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Патент USA US3052197

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Sept. 4, 1962
H. |_. THWAITES ETAL
3,052,186
GRENADE
Filed Dec. 22, 1944
Herman LT/iwarzh‘es
George L. Maf/zeson
61 No x 1411Jo
United States Patent ()??ce
1
3,052,186
GRENADE
Herman L. Thwaites, Clark Township, Union County, and
George L. Matheson, Union, N..l., assignors to the
United States of America as represented by the Secre
tary of Wai
Filed Dec. 22, 1944, Ser. No. 569,401
6 Claims. (Cl. 102—65)
35,?5Z,l8¥5
Patented Sept. 4, 1962
2
screw cap 13 and a primer holder 15. The charge cup
14 contains a plurality of TNT pellets 19 having a center
hole through which extends a detonator 18. The TNT
pellets 19 are spaced from the side walls and bottom of
the cup 14 and this space is ?lled with magnesium
powder 20. The magnesium powder preferably com
prises a mixture of gradient size particles.
Within the fuze case 5 is contained a ?ring pin 1*1
threadably engaged with a ?ring pin nut 10 which is
This invention relates to a grenade, and more par 10 urged to the ?ring position toward a primer 16 by a spring
9. The end of the ?ring pin 11 opposite the primer {[6
ticularly to an incendiary grenade having a time delay
is provided with outwardly tapered shoulders abutting
fuze mechanism associated therewith.
against corresponding inwardly tapered shoulders of a
One object of this invention is the provision of a grenade
split washer 8. The split washer 8 is held in the posi
which is adapted to ?re a predetermined time after it
has been immersed in a liquid such as gasoline or water. 15 tion shown in the drawing by a retaining ring 6. It will
be evident that when the retaining ring 6 is moved up
A further object of this invention is the provision of
wardly from around the split washer *8, the split washer
a grenade which when introduced into a receptacle con
is caused to separate because of the action of spring 9,
taining gasoline or other in?ammable liquid will burst
and the ?ring pin 11 is driven against the primer 16.
the receptacle after a predetermined period of time and
The retaining ring 6 is secured to the shank of a per
20
set ?re to the in?ammable liquid.
forated plunger 2 by means of a brass screw 7. Between
A still further object of this invention is the provision
the perforated under-shoulder of the plunger 2 and a
of a grenade which may be readily constructed, which
shoulder of the fuze case 5 are positioned a Bakelite
has a positive time delay and ?ring characteristics, and
Washer 4 and two rubber discs 3. The rubber discs 3
which is safe to handle by the operator prior to and
25 are positioned between the Bakelite washer 4 and the
during placement.
perforated shoulder of the plunger 2 so that when the
A still further object of this invention is the provision
rubber discs swell on immersion in gasoline they will move
of a grenade containing an explosive charge and an in
the perforated plunger 2 upwardly thus withdrawing the
cendiary mixture positioned such that ignition of an in
retaining ring ‘6 from around the split washer 3.
?ammable ?uid into which the grenade may be placed
30
Adjacent the upper portion of the fuze case 5 are
is insured after ?ring.
provided two holes for receiving a cotter pin and pull ring ‘
Other objects and advantages of the present inven
assembly 1. When the cotter pin is in position, move
tion will appear from the following description and the
ment of the perforated plunger 2 in an upward direction
accompanying drawings in which:
is prevented. This pull ring and cotter pin assembly 1
FIG. 1 is a side view of an assembled grenade;
35 therefore provides a safety feature to insure against pre—
FIG. 2 is a top view of an assembled grenade;
mature ?ring of the device.
FIG. 3 is a vertical section taken along the lines 3-3
A secondary safety feature for the ‘device is the pro
of FIG. 2;
vision of a rubber disc 17 compressed within the bore
FIG. 4 is an exploded view showing component parts
of the fuze case 5 at its open end directly above the
of the grenade prior to ?nal assembly;
40 perforated plunger 2. The rubber disc 17 is sprung into
FIG. 5 illustrates a closure device for use with the
position and serves to hold the perforated plunger 2
grenade; and
?rmly in position even after the pull ring and cotter pin 1
FIG. ‘6 is a vertical section of a portion of a modi?ed
have been withdrawn. This supplemental safety feature
grenade.
In accordance with one embodiment of this invention 45 is the subject of the copending application Ser. No.
