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Патент USA US3052417

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Sept. 4, 1962
G. J. SAXENMEYER
_
3,052,406
DATA CLASSIFYING DEVICE
Filed Dec. 17, 1958
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M/l/ENTOR
GEORGE J. SAXENMEYER
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Sept. 4, 1962
G. J. SAXENMEYER
3,052,406
DATA CLASSIFYING DEVICE
Filed Dec. 17, 195 8
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SPECIAL
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SPEZCIAL NUMERAL ALPHA
United States Patent
' ice
3,052,406
Patented Sept. 4, 1962
1
2
proper digital representation into the digit places D2,
3,052,406
1
D4 . . . etc., for blank columns and numeric.
DATA CLASSIFYING DEVICE
George J. Saxenmeyer, Vestal, N.Y., assignor to Inter
national Business Machines Corporation, New York,
N.Y., a corporation of New York
Filed Dec. 17, 1958, Ser. No. 781,003
4 Claims. (Cl. 235-—61.11)
station into the distributor.
The present invention illustrates apparatus for reading
cards twice but utilizes a dynamic method of classi?cation
in place of a static storage and relay network. With this
method of reading information, the rate of information
flow into the apparatus is not limited by any consideration
aside from the feeding and sensing of the cards. With the
advent of higher card feed speeds and improved sensing
The present invention relates to an apparatus for read
ing data coded according to row position by row and
classifying the data for translation into a different code.
In particular, the present invention relates to a punched
card reading apparatus for classifying data in the card
for translation into a particular code for use on a rotating
magnetic drum.
In conventional record cards, information is stored in
the columns of the cards as punched holes in selected rows.
The rows of a card are numbered 12, 11, 0 and 1-9. Each
numeric character is represented by a hole punched in
a single row 0-9 for the particular decimal denomination.
An alphabetic character is represented by two holes; one
hole being contained in the zone rows 12, 11 or 0 and
one hole in numeric row 1—9. Special characters are
represented by three punches, two punches or one punch
At the
zone rows 12, 11 and 0, the alphabetic designations con
tained in the card are ?lled in at the other remaining digit
places D2, D4, etc. When the numeric rows are sensed,
information is read directly from the brushes of the second
15
techniques, high speed apparatus for transferring data
between cards and a rotating magnetic drum become
necessary.
It is therefore an object of the present invention to pro
vide an improved high speed character classi?cation ap
paratus for reading data contained in columns and rows
and classifying the data for translation into a particular
code designation in accordance with said data.
It is a further object of this invention to provide a char
acter classi?cation apparatus for reading data contained in
which do not occur in the alphabetic or numeric scheme. 25 columns and rows for translation into a particular code
In the numeric system of coding, a punch must be made
in one of rows 0-9 in order to become a valid character;
designation in accordance with said data wherein the rate
of character classi?cation is substantially increased.
in other words there must not be any blank columns.
Another object of this invention is to provide an ap
paratus for reading data represented by combinatorial row
For alphabetic characters, a blank column is a valid indi
30 indications and translating this data into a particular code
cation as distinguished from numeric.
In storing a group of characters on a magnetic drum
designation in accordance with the presence and absence
from alphanumeric cards which are those containing
of selected groups of row indications.
A further object of this invention is to provide an
characters other than numeric, a decimal representation
of two digits is made indicative of the particular character
apparatus for reading data contained in individual col
recorded. The tens digit is a designation of the group 35 umns of ‘a record card as combinatorial row indications
and translating this data into a particular code designation
within which it belongs, alphabetic, numeric or special,
by sen-sing and classifying the data at a ?rst point to
and the units digit is a designation of the particular char
acter. For the translation process, it is necessary that the
group designation be determined as the ?rst row of pos
obtain classi?cation data for transmission to a second
point for selecting a particular code designation for said
sible hole positions in a card is being read in order to 40 data being sensed at said second station.
Other objects of the invention will be pointed out in
insert the proper tens digit on the rotating drum. As will
the following description and claims and illustrated in the
be pointed out hereinafter, a hole in a given column in
row 12 may be translated into a tens digit, one (1), two
accompanying drawings, which disclose, by way of ex
amples, the principle of the invention and the best mode,
(2) or six (6), in accordance with whether it is a special
character for the ?rst two or an alphabetic character for 45 which has been contemplated, of applying that principle.
