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Патент USA US3052179

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Sept- 4, 1962
s. F. REED
3,052,168
AUTOMATIC CAMERA
Filed Jan. 1'7, 1958
5
'
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
FILM PLANE
____ __ \_2_______
LIGHT
COLLECVDR
HALF SIL VERED
MIRROR
INVENTOR
STANLEY E REED
ATTORNEY
Sept. 4, 1962
s. F. REED
3,052,168
AUTOMATIC CAMERA
Filed Jan. 17, 1958
'
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
INVENTOR
- STANLEY I? REED
BY
' ATTORNEY
"ice
Unite ?tates Patent
3,052,168
Patented Sept. 4, 1962
2
1
mined and correct amount of light. This is preferably
3,052,168
AUTOMATIC CAMERA
Stanley F. Reed, Falls Church, Va., assignor to Reed
Research Inc., Washington, D.C., a corporation of
accomplished by means of a scanning disk similar to the
early Nipkow disks used in television having a number
of overlapping perforations which successively traverse
the ?eld of view and admit light from the ?eld to suc
Delaware
cessive different portions of the negative until the entire
negative has been exposed. During this process, the
admitted light is measured continuously and the amount
of light admitted from the field of view to the scanning
Filed Jan. 17, 1958, Ser. No. 709,486
13 Claims. (Cl. 95-10)
This invention relates to an automatic camera and more
particularly to a completely automatic camera having 10 disc is continuously varied so that each discrete area of
the negative receives the correct amount of exposure.
provision whereby it need only be pointed at an object
The scanning disc holes are of such design that scan
to be photographed, and the shutter snapped; the camera
ning lines do not appear. This can be done by making
will then automatically take a picture of the subject with
the projected spot take the shape of a diamond or hexagon,
full independent correction of intensity and exposure over
as will be explained below. By overlapping the two sides
all of the separate portions of the picture area.
15
at the half area point, horizontal streaks can be eliminated.
The source of light cannot be controlled in outdoor
A further advantage of exposing with a spot is that
photography, and only partially in a studio, and is mostly
increase in resolution can be obtained by this means since
a matter of individual judgment. The latitude of all
such diffusion from other parts of the image is not allowed
known ?lms is insuf?cient to register all details in most
scenes. In addition “vignetting” occurs generally in most 20 to fall on the ?lm.
The speci?c nature of the invention, as well as other
cameras using lenses to collect light causing a fall-off
objects and advantages thereof, will clearly appear from
in intensity at the extremities. The various known “dodg
a description of a preferred embodiment as shown in the
ing” techniques, as by the use of shaded masks or “un
accompanying drawings in which:
sharp mask” technique are time consuming and expensive.
FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram illustrating the principle
Automatic exposure cameras are known which, in effect, 25
of the invention using light transmitted through the nega
measure the total intensity of illumination in the ?eld of
view which is to be photographed, and adjust the total
tive;
FIG. 2 is a similar schematic diagram showing a modi—
amount of light admitted into the camera in accordance
?cation wherein the light from the ?eld of view is meas—
with the average intensity of illumination from this ?eld
ured before it reaches the negative;
of view. While this is, of course, a useful correction, in a
FIGURE 3 is a front view of a typical scanning disc
practical situation it usually occurs that the intensity of
showing overlapping apertures designed to admit equal
illumination of the different portions of the ?eld of view
amounts of light to all parts of the negative;
varies very widely in any given scene. If the exposure,
FIGS. 4 and 5 illustrate the use of a lens instead of a
whether automatic or manual, is correct for one portion
of the scene, it will usually not be correct for those other 35 pinhole for the camera.
Referring to FIG. 1, the entire camera equipment will be
portions which are either very brightly illuminated or con
housed in a suitable box or enclosure diagrammatically
versely are very little illuminated as in the case where
indicated by dotted line 2. For purpose of illustration,
portions of the picture are in dark shadow while other
the camera will be indicated as of the pin-hole type hav
portions are in bright sunlight. Under these conditions,
ing a pin-hole aperture 4 for the admission of light and
no possible exposure will produce a perfect picture. The
the formation of a picture on negative 6. However, it
amount of light falling on the brightly illuminated por
will be understood that instead of a pin-hole, any suitable
tions of the negative will be too great for correct detail,
or conventional lens arrangement may be used. The me
while the same will be true for the under-illuminated
chanical details of lens mounting, and means for holding
portions of the picture, since in both cases the illumination
intensity will not be correct for optimum contrast which 45 the ?lm in place will not be shown, as these may be of any
conventional design or construction. Conventional
is necessary to show the greatest amount of detail. It is
true that such lack of detail in the negative can to some
extent be corrected in printing as by use of “unsharp
masks,” graded density ?lters, etc., or, in a more so
phisticated fashion by the use of servo-controlled scan 50
ning light source in printing as is done by the “logEtron”
described in Photographic Engineering, vol. 5, No. 4,
1954, pages 219-226. lHOlV?VEl', all of these requirements
cameras are provided with means for controlling the
amount of light admitted to the negative, commonly in the
form of an adjustable iris which is mechanically controlled
to provide various sized apertures in accordance with the
intensity of illumination of the subject. A light intensity
modulator is also required in the present invention, but
since it must be operated at speeds in the order of thou
sands of times faster than it is conventional to manipulate
posed in the ?rst place.