569,400, ?led December 22, 1944, of Herman L. Thwaites
the grenade comprises a body of an explosive, such as
and Garland H. B. Davis and is described and claimed
TNT, positioned adjacent a body of loose particulate
therein.
magnesium. The explosive is set off by means of a
In operation of the above described device, the pull
time delay fuze. When the unit is placed in a tank or
ring and cotter pin 1 is withdrawn by the operator and
other receptacle containing a liquid hydrocarbon such
the device is ready for immediate placement. Accidental
as gasoline or the like or another liquid, the liquid causes
an element in the unit to swell thereby releasing a cocked
displacement of the perforated plunger 2 is presented by
the rubber ‘disc 17. The grenade is then introduced into
a gasoline tank or other receptacle containing gasoline.
ing the receptacle. The magnesium powder is ignited
by the explosion and (in case of ?ammable liquid) the 55 The gasoline ‘acts upon the rubber disc 17 causing it to
swell and then to spring outwardly thus effectively re
ignited magnesium particles set ?re to the liquid escaping
moving itself from the end of the fuze case 5. At the
from the burst receptacle. In the speci?c embodiment
same time the gasoline will enter through a central hole
described herein the release of the cocked ?ring pin
in the disc 17 and through the holes in the shoulder of
contained in the fuze assembly is accomplished by the
swelling action of a rubber washer or washers in gasoline, 60 the perforated plunger 2 and come into contact with the
two rubber discs 3. The rubber discs 3 will then begin
or other liquid hydrocarbon, whereby a retaining ring
to swell by the action of the gasoline on the rubber. After
is withdrawn from around a split washer which holds the
a period of from four to eight hours the rubber discs 3
?ring pin in its cocked position. When the retaining
?ring pin which causes the grenade to explode thus burst
will usually have swollen su?iciently to push the plunger
split washer, the split washer separates thus releasing the 65 2 upwardly the required distance to withdraw the retain
ing ring 6 from around the split washer 8. The force of
?ring pin.
the spring 9 urging the ?ring pin nut 10 and'the ?ring
For a more complete understanding of this invention,
ring has been completely withdrawn from around the
pin 11 in a downward direction causes the split washer 8
reference is made to the attached drawing wherein it dis
to be forced into the space left by the withdrawn retain
closed an incendiary grenade constructed in accordance
with one embodiment of this invention. Referring now 70 ing ring 6. When this happens, the ?ring pin is released
to the drawing, the grenade comprises a charge cup 14
and the spring 9 forces the ?ring pin 11 against the
threadably engaged with a fuze case 5 by means of a
primer 16 which sets off the detonator 18 and the TNT .
3,052,186
charge 19. The resulting explosion bursts the gasoline
container and the magnesium particles ignited by the ex
It
Without departing from the spirit and scope of the inven
tion as de?ned by the appended claims.
We claim:
1. A grenade of the character described comprising a
hollow, frangible, metallic external casing, a high ex
plosion set the gasoline on ?re.
In order to insure the ignition of the gasoline by the
explosion, it is desirable that several things be borne in
mind. For example, it has been found that best results
plosive bursting charge for the casing enclosed in the
are achieved when the charge cup 14 is constructed so
as to permit a side burst. To .eifect this the end wall of
casing, the said casing having an open end and an oppo
site end wall somewhat thicker than side walls of the
the charge cup 14 is somewhat thicker than the side walls.
‘casing for assuring lateral fragmentation of the casing, the
Also a low density mixture of large and small particles 10 explosive charge being apertured discoidal bodies having
of magnesium powder 20 are desirable in order to obtain
dimensions somewhat less than the inside dimensions of
the proper incendiary action. The mixture may range
the casing, thereby de?ning a space between the said
from 50-100 mesh particles to particles measuring
bodies and the said casing, the said bodies being disposed
1/8" x 1,432" thick. The larger burning particles tend to be
in direct contact with each other with the apertures there
scattered into the area where ignitible proportions of 15 of in registry, a detonator rod extending through the
air and gasoline vapors occur. Low density is obtained
registering apertures of the said bodies, a particulate in
during assembly by refraining from excessive tamping or
cendiary material enclosing the discoidal bodies of the
compressing the magnesium powder into the charge cup
during loading. For use in ordinary automobile gasoline
explosive charge and ?lling the space intermediate the
said bodies of the explosive charge and the casing and
tanks it has been found that a unit containing about 9 20 being in direct contact with the bodies of the explosive
grams of TNT and 8.5 grams of powdered magnesium
charge for ignition by ?ame therefrom incident to det
will produce the desired effect.