In the drawings:
the latter. In order to make the correct translation for
FIG. 1 is a schematic illustration of the invention.
the character being read, it is necessary to know in ad
FIG. 2 is the circuit diagram for the emitter and one
vance what this character is, and this is accomplished by
translator of FIG. 1.
reading the card twice.
FIG. 3 is the circuit diagram of another translator of
In prior known machines of this type as shown in the 50
FIG. 1.
patent to C. B. Smith, Patent No. 2,798,554, there are
FIG. 4 is the circuit diagram of the translator control
contained two reading stations for the cards to be sensed
of FIG. 1.
where the ?rst station determines the type of character
Referring to FIG. 1, cards 10 are to be read and the
present in the card by two series of relays which are
character contained in each column is to be translated
picked for zone rows 12, 11, 0 and for numeric rows 1-9.
into a two digit number indicative of the character. This
In the apparatus of Smith, the zone and digit relays in the
is accomplished by reading each individual column of
?rst sensing station operate contact points which com
data contained on the card ‘at a ?rst station 14 and
plete circuits from the brushes of the second sensing sta
translating the data contained as punched holes in the
tion to provide for the correct recording of the translated
various rows of the card into a presense code stored in
character onto the magnetic storage medium. The storage
tracks 51 which is related to the presence of a hole in a
medium is divided into sectors, with each sector contain
single row lor (group of rows. After the complete card
ing ten words of information with twelve digits in each
has been sensed and the presense code for each column
word. The twelve digits are characterized as DX, D0,:
of data on the card stored on drum 51, the presense code
Dl-Dlo where DX is used for switching and D0 is used for
tracks 51 is scooted through ‘a translator 52 to a. series
sign. Digit places D1—Dm are utilized individually if the 65 of
of tracks 53. The translator 52 converts the presense
information is totally numeric ‘but are divided into pairs
code into a classi?cation code which indicates how the
if the information to be stored is alphanumeric. The digit
data sensed in each column is to be translated. As the
places D2, D4 . . . D10 are referred to as zone places
while D1, D3 . . . D9 are referred to as numerical places.
- information on the same card is being read at a second
70 sensing station 21, the data on drum tracks 53 is utilized
Therefore, at the second reading station and prior to read
to switch the information to the proper connecting line
ing any rows of data, circuitry is completed to insert the
73-77 for a correct translation.
8,052,406
3
4
character it can be seen that 480 bit positions must be
A plurality of cards 10, FIG. 1, are contained in a
hopper 11 where they are fed successively from the bot
tom by a picker knife 12 to feed rolls 13. The feed rolls
13 move the cards 10 through a sensing station 14 where
the holes in the individual columns are sensed successive
ly by row. The sensing station 14 consists essentially
of a conducting contact roll 23 to which voltage is applied
when the card is present thereunder and a plurality of
provided for the output of translator 41.
The emitter 25, FIG. 2, contains a commutator 26
movable to successive contact points 12—9 in accordance
with the card row then being sensed. A plurality of
cathode follower switches 47 have their grids connected
to the output 40 and are therefore pulsed once for each
column ‘of information in which there is a hole for the
row being sensed. Connected to the plate of each
brushes 24, one for each card column, so that each time
a hole is sensed a circuit is completed from the contact 10 cathode follower switch is one or more of the outputs
from emitter 25 in accordance with the translation listed
roll 23 to the particular brush which has sensed the hole.
above. Conventional OR circuits are utilized to connect
The line 28 represents the total number of lines from
the emitter output into a single cathode follower switch
the individual brushes of which there may be eighty and
47. When a pulse occurs on output 40 and on an output
which are connected to a distributor 29. Mechanically
connected to the contact roll 23 is an emitter 25 which 15 from emitter 25, the associated cathode follower will
conduct and an output pulse will be generated.