55 the mechanical iris of standard cameras, it will be ap
parent that a standard mechanical light shutter would not
To produce such correct exposure in the taking of the
be suitable for the present purpose. I therefore use an
picture is the primary object of the present invention.
electrically controlled light intensity modulator 8 which
Another object of the invention is to remove any factor
may be a Kerr cell instantaneously controlled by the out
of judgment in the taking of pictures by providing an au
put of ampli?er 10, or may be any other known form of
tomatic means for insuring correct exposure of every
would be unnecessary if the negative were correctly ex
portion of the negative during the taking of a picture.
60
amount of light passed through pin-hole 4 into the interior
paratively simple portable camera with completely auto
matic means for enabling correct exposure of all pictures.
The above and other objects of the invention are ac
complished by providing automatic means for scanning
the ?eld of view which embraces the picture to be taken
so that light from discrete areas of said ?eld of view is
admitted continuously and successively to the respective
high-speed electrical light intensity modulator, such as the
Bawel Optical Company’s “Rapitronic” Shutter. The
Still another object is to provide a unitary and com
65
of the camera is therefore instantaneously controlled in
accordance with the output of ampli?er 10.
Between pin-hole 4 and the negative 6 is provided a
scanning disc 12 suitably rotated by motor 14 which
may be a small high speed electric motor driven by av
self-contained battery (not shown) or, for some purposes,
may be an alternating current motor driven by a suitable
discrete areas of the negative, and automatically con 70
external alternating current supply. The scanning disc 12
trolling the intensity of the admitted light from each in
dividual area so that each such area receives a predeter
is provided with at least one, and preferably several, spiral
8,052,168
rows of apertures 17 of a special shape, as will be shown
below, so spaced and arranged that as the disc rotates,
only one aperture at a time is between the pin-hole and
the negative. In this manner, light from the object being
photographed is blocked from access to the negative ex
cept along a small area as shovm at 16 on the negative,
corresponding to the light received from area 16' of the
scene being photographed. As soon as any individual
su?icient light to reach the photocell. This can be cor
rected for by use of a partially silvered mirror in the way
of the spot, as will be shown below.
Alternatively, as shown in 1FIG. 2, instead of adjusting
the light intensity in accordance with light transmitted
through the negative 6, some of the light may be inter
cepted before it reaches the negative. This may be done
by means of a half-silvered mirror 30, arranged to re?ect
aperture 17 of the scanning disc begins to leave the far
a certain portion of the light from area 16', as indicated
edge of the negative, light from the next succeeding aper 10 by beam 32 toward the photoelectric cell 20. This has
ture in the spiral row of apertures under consideration
the advantage of responding directly to the intensity of
begins to enter the opposite edge of the negative, so that
light received from the scene, without the necessity of
at all times the negative is illuminated by an amount of
passing it through the negative; however, it also reduces
light corresponding to a single aperture of the scanning
the intensity of light reaching the negative, and thus re
disc. The intensity of this light is, of course, instantane 15 quires a longer exposure, other things being equal. In all
ously controlled by the intensity modulator 8 in accord
other essential respects, the systems of FIGS. 1 and 2 are
ance with the output of ampli?er .10. This output is in
similar.
turn controlled in accordance with the amount of light
In both arrangements, a spring operated timer 35 is
received by the negative at any instant from the discrete
actuated by initial operation of the camera, and after a
area 16’ of the scene which is being observed at that 20 predetermined period, which depends essentially upon the
instant. This is accomplished by means of a light senser
speed of the negative being used, the picture-taking opera
20 which may be a photo-electric cell of any known type,
tion is terminated. This may be accomplished by the
producing an electrical output which is a function of the
timer by controlling the electric circuit so that the in
light received by it. A light collector 22 which may be
tensity modulator no longer passes light, as shown, or
a re?ecting hood of any suitable con?guration is used 25 may also be done by means of a mechanical shutter ar
to insure that light transmitted through any portion of the
rangement which covers the pin~hole or lens aperture.
negative ultimately falls upon the light sensitive cell
FIG. 3 shows a front view of the scanning disc 12 with
through ‘graduated ?lter 9.
Since the apertures 17 of scanning disc 12 move faster
at the periphery of the disc than at the center, more light
must pass through these apertures to produce an equal
exposure of the ?lm by each aperture. But the photo-cell
20 reacts equally to light passing through each aperture
since they are of the same size. Filter 9 is therefore pro
vided to cause photocell 20‘ to present an indication of
the rate of exposure of the ?lm rather than the amount of
light falling on the ?lm through each aperture. This
causes light intensity modulator 8 to transmit proportional
ly more light through the faster moving apertures at the
edge of the scanning disc. Alternatively, the apertures
may be made slightly larger at the periphery to permit
more light to pass through them.
The voltage output of the cell on line ‘24- is therefore a
function of the light received by the cell. This voltage
output is compared with a reference voltage corresponding
to the correct light intensity for the particular negative
being used, and a difference voltage is produced in bridge
26 which may be termed an error detecting circuit, since
its output on line 27 is a function of the incorrectness of
the light intensity on the portion of the negative being
observed. This signal is ampli?ed by ampli?er 16 and the
output of the ampli?er, with such direction as will pro
duce a correction, is applied to the light intensity modula
tor 8 to thus correct the intensity of light admitted to
the negative instantaneously and continuously to produce
a row of successive apertures which are preferably over
lapped so that, in a uniform light ?eld, the total intensity
of illumination admitted to the area of the negative (in
dicated in dotted lines at 36) will be uniform in the radial
direction with respect to the disc. It will be understood
that the same effect could be produced by using rectangular
apertures with the edge of each aperture exactly in line
35 with the bottom edge of the preceding aperture, but this
would require an extremely high precision of manufacture,
and it is found simpler in practice, to use tapered apertures
as shown so that the total light admitted at all radial dis
tances from the center of the disc will be the same. An
alternative form of aperture con?guration may use hex
agonal apertures which overlap at the midpoints of two
adjacent sides.
