorbed its ‘limit of moisture.
Another important object of the invention is to pro
vide hair drying means in which the moving currents of
tion or ba?le effect for directing currents of air as herein
after explained.
Disposed between the inner hood 28 and the outer hood
16 is a dehumidifying unit generally designated 56. De
improved fashion further hastening the ‘drying process. 65 humidifying unit 56 extends around the entire circumfer
Still other important objects of the invention, including
ence of inner hood 28 and is thereby interposed in the
certain signi?cant details of construction will be made
pathway for air currents between the inner hood 28 and
clear or become apparent from the disclosure of the in
the outer hood 16. The dehumidifying unit 56, which
‘air used to dry the hair are circulated and directed in
may be secured between the outer hood 16 and the inner
70 hood 28 in any suitable manner, preferably includes a
foraminous top wall 58, a foraminous bottom wall 60, a
1 FIG. 1 is a perspective view showing a hair drier
quantity of desiccant material 62 therewithin between the
unit made in accordance with the invention in its nor
vention as follows.
In the accompanying drawing:
foraminous top 58 and the foraminous bottom 60 and
FIG. 4). The top and bottom walls 58 and 68 may be of
screen material. The desiccant material 62 preferably
Therefore, the ‘switch 98 and associated wiring may be so
arranged that in one condition of the switch 98, the fan 38
and optional comfort heating element 54 will alone be
energized, while in a second condition of the switch 98,
comprises an inert, highly hydroscopic substance, such as
the heating elements 78 and 96 may be energized under
reactivating heater means generally designated 64 (see
silica gel crystals.
It may be noted that even though the
the control of the humidistat 116.
It will now be apparent that during normal operation
there will be sul?cient interstices between the crystals to
of the apparatus 10 to dry the hair of a ‘subject, the desic
permit ?ow of air currents through the unit 56 at the
cant reactivating heaters 78 and 96 will be deenergized.
desired rate, but that such air currents will pass around 10 As the fan 46 is rotated air will be drawn upwardly
the dessicant crystals in such proximity to the latter as to
through the inner hood 28, through the ?lter 80 and the
etfect a high degree of ef?ciency in the removal of mois
moisture removing unit 88, impelled against the backing
ture from the air being circulated through the unit 56.
plate or partition 52 and thence directed downwardly
The reactivating heater means 64 for the unit 56 in
along the outside of the inner hood 28 toward the de
cludes a number of spaced vertical plates 66 of prefer 15 humidifying unit 56. Such air will then pass through
ably heat resistant and electrically nonconductive ma
the spaces between the crystals 62 of desiccant within
terial, such as ceramic. Each of the plates 66 is provided
the unit 56, will emerge downwardly from the foraminous
therein with a plurality of slots 68 and 70 running from
wall 60 and will be impinged upon the lower portion of
one edge 72 of the plate toward the opposite edge of the
the hair of the subject being treated. Since the head of
assembly 56 is ?lled with crystals of silica gel or the like,
latter, with the ‘slots 68 preferably being longer than the 20 such subject will be substantially closing the opening 24,
slots 70.
Such plates 66 are spaced at any suitable in
tervals about the circumference of the annular dehumidify
ing ‘unit 56. Supported by plates 66 is a spirally wound
tube of electrically nonconductive material such as Fiber
and since upward suction within the inner hood 28 will
exist by virtue of the action of the ‘fan 46, such air cur
rents will then travel upwardly through and around the
upper portion of the hair within the hood 28 for recircu
glas, such t-ube including an outer row of turns as at 74 and 25 lation through the ?lter 80, the dehumidifying unit 88
an inner row of turns as at 76, the outer turns 74 being
and the path just traced. During such recirculation
supported at the inner ends of ‘slots 70 while the inner
turns 76 are supported at the inner ends of slots 68.