is a commutator having a plurality of output lines se
The output of each cathode follower switch 47, B1-B6,
quentially energized in accordance with the card row then
is coupled to the recording heads 39 by appropriate cir
present beneath the contact roll and being sensed by
cuitry such as shown in the patent to Smith mentioned
brushes 24. This device, of conventional design as shown
in the patent to Smith, coordinates the sensing of a 20 above. The information from a complete card is stored
on the drum 38 and the card is then passed through feed
punched hole by the completion of a circuit from a brush
rolls 19 ‘and 20 to the sensing station 21. At this point,
24 with the particular row location then being sensed.
the information on the card is again read in the same
manner as ‘recited above and the individual pulses repre
tion contained in each particular column of the card to 25 sentative of the data are connected to a translator control
circuit 50.
a particular data location on the drum. As shown, cir1
The distributor 29 is a rectangular matrix of tubes or
other suitable components for transferring the informa
While the card is being moved from sensing station 14
to sensing station 21, the information contained in the
cuits 36 from the timing tracks 37 of a magnetic drum
38 are used to generate pulses indicative of the digit posi
tion then present under a series of recording heads 39‘.
six bit positions B1-B6 on the tracks 51 is transferred to a
series of tracks 53 through a translator 52, FIG. 3, by
The pulse generated is applied to the particular coinci
dence tube {or gating component to which a brush con
conventional circuitry. This transfer of information is
nection 28 is valso applied. Each tube in the matrix is
used in order to be able to use tracks 51 for the next
card without waiting for the termination of sensing at
station 21, in order to allow for simultaneous sensing.
The output of translator 52 includes 4 bit positions to be
recorded on tracks 53. With the number of possible
therefore related to a particular card column and a par
ticular digit position on the drum. When a hole is de
tected in a particular column and the data is to be placed
in a digit position then present under the heads 39, the
characters being 80, it can be seen that a total of 320 bit
particular coincidence tube conducts and furnishes a pulse
positions must be provided in tracks 53.
to output circuit 40. This apparatus is shown in the
The translator 52, FIG. 3, is used to convert the repre
patent to Smith.
A circuit 41, FIG. 2, utilizes the occurrence of a pulse 40 sentation contained “on drum tracks 51 into a classi?cation
code utilized to determine the exact nature of the char
on output 40 and the output 27 from emitter 25 to gen‘
acter recorded and how it is to be translated to data on
drum 38. The translator 52 is constructed to‘ recognize
erate pulses B1, B2, B3, B4, B5, B6, in accordance with the
following:
the bits in hit positions B1-B6 as falling into separate
Rows
Presense
Coded
Repre
Bit
Positions
45 categories in accordance with the following translation of
presense to classi?cation code.
Presense Code
sentation
X00000
OXOOOO
00X000
OOOXOO
OOOOXO
Classi?cation
B3 or B4
or
=
Br:
B1 or Ba
,
B2
=
Bs
Card Rows
1 or 2 or
3, ate,
50
12 or 11 or 0
00000X
(Bi and Ba)
The various combinations of rows will effect a combina
tion of the coded representations which have been identi
or
(0 and 1)
or
(B5 and B0)
55
?ed in short notation as B1-B6 so that when stored on
B1 or B2 or
B3 or B4 or
the ‘drum in ?nal form a digit position of six possible bit
positions may contain a number of bits, up to three.
[(3 or 4) and 8]
=
BIL
Any
B5 or B6
The complete conversion as accomplished so far is indi
With the possible number of data characters on a card 6 O
cated in the following table:
11 being a maximum of 80 with 6 bit positions for each
Presense Code
Classi?cation
ode
Numeric
Code
Card Punches In Rows Symbol
B1 Ba B3 B4 135 Ba BN Bz B5 B11
-
~
—
—
—
—
—
—
~
—
—
00
.
X
—
—
-
X
X
X
X
X
X
18
A
X
—
—
~
X
X
X
X
X
X
+
X
-
-
-
—
-
-
X
-
X
20
$
X
—
—
—
X
X
X
X
X
X
28
—
X
—
X
19
*
X
—
X
X
X
X
E
X
—
—
—
~
—
—
X
—
X
30
/
,
z
—
—
—
X
X
X
X
—
-
—
—
—
—
X
X
—
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
31
38
39
29
1r
=
—
—
—
—
-
—
—
X
X
X
X
X
X
—
—
X
X
X
X
48
49
A
X
—
X
—
—
-
X
X
—
X
61
3,052,406
Presense Code
Classi?cation
Code
Card Punches In Rows Symbol
wo-1muscalIQNi<>gM’UtOWZHYFJ z| INl1 1lNi’IM:H ]|NMI>4 l NM
Numeric
Code
NIM1lN|
|>4NM|l1IN MN
The presense code represented by possible bit positions
Alphabetic and numeric characters are also separated
Bl-Bs are converted into the classi?cation code mentioned
into different outputs for translation.