This obviously will also produce the
same effect. ‘It will be apparant that various other con
?gurations may be employed.
FIGURE 4 shows the principle of a double lens optical
system which may be used instead of the pinhole of FIGS.
1 and 2. In this case, light from the scene 40 passes
through lens 42 and is focussed in plane 44; a second
lens 46 then erects and refocusses the image at plane 48.
As used in a camera, lenses 42 and 46 are suitably
mounted in a camera box 2. Scanning disc 12 is located
in the plane 44 and driven by motor 14; and the ?lm is
located in plane 48. Intensity modulator 8 is located
between lens 42 and the scanning disc.
FIGURE 5 shows an alternative con?guration of a
55
the optimum exposure of the ?lm over all areas.
double lens system to provide for sensing of light re?ected
Although an electric motor 14 has been indicated as the
from the record surface 48 in photocell 20. Lens 46’
driving source for the disc, it will be understood that a
is constructed so as to distort the image by proportionally
spring motor may be used instead, which may be manual
widening it, so that when it falls on inclined surface 48
ly pre-wound or may be Wound by digital pressure as the
shutter is being depressed. In practice, in order to admit 60 it is back in proportion. Light collector 22 collects light
re?ected from the ?lm. This system does not depend
su?icient light, it will usually be desirable to run the disc
upon the transparency of the ?lm for operation as in
at a fairly high speed and for a suf?cient number of revolu
FIG. 1, nor does it reduce the amount of light from the
tions during the taking of a picture so that the necessary
object reaching the ?lm, as in FIG. 2.
amount of light falls upon the ?lm, since, if, for example,
The invention can, of course, also be applied to color
65
the area of the spot is in the order of 1/50 the area of
the total picture, then obviously the duration of the total
picture taking process using a scanning disc will be ?fty
time as long as if the entire area of the ?lm were illuminat
photography in which case the system would, in general,
be the same as shown above with the exception that it is
possible to correct the colors automatically by adding
two photocells or a double cell, one of which is sensitive
ed at once. However, with modern high speed ?lms, it
in the red region of the spectrum and the other sensitive
will still be possible to take the picture in a reasonable 70
in the blue. This is similar to the new General Electric
amount of time. The intensity of light must also, of
Color Control Meter, which gathers and evaluates the
course, be su?‘icient to actuate the photocell. This
light from both ends of the spectrum. Any unbalance is
criterion is aggravated by the antihalation coatings on
picked up, ampli?ed and fed to a variable color ?lter
most ?lm ‘which under extreme conditions will not allow 75
similar to that recently announced by General Electric
3,052,168
5
.
Company as the Variable Color Filter where rotation of
one ?lter against the other changes the wavelength of the
admitted light. A complete servo, or negative feedback
loop is thus established providing automatic color bal
ance. By including other reference voltages, it is possible
6
housing that at least a portion of the light admitted
through said aperture from said object ?eld is received
thereby, said record surface having a predetermined ex
posure area, said predetermined exposure area having
substantial width and height dimensions, said object ?eld
consisting of a multiplicity of elemental areas, said pre
to maintain any color balance or imbalance required.
determined exposure area having an elemental area opti
In combination with the automatic exposure feature, this
cally ‘associated with every elemental area of said object
would correct only where correction is needed.
?eld, every elemental area of said predetermined exposure
It is also possible to use two or three photocells, sensi
tive in the red, yellow and blue regions of the spectrum. 10 area having width and height dimensions oriented simi
larly to and substantially less than the width and height
The outputs are added for control of the light modulator
dimensions of said predetermined exposure area, scan
but are separately attenuated or boosted prior to adding,
ning means operatively associated with said aperture and
depending on the response of the ?lm. In other Words, a
said record surface, said scanning means including an
red de?cient ?lm when confronted with a spot predomi
nately in the red Would allow more light to enter than 15 opaque surface having a series of light-transmitting aper
tures therein, each aperture of said series of apertures
would normally be expected. Thus a red image would
displaced from every other aperture of said series and
be intensi?ed and a blue image subdued.
arranged in such a manner that the operation of said
It will be apparent that the embodiments shown are
scanning means causes light from each elemental area
only exemplary and that various modi?cations can be
of said object ‘?eld to illuminate only the elemental area
made in construction and arrangement within the scope of said record surface optically associated therewith,
of my invention as de?ned in the appended claims.