Threaded through the tube 74-76 is an electrical resist
ance heating wire 78 of Nichrome or the like. As previ 30
ously mentioned, the remaining space within the dehumid
ifying unit 56 is ?lled by crystals of silica gel or other
through the dehumidifying units 88 and 56, the moisture
taken up by the air currents in passing over the hair will
be continually removed and retained in the dehumidify
ing units 56 and ‘88. By virtue of such action, and the
use of dry air for carrying out the hair drying process,
the effectiveness of such process is greatly increased and
suitable desiccant substance.
the time required is so substantially decreased as to elimi
A ?lter unit 80 is preferably provided adjacent the
nate the usual discomfort and inconvenience to the person
lower portion of cylindrical ?ange 36 of inner hood 28 35 being treated and who must, with conventional drying
and may include a foraminous top wall 82, a foraminous
apparatus, remain in the same position for long periods
bottom wall 84 and a ?ltering ?ller 86 of Fiberglas or the
of time. Also, since heating unit 48 can be operated to
like. Such ?lter is removably received by ?ange 36 to
provide a much lower temperature than required in con
permit replacement.
ventional driers, the subject’s comfort is further substan
If desired, to ‘further increase the dehumidifying elfe'cts 40 tially improved.
upon the air being circulated within the unit 12, there
It has been found that the desiccant at 62 and 94 will
may be provided at the upper extremity of ?ange 36 of
not become saturated during the drying cycle for any
inner hood 28 an auxiliary dehumidifying unit 88‘ having
single individual, and that between such ‘drying cycles
a foraminous top wall 90, a foraminous bottom wall 92,
the desiccant at 62 and 94 may be quickly reactivated and
a ?lling of desiccant crystals 94 and a spirally disposed 8 the moisture there-from driven off by furnishing electrical
electric resistance heater 96 embedded within the crystals
current to the heating elements 78 ‘and 96. As soon as
94 and electrically insulated therefrom by a covering or
the reactivation thus mentioned has been completed, the
tube such as provided at 74 in the unit 56.
apparatus 10 is ready for another hair drying cycle. In
It will be understood that electrical wiring means, which
practice, it has been found that several persons’ hair may
may be'per se conventional in character, will be provided 50 actually be dried between each reactivation of the desic
for energizing the motor 38, the heater elements 78 and
cant material.
the heater element 96‘. Since the nature of such wiring
It has been found desirable to provide a number of
will be apparent to those skilled in the art and of itself
small openings in the outer hood 16 as at ‘102, which
does not constitute a novel element of the invention, same
openings 102 may be ‘formed by inwardly bending a num
is represented merely by means of a control switch 98 55 ber of spaced, stamp-cut tabs 104 in the side wall 18.
which may be located on the exterior of the unit 12i for
Such openings function during reactivation of the desic
use by an operator in controlling the energization of the
cant material to permit the escape of moisture driven
motor 38 and the operation of heater element 78 and
from the latter to the outside atmosphere. It may also be
heater ‘element 96. Automatic ‘control of the desiccant
noted that ventilation openings for the motor 38 may be
reactivating cycle perferably is accomplished by dispos 60 provided in the top of outer hood ‘16 as at 106.
ing within the unit 12 as at 116 an ‘electrical switching as
The overall action of the drier unit 10 and the speed
sembly which is responsive to the amount of moisture
with which it may accomplish the drying result may be
.in the air within the unit ‘12. Such electrical switching
further improved by the provision of a number of nozzles
units 116 are manufactured, for example, by General
generally designated '188 formed and located as herein
Controls ‘Company of Glendale, California and are iden 65 after described for the purpose of creating turbulence
ti?ed by the name “humidistat.” Such a humidistat
and ‘agitation of air within the inner hood 28 and for as
switching unit may obviously be coupled in manner known
suring that air currents are directed across certain por
to those skilled in the art for energizing the heater ele
tions of the head at which ‘hair is most di?icult to dry with
ments 78 and 96 to accomplish the reactivation of the
previous types of air drying apparatus. Each nozzle as—
desiccant crystals 62 and 94 automatically when the switch
sembly 108 includes an upwardly directed intake spout
98 is in position deenergizing motor 38. It may also be
110 disposed below the dehumidifying unit 56 between
convenient to provide one or more indicator lights as at
the inner hood 28 ‘and the outer hood 16, an upwardly
1060 to tell the operator at a glance the condition in which
extending tube ‘112 coupled with the intake spout 110
the apparatus 10 is operating, for example, whether a reac
and extending upwardly along the inner side of the side
tivation cycle has been completed or is still in progress. 75 wall 30‘ and an inwardly a-nd downwardly directed dis
being open and spaced above said opening of the outer
hood; means for recirculating air downwardly along said
charge port 114. As a matter of constructional detail, the
nozzle assemblies 108 may be formed either of a bent
tube secured to the side wall 30 and extending through or
under the latter to‘ present the intake spout 110, as illus
path between the outer and inner hoods and thence up‘
wardly through said inner hood and back into said path;
trated, or same may be constructed as an integral part of
desiccant means supported between said outer and inner
the inner hood assembly 28.