above by the circuit of FIG. 3 and in accordance with
The translation control circuit 50, FIG. 4, recognizes
the translation outline of presense to classi?cation code 35 the type of character from sensing station 21 and dis
mentioned prior to this. With an input pulse B1 or B2,
tributor 57 by means of input pulses BN, B2, B5 and BR
the OR circuit 55 connected thereto Will furnish an output
pulse Bz. With ‘an input pulse B3 or B4 ‘or B5 or E6, the
OR circuit 55 connected thereto will furnish an output
in the following manner:
(1) When there is a BN and a B2 signal ‘and no BS sig
circuit 55 responsive to an output pulse 132 or BN. An in
put pulse B2 and B3 at AND circuit 56 will cause an out
(2) When there is a BN and no BS, the character is to
be translated in the numeric translator.
(3) When there is a BZ and no E5, the character is to
nal, the character is to be translated in the alphabetic
pulse EN. The output pulse BB is obtained from an OR 40 translator.
put BS as will inputs B5 and B6 to their associated AND
circuit 56.
be translated in the Special 1 translator.
While the card is being read at the second read station 45
(4) When there is a BS, the character is to be trans~
21 and in timed relation with the scan of sequential card
lated in the Special 2 translator.
columns, the data from tracks ‘53 representing these same
(5) When there. is no BR, the character is to be trans‘
card columns is applied to a translator control 50 which
lated as a blank.
gates the timed pulse to one of ?ve outputs 73-77 in
Circuits 59-62 and 68-72 are AND circuits and pro
accordance with whether the character is to be translated 50 vide a raised output when all inputs are at a raised level.
as blank, special 1, special 2, numeric or alphabetic. The
Circuits 63 and 64 are simple inverters and provide a
output pulse on one of outputs 73-77 is connected to a
raised output when there is no input so that they are in
particular translator (not shown) ‘for translating the pulse
dicative of a negative quality which in this case is not BS
from reading station 21 into a decimal representation.
and not BR. Input pulses BN and B2 ‘applied to AND 60
As an example of this procedure, the table reproduced
will raise the input to AND 61 so that with no BS the
above shows that each individual character is translated
AND 61 will condition AND 72 for a pulse from inputv
into a two digit decimal number. The circuit of FIG. 2
57. In a similar manner, RN and no BS, from inverter
illustrates the manner in which a conversion is effected
63, will condition AND 62 to condition AND 71. An
by use of an emitter. For use in the second read station,
input BS conditions AND 70. No BR conditions AND
however, the connections would be different and more 60 61. B2 and no BS, from inverter 63, raises the output of
involved since the tens and units digit are recorded in
AND 59 to condition AND 68.
sequential digit places. For detailed circuitry and de
scription of this type of translation, reference may be
With the pulses from the distributor 57 separated out
by translator control 50 into ?ve diiferent translation
made to the patent to Smith mentioned above. Further
categories 73-77, the particular decimal code may be as‘
more, the timing of the various circuits has not been 65 signed in accordance with the particular row then being
shown since it is conventional and forms no part of the
sensed. In translating, it would, of course, be necessary
present invention.
to know the row then being sensed which could be an
In the conversion table reproduced ‘above, it is seen
arrangement such as shown with respect to sensing sta
that for a blank column the numeric code is 00 which
tion 14 or any other suitable apparatus.
would be translated by a special circuit. The special
While there have been shown and described and
characters “E” and “2” are translated in a special emitter
pointed out the fundamental novel ‘features of the inven—
circuit, for example, as well as numeric “0”; these pulses
tion as applied to a preferred embodiment, it will be un
are applied to‘ the output labeled Special 1. All special
derstood that various omissions and substitutions and
characters having two or more punches per column are
changes in the form and details of the device illustrated
applied to the output labeled Special 2, for translation. 75 and in its operation may be made by those skilled in the
3,052,406
7
8
art, without departing ‘from the spirit of the invention.
dicate a character of data and each character is con
tained in a separate column of said record, said record
being divided into a zone portion including a plurality
of rows and a numeric portion including a plurality of
It is the intention, therefore, to be limited only as in
dicated by the scope of the following claims.