said record surface, said light-admitting aperture, and
Having thus described an exemplary embodiment
said scanning means so oriented that all light received
thereof, what I desire to claim as my invention is:
by said record surface has been transmitted through said
1. An automatic camera system comprising, in com
light-transmitting apertures, light modulating means
bination, a supporting housing having at least one wall,
operatively associated with said record surface and said
a light-admitting aperture in said Wall, an object ?eld
housing for modulating the intensity of the light trans
external to said housing so positioned that light there
mitted from every elemental area of said object ?eld
‘from is transmitted through said aperture, a light-sensitive
through said light-transmitting apertures of said scanning
record surface so positioned Within said housing that at
least a portion of the light admitted through said aper 30 means to the elemental area of said record surface opti
cally associated therewith, photoelectric means opera
ture from said object ?eld is received thereby, said record
tively associated with said scanning means responsive to
surface having a predetermined exposure area, said pre
the intensity of light transmitted from each elemental
determined exposure area having substantial Width and
area of said object ?eld through said light-transmitting
height dimensions, said object ?eld consisting of a multi
plicity of elemental areas, said predetermined exposure
area having an elemental area optically associated with
every elemental area of said object ?eld, every elemental
area of said predetermined exposure area having Width
and height dimensions oriented similarly to and substan
apertures and transmitted through said record surface to
produce an electrical signal, said light modulating means
and said electrical signal of said photoelectric means con
nected by electrical means adapted to provide the opti—
mum light intensity for the exposure of every elemental
tially less than the Width and height dimensions of said 4.0 area of said record surface, thereby producing the opti
mum overall exposure of said record surface.
predetermined exposure area, scanning means operatively
3. An automatic camera system comprising, in com
associated with said aperture and said record surface,
bination, a supporting housing having at least one Wall,
said scanning means including an opaque surface having
a light-admitting aperture in said wall, an object ?eld ex
a series of light-transmitting apertures therein, each aper
ternal to said housing so positioned that light therefrom
, ture of said series of apertures displaced from every
is transmitted through said aperture, a light-sensitive
other aperture of said series and arranged in such a man
record surface so positioned within said housing that at
ner that the operation of said scanning means causes light
least a portion of the light admitted through said aperture
from each elemental area of said object ?eld to illuminate
from said object ?eld is received thereby, said record sur
only the elemental area of said record surface optically
associated therewith, said record surface, said light 50 face having a predetermined exposure area, said prede
admitting aperture, and said scanning means so oriented
that all light received by said record surface has been
transmitted through said light-transmitting apertures,
termined exposure area having substantial width and
height dimensions, said object ?eld consisting of a multi
plicity of elemental areas, said predetermined exposure
area having an elemental area optically associated with
light modulating means operatively associated with said
record surface and said housing for modulating the in 55 every elemental area of said object ?eld, every elemental
area of said predetermined exposure area having width
tensity of the light transmitted from every elemental area
and height dimensions oriented similarly to and substan
of said object ?eld through said light-transmitting aper
tially less than the Width and height dimensions of said
tures of said scanning means to the elemental area of said
predetermined exposure area, scanning means operatively
record surface optically associated therewith, photo
electric means operatively associated with said scanning 60 associated with said aperture and said record surface, said
scanning means including an opaque surface having a
means responsive to the intensity of light transmitted
series of light-transmitting apertures therein, each aper
from each elemental area of said object ?eld through said
ture of said series of apertures displaced from every
light-transmitting apertures to produce an electrical sig
other aperture of said series and arranged in such a man
nal, said light modulating means and said electrical signal
of said photoelectric means connected by electrical means 65 ner that the operation of said scanning means causes light
from each elemental area of said object ?eld to illuminate
adapted to provide the optimum light intensity for the
only the elemental area of said record surface optically
exposure of every elemental area of said record surface,
associated therewith, a partially re?ecting surface posi
thereby producing the optimum overall exposure of said
tioned within said housing intermediate said light-admit
record surface.
ting ‘aperture and said record surface, said record surface,
2. An automatic camera system comprising, in com
said light-admitting aperture, said partially re?ecting sur~
bination, a supporting housing having ‘at least one wall,
face, and said scanning means so oriented that all light
a light-admitting aperture in said Wall, an object ?eld ex
received by said record surface has been transmitted
ternal to said housing so positioned that light therefrom
through said light-transmitting apertures and said par
is transmitted through said aperture, a light-sensitive par
tially translucent record surface so positioned Within said 75 tially re?ecting surface, light modulating means opera
3,052,1es
tively associated with said record surface and said hous
ing for modulating the intensity of the light transmitted
from every elemental area of said object ?eld through
said light-transmitting apertures of said scanning means
to the elemental area of said record surface optically
associated therewith, photoelectric means operatively as
sociated with said scanning means responsive to the in
tensity of light transmitted from each elemental area of
said object ?eld through said light-transmitting apertures
8
least a portion of the light admitted through said aperture
from said object ?eld is received thereby, said record sur
face having a predetermined exposure area, said predeter
mined exposure area having substantial width and height
dimensions, said object ?eld consisting of a multiplicity
of elemental areas, said predetermined exposure area
having an elemental area optically associated with every
elemental area of said object ?eld, every elemental area
of said predetermined exposure area having width and
and thereafter re?ected from said partially re?ecting sur 10 height dimensions oriented similarly to and substantially
face to produce an electrical signal, said light modulating
less than the Width and height dimensions of said prede
means and said electrical signal of said photoelectric
termined exposure area, scanning means operatively asso
means connected by electrical means adapted to pro
ciated with said aperture and said record surface, said
vide the optimum light intensity for the exposure of
scanning means including an opaque surface having a
every elemental area of said record surface, thereby pro 15 series of light-transmitting apertures therein, each aper
ducing the optimum overall exposure of said record sur
ture of said series of apertures displaced from every other
face.