onation of the explosive bodies, a closure plug for the
The time delay of the device may be readily controlled
open end of the casing, a detonator rod extending through
by modifying the fuze assembly. For example, the time
the registering openings in the explosive charge, the said
delay may be changed by varying the thickness of the 25 closure plug for the casing engaging the particulate in
split washer 8 and the retaining ?ange on the retaining
cendiary material and the explosive charge and retaining
ring 6. Also, if a shorter time delay is desired, a greater
number of somewhat thinner rubber discs 3 may be em
ployed so as to permit a more rapid penetration of the
gasoline therebetween, thus increasing the rate of swell
ing. Also if desired, paper discs may be inserted be
tween the successive rubber discs in order to cause the
more rapid penetration of gasoline by the provision of
capillary passages.
The time delay may be shortened by providing holes 211
in the fuze case 5 adjacent the rubber discs 3 ‘as illus
trated in FIG. 6, thereby permitting more rapid penetra
the ‘same against displacement, the said closure plug hav—
ing a centrally disposed opening therethrough, a primer
holder mounted in the said opening and having an aper
ture therethrough registering with the detonator rod, a
primer disposed in the said aperture adjacent to the
detonator rod and actuatable upon impact for detonating
the detonator and explosive charge, ?ring pin mechanism
mounted on the primer holder in engagement
the
closure plug, and ?ring pin means in the said'mechanism
disposed adjacent to the primer for imparting a detonat
ing impact against the primer responsive to impact of the
tion of the gasoline to the discs 3. The holes 21 may
grenade against a target object, detonation of the primer
be sealed with a cement that is not soluble in gasoline,
in turn detonating the detonator rod and explosive
but which can be removed by the user if the shorter time 40 charge, thereby fragmenting the grenade casing and ignit
delay is desired.
ing the particulate incendiary material.
\It will be seen from the foregoing that the grenade of
2. A grenade of the character described, comprising a
this invention may be readily manufactured. 'Many of
hollow frangible metallic cup having an open end and
the parts may be molded from synthetic resinous mate
de?ning the external casing for the grenade, the said cup
rial such as Bakelite. Even the split washer 8 and the 45 being interiorly peripherally threaded adjacent to its open
retaining ring 6 may be so made if desired. However,
end, a high explosive charge disposed in the casing and
to insure proper ?ring and predetermined time delay it
being of less diameter than the interior diameter of. the
has been found desirable to form these parts of metal.
casing de?ning an enclosing space intermediate the said
The unit may be transported in a disassembled condi
explosive charge and the casing, a particulate incendiary
tion if desired. Thus the unit may be separated between 50 composition ?lling the said intermediate space, a det
the screw cap 13 and the primer holder 15 and the d'eto
onator rod extending through the explosive charge by
nator 18 may be removed so that the ‘various parts may
way of passage means provided therefor, in the explosive
be carried separately. A closure for the charge cup 14 is
charge, a closure plug threadedly mounted in the open:
provided in the form of a threaded plug 22 which may be
end of the casing and having an internally threaded open
inserted in the charge cup 14 when the fuze and detonator 55 ing therethrough, a primer holder threadedly mounted in
are removed. Prior to use, the detonator 18' is placed
the said opening ‘and having an opening therein in align
in position within the charge case and the fuze unit is,
ment with the detonator rod and communicating with
screwed into the screw cap on the charge cup.
.
an end recess in the primer holder, a'priming charge
‘While the above described device is particularly use
mounted in the end recess of the primer holder and ex
ful for destroying tanks containing gasoline or the like, it 60 tending into the said opening in the primer, holder closely
adjacent to the detonator rod, the said priming charge
being reactive under impact to detonate the detonator
rod and thence the explosive charge for, igniting the in
cendiary material and fragmenting the external casing of
the grenade, ?ring pin mechanism mounted on the primer
holder, and a ?ring pin in the said mechanism for impact
may be modi?ed for use in receptacles containing other
liquids. For example, spacing means such as felt washers
may be employed to center the TNT pellets Within the
charge cup 14 and a felt washer may be position be-;
tween the pellets and screw cap 13. Also, the magnesium
powder may be omitted from the charge cup 14 if desired
and the cup may be entirely ?lled with TNT or other
high explosive. Also discs of other material may be sub
stituted for the rubber discs ‘3-. For example, discs could‘
be used which are capable of swelling in water, such as
gelatin or the like. The device then could be used for
ing against the priming charge for initiating the aforesaid
detonation.