What is claimed is:
1. In an apparatus for reading records wherein data is
stored by combinatorial row indications to indicate a char
rows wherein, an alphabetic character is represented by
a row indication in a zone portion and a numeric por
tion; a numeric character is represented by a row indica
tion in a numeric portion only; and special characters are
represented by other combinations of row indications; a
total combination of row indications, ?rst means for suc
cessively reading the rows of said record, translator 10 ?rst means for successively sensing the rows of each rec
ord’s cards column, said ?rst means including a distribu
means responsive to row indications for providing an
tor responsive to a row indication for any column of data
output indicative of the row then being sensed, means for
to provide an output at a unique time with respect to all
storing the output for each character, second means for
other columns, translator means responsive to said row
successively reading the rows of said record and provid
indications, said translating including means responsive
ing an output, switching means connected to said second
to a row then being read for separating each row indica
reading means, said switching means having a plurality of
tion into one of a plurality of outputs, each said output
selectively operable outputs to each of which the output
acter of data, each said character being classi?able as
numeric; alphabetic or special in accordance with the
from said second reading means is applied, and gating
means included in said switching means and responsive
to the stored output for each character for operating one
of said selectively operable outputs whereby each row
indication read by said second reading means is separated
to a selected output as a function of the character previ
ously read.
2. In an apparatus for reading record cards wherein
data is stored by combinatorial row indications to in
dicate a character of data, said record being divided into
a zone portion including a plurality of rows and a numeric
portion including a plurality of rows wherein, an alpha
betic character is represented by a row indication in a
zone portion and a numeric portion; a numeric charac
ter is represented by a row indication in a numeric por
tion only; and special characters are represented by
other combinations of row indications; a ?rst means for
successively reading the rows of said record card, trans
being representative of at least one row indication unique
to the representation of a given class of character, rotata
ble storage means operable to receive the output of said
translator and having a series ‘of discrete storage positions
for the output of a translator, means for synchronizing
the rotation of the storage means with the reading of
each column of data from the record card whereby each
character of data is recorded at a unique time on said
rotatable storage means, second means for successive
ly reading the rows of said record column, said second
sensing means including distributor means responsive to
a row indication for each column of data to provide an
output at a unique time with respect to all other columns,
means for reading the output recorded on said rotatable
storage means {at a time coincident with the reading of
the same character from said record cards by said second
sensing means, switching means connected to the output
of the distributor of said second sensing means, said
switching means having a plurality of selectively opera
ble outputs to each of which the output [from said dis
tributor of said second sensing means is applied, and gat
ing means included in said switching means and respon
rality of outputs, each output being representative of at
least one row indication unique to the representation of 40 sive to the stored output for each character for operating
one of said selectively operable outputs whereby each row
a given class of character, means for recording the out
indication read by said second sensing means is separated
put of said translator, second means ‘for successively
to a selected output as a function of the character as
reading the rows of said record and providing an output,
previously stored on said rotatable storage means.
switching means connected to said second reading means,
4. The apparatus of the previous claim including trans
said switching means having a plurality of selectively op
llator means in the readout circuits from said rotatable
eralble outputs to each of which the output ‘from said
storage means responsive to the coded out-put of said
second reading means is applied, and gating means in
?rst translator for providing an output to said switching
cluded in said switching means and responsive to the
means indicative of whether the character read by said
stored output for each character for operating one of
lator means responsive to said row indications, said trans
lator including means responsive to the row then being
read for separating each row indication into one of a plu
said selectively operable outputs whereby each row in 50 ?rst sensing means contains a numeric portion, a zone
portion, or as indicated therein a special character where
dication read by said second reading means is separated
to a selected output as a function of the character previ
ously read.
3. In an Iapparatus for reading record cards wherein
data is stored by combinatorial row indications to in 55
by information from said second sensing means may be
routed in accordance with these designations.
No references cited,
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