aperture of said series and arranged in such a manner
4. An automatic camera system comprising, in com
that the operation of said scanning means causes light
bination, a supporting housing having at least one wall,
from each elemental area of said object ?eld to illuminate
a light-admitting aperture in said wall, an object ?eld
only the elecental area of said record surface optically
external‘ to said housing so positioned that light therefrom
associated therewith, said record surface, said light-admit
is transmitted through said aperture, a light-sensitive
ting aperture, and said scanning means so oriented that
record surface so positioned within said housing that at
all light received by said record surface has been trans
least a portion of the light admitted through said aperture
mitted through said light-transmitting apertures, light
from said object ?eld is received thereby, said record 25 modulating means operatively associated with said record
surface having a predetermined exposure area, said pre~
surface and said housing for modulating the intensity of
determined exposure area having substantial width and
the light transmitted from every elemental area of said
height dimensions, said object ?eld consisting of a multi
object ?eld through said light-transmitting apertures of
plicity of elemental areas, said predetermined exposure
said scanning means to the elemental area of said record
area having an elemental area optically associated with
surface optically associated therewith, photoelectric means
every elemental area of said object ?eld, every elemental
operatively associated with said scanning means respon
area of said predetermined exposure area having width
sive to the intensity of light transmitted from each ele
and height dimensions oriented similarly to and sub
mental area of said object ?eld through said light-trans
stantially less than the width and height dimensions of
mitting apertures to produce an electrical signal, said light
said predetermined exposure area, scanning means opera
modulating means and said electrical signal of said photo
tively associated with said aperture and said record sur
electric means connected by electrical means adapted to
provide the optimum light intensity for the exposure of
face, said scanning means including an opaque surface
having a series of light-transmitting apertures therein,
every elemental area of said record surface, and means
each aperture of said series of apertures displaced from
operatively associated with said electrical means for ex
every other aperture of said series and arranged in such 40 posing each elemental area of said predetermined exposure
area a predetermined multiplicity of times dependent upon
a manner that the operation of said scanning means
causes light from each elemental area of said object ?eld
to illuminate only the elemental area of said record sur
the light-sensitivity characteristics of said record surface,
thereby producing the optimum overall exposure of said
face optically associated therewith, said record surface,
record surface.
6. An automatic camera system comprising, in com
said light-admitting aperture, and said scanning means so
oriented that all light received by said record surface has
been transmitted ‘through said light-transmitting aper
tures, light modulating means operatively associated with
said record surface and said housing for modulating the
intensity of the light transmitted from every elemental
area of said object ?eld through said light-transmitting
apertures of said scanning means to the elemental area of
said record surface optically associated therewith, photo
bination, a supporting housing having at least one wall,
a light-admitting aperture in said wall, an object ?eld
external to said housing so positioned that light there
from is transmitted through said aperture, a light-sensitive
partially translucent record surface so positioned within
vsaid housing that at least a portion of the light admitted
through said aperture from said object ?eld is received
thereby, said record surface having a predetermined ex
electric means operatively associated with said scanning
means responsive to the intensity of light transmitted
from each elemental area of said object ?eld through said
posure area, said predetermined exposure area having sub
light-transmitting apertures to produce an electrical sig
determined exposure area having an elemental area op
stantial width and height dimensions, said object ?eld
consisting of a multiplicity of elemental areas, said pre
nal, means for providing an electrical reference signal
tically associated with every elemental area of said object
corresponding to a predetermined light intensity depend
?eld, every elemental area of said predetermined exposure
ent upon the characteristics of said record surface, means 60 area having width and height dimensions oriented similar
for comparing said electrical signal produced by said
ly to and substantially less than the width and height
photoelectric means With said electrical reference signal,
dimensions of said predetermined exposure area, scanning
means responsive to said means for comparing for pro
means operatively associated with said aperture and said
ducing a corrective electrical signal, said corrective elec
record surface, said scanning means including an opaque
trical signal applied to said light modulating means in such 65 surface having a series of light~transmitting apertures
direction as to provide the optimum light intensity for
therein, each aperture of said series of apertures displaced
from every other aperture of said series and arranged in
the exposure of every elemental area, of said record sur
face, thereby producing the optimum overall exposure of
said record surface.
5. An automatic camera system comprising, in com
bination, a supporting housing having at least one wall,
a light-admitting aperture in said wall, an object ?eld
external to said housing so positioned that light there
from is transmitted through said aperture, a light-sensitive
record surface so positioned within said housing that at
such a manner that the operation of said scanning means
causes light from each elemental area of said object ?eld
70 to illuminate only the elemental area of said record sur
face optically associated therewith, said record surface,
said light-admitting aperture, and said scanning means so
oriented that all light received by said record surface has
been transmitted through said light-transmitting apertures,
light modulating means operatively associated with said
3,052,168
vrecord surface and said housing for modulating the in
tensity of the light transmitted from every elemental area
of said object ?eld through said light-transmitting aper
tures of said scanning means to the elemental area of said
record surface optically associated therewith, photoelec
tric means operatively associated with said scanning means
lo
8. An automatic camera system comprising, in com,
bination, a supporting housing having at least one wall,
a light-admitting aperture in said wall, an object ?eld
external to said housing so positioned that light there
from is transmitted through said aperture, a light-sensitive
record surface so positioned within said housing that at
least a portion of the light admitted through said aper
responsive to the intensity of light transmitted from each
ture from said object ?eld is received thereby, said
elemental area of said object ?eld through said light-trans
record surface having a predetermined exposure area,
mitting apertures and transmitted through said record sur
face to produce an electrical signal, said light modulating 10 said predetermined exposure area having substantial
width ‘and height dimensions, said object ?eld consisting
means and said electrical signal of said photoelectric
of a multiplicity of elemental areas, said predetermined
means connected by electrical means adapted to provide
exposure area having an elemental area optically associ
the optimum light intensity for the exposure of every
ated with every elemental area of said object ?eld, every
tively associated with said electrical means for exposing 15 elemental area of said predetermined exposure area hav
ing width and height dimensions oriented similarly to
each elemental area of said predetermined exposure area
and substantially less than the width and height dimen
a predetermined multiplicity of times dependent upon the
sions of said predetermined exposure area, scanning means
light~sensitivity characteristics of said record surface,
operatively associated with said aperture ‘and said record
thereby producing the optimum overall exposure of said
20 surface, said scanning means including an opaque sur
record surface.