3. A grenade of the character described, comprising
a hollow frangible metallic cup having an open end and
de?ning the external casing for the grenade, a‘high ex
plosive charge disposed in the cup and having a size and
While a preferred embodiment of the invention is dis
volume somewhat less than the interior-cf the cup for
closed in the foregoing, it will be readily apparent to one
de?ning an intermediate :space between the explosive
skilled in the art that many modi?cations may be made 75 charge and inner walls of the cup, a particulate incendiary
the destruction of Water tanks and boilers.
.
3,052,186
-
6
said opening and provided with a passage therethrough
in axial alignment with the detonator rod, a primer
charge mounted in the said passage adjacent to the deto
nator charge, and ?ring pin means mounted in the pas
sage and de?ning a closure therefor, the ?ring pin means
including a ?ring pin adjacent to the primer charge and
composition ?lling the said space and enclosing the ex
plosive charge, detonator means for the explosive charge
extending therethrough, and a closure assembly for the
cup casing comprising a closure plug mounted on the
open end of the cup in engagement with the explosive
charge and incendiary composition for retaining the same
adapted to impact against the primer charge to detonate
against shitting in the cup, a primer disposed in the
the
primer charge upon impact thereon for initiating
closure plug adjacent to the detonator means, and ?ring
detonation of the detonator rod and high explosive charge,
mechanism carried by the closure plug and including a
?ring pin adapted to impact against the primer for activat 10 thereby fragmenting the cup-like casing and ?ring the
particulate incendiary material responsively to detonation
ing ‘the primer for initiating detonation of the detonator
of the high explosive charge.
means and the explosive charge, the said incendiary
5. A grenade as de?ned in claim 3 wherein the high
material being in contact with the explosive charge for
explosive charge comprises molded pellets of trinitro
ignition from the explosive charge responsively to det
onation thereof, ‘the external casing of the grenade also 15 toluol (TNT).
6-. A grenade ‘as de?ned in claim 3 wherein the high
fragmenting responsively to detonation of the explosive
explosive charge is composed of superposed pellets of
charge for releasing both the ignited incendiary charge
trinitrotoluol (TNT) having aligned openings there
and explosion waves from the explosive charge.
through de?ning a continuous passage extending through
4. A grenade of the character described, comprising a
hollow frangible metallic cup-like casing having an open 20 the pellets, and a detonator rod for the pellets mounted
in the said passage ‘and extending through the said pellets.
end and de?ning the external casing for the grenade, a
high explosive charge disposed in the casing and having
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
a size and volume somewhat less than the interior of the
UNITED STATES PATENTS
casing for de?ning an intermediate space between the ex
plosive charge and the casing, which space completely 25
surrounds the explosive charge, a particulate incendiary
composition substantially completely ?lling the said space
and completely enclosing the explosive charge in direct
contact therewith, a detonator rod projecting through the
explosive charge, and a closure assembly for the open 30
end of the casing including a closure plug threadedly
mounted in the open end of the casing in engagement
with the explosive charge and incendiary material for
preventing displacement thereof, the said closure plug
having an internally threaded opening extending there
through and communicating with the detonator rod, a
holder for a primer charge threadedly mounted in the
35
754,013
Reichenau ____________ __ Mar. 8, 1904
1,153,513
1,316,005
1,417,475
Nixon ______________ __ Sept. 14, 1915
Vautin ______________ __ Sept. 16, 1919‘
Weeke _______________ __ May 23, 1922
1,436,248‘
1,788,856‘
1,898,073
2,314,614
Hammond __________ __ Nov. 21,
Bossono _____________ __ Jan. 13,
Woodberry __________ __ Feb. 21,
Fisher _______________ __ Mar. 23,
1922.
1931
1933
1943
FOREIGN PATENTS
116,726
505,637
853,365
Germany ____________ __ Dec. 24, 1900
Great Britain _________ __ May 15, 1939
France _______________ __ Dec. 7, 1939
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