It will be apparent to those skilled in the art that a
number of minor modi?cations and changes may be
made from the details of construction of the preferred
embodiment disclosed for illustrative purposes without
departing from the true spirit and intention of the inven
tion. Accordingly, it is to be understood that the inven
tion should ‘be deemed limited only by the rfair scope of
the claims that follow.
Having thus described the invention what is claimed as 15
hoods and extending completely across said path and con
tinuously ‘around said inner hood for drying said air cur
rents as the latter pass along said path, said desiccant
means including upper and lower, Iannular, .foraminous
members extending across said path and between said
outer and inner hoods, and a quantity of silica gel crys
tals con?ned between said members; and electric heating
new and desired to be secured by Letters Patent is:
1. In hair drying apparatus, a hollow, generally dome
like, outer hood having a side wall provided at its normal
ly lower extremity With a head-receiving opening; a gen
erally upright, tubular, inner hood mounted within said
outer hood in inwardly spaced relation to the latter pre
senting a path between said outer and inner hoods for
?ow of air currents, the lower extremity of the inner hood
being open and spaced above said opening of the outer
hood; means for recirculating air downwardly along said
path between the outer and inner hoods and thence up
wardly through said inner 'hood and back into said path;
desiccant means supported between said outer and inner
hood and extending completely across said path and con
means within said desiccant means adapted when ener
gized for reactivating said desiccant means, there being
provided a plurality of notched supporting elements ex
tending between said members :at spaced intervals, elec
trically nonconductive tube means supportingly received
by the notches of the elements and extending between the
latter in spaced relation to said members, and electrical
20 resistance heater means extending through said tube
3. Apparatus as set torth in claim 2, wherein is pro
vided moisture egress means through said side wall of
said outer hood above said desiccant means for the escape
of moisture to the atmosphere during reactivation of said
desiccant means.
4. Apparatus as set forth in claim 3, wherein said
egress means comprises a plurality of openings, there be
ing 1a downwardly and inwardly sloping tab on said side
tinuously around said inner hood for drying said air cur 30 wall partially covering each of said ‘last-mentioned open
ings respectively to minimize ?ow of air currents outward
rents as the latter pass along said path; and a number of
ly through said openings to the atmosphere during nor
elongated tubular passage means on said inner hood
mal operation of the apparatus.
terminating at the lower extremity thereof below said
desiccating means in an upturned intake spout between
References Qited in the ?le of this patent
said outer and inner hoods and at the upper extremity 35
thereof in an inwardly and downwardly directed dis
charge port within said inner ‘hood.
Kelley ______________ __ Aug. 16, 1938
2. In hair drying apparatus, a hollow, ‘generally dome
Koch ________________ __ July 23, 1946
like, outer hood having a side wall provided at its nor
Heuser ______________ __ Nov. 12, r1946
mally lower extremity vwith a head-receiving opening; a
Orner ______________ .. Nov. 22, 1949
generally upright, tubular, inner hood mounted within
said outer hood in inwardly spaced relation to the latter
presenting a path between said outer and inner hoods for
?ow of air currents, the lower extremity of the inner hood
Great Britain ________ __ Dec. 28, 1939
Great Britain ________ __ June 20, 1,947
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