7. An automatic camera system comprising, in com
face having a series of light-transmitting apertures there
in, each aperture of said series of apertures displaced
bination, a supporting housing having at least one wall,
from every other aperture of said series and arranged
a light-admitting aperture in said wall, an object ?eld
in such a manner that the operation of said scanning
external to said housing so positioned that light there
from is transmitted through said aperture, a light-sensitive 25 means causes light from each elemental area of said
record surface so positioned within said housing that at
object ?eld to illuminate only the elemental area of said
least a portion of the light admitted through said aper
record surface optically associated therewith, said record
ture from said object ?eld is received thereby, said record
surface, said light-admitting aperture, and said scanning
means so oriented that all light received by said record
surface having a predetermined exposure area, said prede
termined exposure area having substantial width and height 30 surface has been transmitted through said light-transmit
dimensions, said object ?eld consisting of a multiplicity
ting apertures, light modulating means operatively asso
of elemental areas, said predetermined exposure area hav
ciated with said record ‘surface and said housing for modu
ing an elemental area optically associated with every ele
lating the intensity of the light transmitted from every
mental area of said object ?eld, every elemental area of
elemental area of said object ?eld through said light~
said predetermined exposure area having width and
transmitting ‘apertures of said scanning means to the
height dimensions oriented similarly to and substantially
elemental area of said record surface optically associ
less than the width and height dimensions of said pre
ated therewith, photoelectric means operatively associ
determined exposure area, scanning means operatively
ated with said scanning means responsive to the intensity
associated with said aperture and said record surf-ace,
of light transmitted from each elemental area of said
said scanning means including an opaque surface having
object ?eld through said light-transmitting apertures to
a series of light-transmitting apertures therein, each aper
produce an electrical signal, means for providing an
ture of said series of apertures ‘displaced from every other
electrical reference signal corresponding to a predeter
aperture of said series and arranged in such a manner
mined light intensity dependent upon the characteristics
that the operation of said scanning means causes light
of said record surface, means for comparing said electrical
elemental area of said record surface, and means opera
from each elemental area of said object ?eld to illuminate 45 signal produced by ‘said photoelectric means with said
only the elemental area of said record surface optically
electrical reference signal, means responsive to said means
associated therewith, a partially re?ecting surface posi
tioned within said housing intermediate said light-admit
ting aperture and said record surface, said record surface,
said light-admitting aperture, said partially re?ecting sur 50
for ‘comparing for producing a corrective electrical signal,
electrical means ‘for applying said corrective electrical
signal to said light modulating means in such direction
as to provide the optimum light intensity for the exposure
face, and said scanning means so oriented that all light
received by said record surface has been transmitted
of every elemental area of said record surface, and
means operatively associated with said electrical means
through said light-transmitting apertures and said partial
ly re?ecting surface, ‘light modulating means operatively
for exposing each elemental area of said predetermined
exposure area ‘a predetermined multiplicity of times de
associated with said record surface and said housing for 55 pendent upon the light-sensitivity characteristics of said
modulating the intensity of the light transmitted ‘from
record surface, thereby producing the optimum overall
every elemental area of said object ?eld through said
light-transmitting apertures of said scanning means to the
elemental area of said record surface optically associ
exposure of said record surface.
9. An automatic camera system comprising, in combi
nation, a supporting housing having at least one wall, a
ated therewith, photoelectric means operatively associ 60 light-admitting aperture in said wall having an axis, lens
ated with said scanning means responsive to the inten
sity of light transmitted from each elemental area of said
object ?eld through said light-transmitting apertures and
thereafter re?ected from said partially re?ecting surface
to produce an electrical signal, said light modulating
means and said electrical signal of said photoelectric
means connected by electrical means adapted to provide
the optimum light intensity for the exposure of every
elemental area of said record surface, and means opera
tively associated with said electrical means for exposing
each elemental area of said predetermined exposure ‘area
a predetermined multiplicity of times dependent upon the
light-sensitivity characteristics of said record surface,
thereby producing the optimum overall exposure of said
record surface.
means positioned on said axis, said lens means having an
optical axis and at least one ‘focal plane within said hous
ing, an object ?eld external to said housing so positioned
that at least a portion of the light therefrom is transmitted
65 through said aperture and said lens means, a light-sensi
tive record surface so positioned within said housing that
at least a portion of the light “admitted through said aper
ture from said object ?eld and transmitted through said
lens means is transmitted thereto, said record surface hav
70 ing a predetermined exposure area, said predetermined
exposure area having substantial width and height dimen
sions, said object ?eld consisting of a multiplcity of ele
mental areas, said predetermined exposure area having
an elemental area optically associated with every ele
75 mental area of said object ?eld, every elemental area of
sesame
ii
said predetermined exposure area having width and height
dimensions oriented similarly to and substantially less
than the width and height dimensions of said predeter
elemental area of said object ?eld through said light-trans
mitting apertures of said scanning means to the elemental
area of said record surface optically associated there
with, photoelectric means operatively associated with said
scanning means responsive to the intensity of light trans
mitted from each elemental area of said object ?eld
mined exposure area, scanning means positioned within
said housing, said scanning means including an opaque
surface substantially transverse to said optical axis, said
opaque surface positioned substantially in a focal plane
through said light-transmitting apertures and transmitted
of said lens means and intermedaite said light~admitting
through said record surface to produce an electrical sig
aperture and said record surface, said opaque surface hav
nal, said light modulating means and said electrical sig
ing a series of light-transmitting apertures therein, each 10 nal of said photoelectric means connected by electrical
aperture of said series of apertures displaced from every
means adapted to provide the optimum light intensity ‘for
other aperture of said series and arranged in such a man
ner that the operation of said scanning means causes light
from each elemental area of said object ?eld to illuminate
the exposure of every elemental area of said record surface,
thereby producing the optimum overall exposure of said
only the elemental area of said record surface optically 15
associated therewith, said record surface, said light-admit
ting aperture, and said scanning means so oriented that
all light received by said record surface has been trans
mitted through said lightitransmitting apertures, light
modulating means operatively associated with said record
surface and said housing for modulating the intensity of
the light transmitted from every elemental area of said
object ?eld through said light-transmitting apertures of
said scanning means to the elemental area of said record
record surface.
11. An automatic camera system comprising, in com
bination, a supporting housing having at least one wall,
a light-admitting aperture in said wall having an axis,
lens means positioned on said axis, said lens means hav
ing an optical axis and at least one focal plane within said
‘housing, an object ?eld external to said housing so posi
tioned that at least a portion of the light therefrom is
transmitted through said aperture and said lens means,
a light-sensitive record surface so positioned within said
housing that at least a portion of the light admitted
surface optically associated therewith, photoelectric means 25 through said aperture from said object ?eld and trans
operatively associated ‘with said scanning means respon
mitted through said lens means is transmitted thereto,
sive to the intensity of light transmitted from each ele
said record surface having ‘a predetermined exposure area,
mental area of said object ?eld through said light-trans
said predetermined exposure area having substantial width
mitting apertures to produce an electrical signal, said
and
height dimensions, said object ?eld consisting of a
light modulating means and said electrical signal of said
multiplicity of elemental areas, said predetermined ex
photoelectric means connected by electrical means adapted
posure area having an elemental area optically associated
to provide the optimum light intensity for the exposure of
with every elemental area of said object ?eld, every ele
every elemental area of said record surface, thereby pro
mental area of said predetermined exposure area having
ducing the optimum overall exposure of said record sur
Width and height ‘dimensions oriented similarly to and
face.
35 substantially less than the width and height dimensions
10. An automatic camera system comprising, in com
of said predetermined exposure area, scanning means
bination, a supporting housing having at least one wall,
positioned within said housing, said scanning means in
a light-admitting aperture in said wall having an axis, lens
cluding an opaque surface substantially transverse to said
means positioned on said axis, said lens means having an
optical axis and at least one focal plane within said hous 40 optical axis, said opaque surface positioned substantially
in a focal plane of said lens means and intermediate said
ing, an object ?eld external to said housing so positioned
light-admitting
aperture and said record surface, said
that at least a portion of the light therefrom is transmitted
opaque surface having a series of light-transmitting aper
through said aperture and said lens means, a light-sensi
tures therein, each aperture of said series of apertures
tive partially translucent record surface so positioned
displaced from every other aperture of said series and
within said housing that at least a portion of the light ad
arranged
in such a manner that the operation of said scan
mitted through said aperture from said object ?eld and
ning means causes light from each elemental area of
transmitted through said lens means is transmitted there
said object ?eld to illuminate only the elemental area
to, said record surface having a predetermined exposure
of said record surface optically associated therewith, a
area, said predetermined exposure area having substan
partially re?ecting surface positioned Within said housing
tial width and height dimensions, said object ?eld con
on said optical axis intermediate said lens means and said
sisting of a multiplicity of elemental areas, said predeter
mined exposure area having an elemental area optically
associated with every elemental area of said object ?eld,
every elemental area of said predetermined exposure area
having width and height dimensions oriented similarly to
and substantially less than the ‘width and height dimen
sions of said predetermined exposure area, scanning means
positioned within said housing, said scanning means in
cluding an opaque surface substantially transverse to said
optical axis, said opaque surface positioned substantially
in a focal plane of said lens means and intermediate said
light-admitting aperture and said record surface, said
opaque surface having a series of light-transmitting aper
tures therein, each aperture of said series of apertures
displaced from every other aperture of said series and ar
record surface, said record surface, said light-admitting
aperture, said partially re?ecting surface, and said scan
ning means so oriented that all light received by said
record surface has been transmitted through said light
transmitting apertures and said partially re?ecting sur
face, light-modulating means operatively associated with
said record surface and ‘said housing for modulating the
intensity of the light transmitted ‘from every elemental
area of said object ?eld through said light-transmitting
60 apertures of said scanning means to the elemental area
of said record surface optically ‘associated therewith,
photoelectric means operatively associated with said scan
ning means responsive to the intensity of light transmitted
from each elemental area of said object ?eld through said
record surface optically associated therewith, said record
surface, said light-admitting aperture, and said scanning
light-transmitting apertures ‘and thereafter re?ected from
said partially re?ecting surface to produce an electrical
signal, said light modulating means and said electrical
signal of said photoelectric means connected by electrical
means adapted to provide the optimum light intensity for
means so oriented that all light received by said record
the exposure of every elemental area of said record sur
ranged in such a manner that ‘the operation of said scan
ning means causes light from each elemental area of said
object to ?eld illuminate only the elemental area of said
surface has been transmitted through said light-transmit
face, thereby producing the optimum overall exposure of
ting apertures, light modulating means operatively asso
said record surface.
ciated with said record surface and said housing for mod~
12. An automatic camera system comprising, in com
ulating the intensity of the light transmitted from every 75 bination, a supporting housing having at least one wall,
3,052,168
13
a light-admitting aperture in said wall having an axis,
nation, a supporting housing having at least one wall, a
lens means positioned on said axis, ‘said lens means hav
ing an optical axis ‘and at least one ‘focal plane within
said housing, an object ?eld external to said housing so
means positioned on said axis, said lens means having an
positioned that at least a portion of the light therefrom
is transmitted through said aperture and said lens means,
a light-sensitive record surface so positioned within said
housing that at least a portion of the light admitted
through said aperture from said object ?eld and trans
mitted through said lens means is transmitted thereto, said
record surface having a predetermined exposure area, said
predetermined exposure area having substantial width
and height dimensions, said object ?eld consisting of a
multiplictiy of elemental areas, said predetermined ex
posure area having an elemental area optically associated
with every elemental area of said object ?eld, every ele
mental area of said predetermined exposure area having
light-admitting aperture in said wall having an axis, lens
optical ‘axis and at least one focal plane within said
housing, an object ?eld ‘external to said housing so posi
tioned that at least a portion of the light therefrom is
transmitted through said aperture and said ilens means, a
light-sensitive record surface so positioned within said
housing that at least a portion of the light admitted
through said aperture from said object ?eld and trans
mitted through said lens means is transmitted thereto,
said record surface having a predetermined exposure area,
said predetermined exposure area having substantial width
and height dimensions, said object ?eld consisting of a
multiplicity of elemental areas, said predetermined ex
posure area having an elemental area ‘optically associated
with every elemental area of said object ?eld, every ele
mental area of said predetermined exposure area having
width and height dimensions oriented similarly to and
width and height dimensions oriented similarly to and
substantially less than the width and height dimensions
of said predetermined exposure area, scanning means 20 substantially less than the width and height dimensions
of said predetermined exposure area, scanning means posi
positioned within said housing, said scanning means in
tioned within said housing, said scanning means including
cluding an opaque surface substantially transverse to
an opaque surface substantially transverse to said optical
said optical axis, said opaque surface positioned substan
axis, said opaque surface positioned substantially in a
tially in a focal plane of said lens means and intermediate
said light-admitting aperture and said record surface, said 25 focal plane of said lens means and intermediate said light
admitting aperture and said record surface, said opaque
opaque surface having a series of light-transmitting aper
surface having a series of light-transmitting apertures
tures therein, each aperture of said series of apertures
therein, each aperture of said series of apertures displaced
displaced from every other aperture of said series and
from every other aperture of said series and arranged in
arranged in such a manner that the operation of said
scanning means causes light from each elemental area of
said object ?eld to illuminate only the elemental area of
said record surface optically associated therewith, said
record surface, said light-admitting aperture, and said
such a manner that the operation of said scanning means
causes light from each elemental area of said object ?eld
to illuminate only the elemental area of said record sur
face optically associated therewith, said record surface,
said light-admitting aperture, and said scanning means so
scanning means so oriented that all light received by said
record surface has been transmitted through said light 35 oriented that all light received by said record surface has
transmitting apertures, light modulating means opera
been transmitted through said light-transmitting aper
tures, light modulating means operatively associated with
said record surface and said housing for modulating the
ing for modulating the intensity of the light transmitted
intensity of the light transmitted from every elemental
from every elemental area of said object ?eld through said
light-transmitting apertures of said scanning means to the 40 area of said object ?eld through said light-transmitting
apertures of said scanning means to the elemental area
elemental area of said record surface optically associated
of said record surface optically associated therewith,
therewith, photoelectric means openatively associated ‘with
photoelectric means operatively associated with said scan
said scanning means responsive to the intensity of light
ning means responsive to the intensity of light transmitted
transmitted from each elemental area of said object ?eld
through said light-transmitting apertures to produce an 45 from each elemental area of said object ?eld through said
light-transmitting apertures and re?ected from said record
electrical signal, means for providing an electrical refer
tively associated with said record surface and said hous
surface to produce an electrical signal, said light modulat
ing means and said electrical signal of said photoelectric
means connected by electrical means adapted to provide
surface, means for comparing said electrical signal produced
by said photoelectric means ‘with said electrical reference 50 the optimum light intensity for the exposure of every ele
mental area of said record surface, thereby producing the
signal, means responsive to said means for comparing
optimum
overall exposure of said record surface.
for producing a corrective electrical signal, said correc
ence signal corresponding to a predetermined light in
tensity dependent upon the characteristics of said record
tive electrical signal applied to said light modulating
means in such direction as to provide the optimum light
intensity for the exposure of every elemental area of said 55
record surface, thereby producing the optimum overall
exposure of said record surface.
13. An automatic camera system comprising, in combi
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
1,762,231
2,655,848
2,772,598
Karolus _____________ __ June 10, 1930
Gray ________________ __ Oct. 20, 1953
Hotine _______________ __ Dec. 4, 1956
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